Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Power Point Show
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Power Point Show

574

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
574
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Acute Headache: Who should we CT? Steven A. Godwin, MD, FACEP Assistant Professor Program Director Department of Emergency Medicine University of Florida HSC/Jacksonville
  • 2. “ When the headaches, all the body is worse ” - English Proverb
  • 3. Case Presentation
    • 35 year old female presents to the emergency department with sudden onset of severe headache after stating she had been outside reading all day in the sun. She admits to taking 2 of a friend’s hydroxycodone and now is feeling better. Her physical exam is normal.
    • Does she need a CT scan?
  • 4. Background
    • Headache accounts for 1% of all ED visits in the US (1 million patients/year) 1
    • An estimated 1-4% of all patients presenting to the ED with headache complaint have emergent or urgent diagnosis 1,2
    1 Dhopesh V, Anwar R, Herring C. A retrospective assessment of emergency department patients with complaint of headache. Headache. 1979;19:37-42 (Retrospective review; 872 patients) 2 Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa C, Cicero J, et al. Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol 1997;54:1506-1509. (Retrospective review; 329 patients)
  • 5. How do we narrow down which patients need further studies?
    • History
      • Presentation of ominous headaches vary but important factors that provide a clue for the clinician include:
        • Severity
        • Onset
        • Quality of pain
        • Associated symptoms
  • 6. What Is the Goal of Neuroimaging in the ED?
    • To identify a treatable lesion.
    • ACEP and AAN have categorized neuroimaging
      • Emergent - essential for a timely decision regarding potentially life-threatening or severely disabling entities
      • Urgent - arranged prior to discharge from the ED or, performed prior to disposition when follow-up cannot be assured
      • Routine - indicated when the studies results are not considered to make a change in the patients disposition from the ED
  • 7. Practice Guidelines:What is the evidence?
    • In 1994, AAN published “Practice Parameter: The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache patients with normal neurologic examination”
    3 American College of Neurology. Practice parameter: The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache patients with normal neurologic examination. Neurology . 1994;44:1353-1354.
  • 8. AAN 1994 Guidelines
      • Evidence based recommendations
      • 1. Neuroimaging is not warranted in patients with migraine presenting with a typical event
      • 2. Neuroimaging should be considered in patients with atypical headaches, history of seizures, or focal neurologic findings
      • 3. Insufficient evidence to define role of MRI vs CT in headache patients without a migraine
  • 9. The 2000 US Headache Consortium
    • Reviewed articles dealing with chronic headache
    • Key findings:
    • Abnormality on neurologic exam increased the likelihood of positive results with neuroimaging by 3 fold (95% CI 2.3 to 4.0)
    • Normal findings with a neurologic exam reduced the odds of positive findings in a neuroimaging study by 30%
    4 US Headache Consortium. Evidence-based guidelines in the primary care setting: neuroimaging in patients with nonacute headache. American Academy of Neurology, 2000
  • 10. The US Headache Consortium Conclusions
    • Neuroimaging should be considered in patients with nonacute headache and an unexplained abnormality on neurologic examination
    • Insufficient evidence to make neuroimaging recommendations based on the presence or absence of neuro finding (in patients with chronic headache
    • Neuroimaging is not warranted in typical migraine and no neuro findings
    4 US Headache Consortium. Evidence-based guidelines in the primary care setting: neuroimaging in patients with nonacute headache. American Academy of Neurology, 2000
  • 11. The US Headache Consortium Conclusions
    • Insufficient evidence to make neuroimaging recommendations in patients with tension-type headaches
    • Insufficient data for evidence-based recommendations regarding CT versus MRI in the evaluation of nonacute headache
    4 US Headache Consortium. Evidence-based guidelines in the primary care setting: neuroimaging in patients with nonacute headache. American Academy of Neurology, 2000
  • 12. Predictors of Intracranial Pathology in Patients with Headache
    • Retrospective random chart review of 468 patients presenting with chief complaint of headache
      • Abnormal neurologic exam had a 39% PPV for intracranial pathology
      • Age greater than 55 was associated with increase risk of intracranial process
      • No association found between type of HA and the final diagnosis
    2 Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa CE, Cicero JJ, et al. Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol. 1997;54:1506-1509 (III)
  • 13. “Sudden Worst Headache”
    • Is this predictive?
    • One retrospective study found a 29% yield for positive head CT in patients complaining of “worst headache” but no correlation with diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage 4
    • Harling et al. in a prospective study of patients presenting with thunderclap headache found 35/49 to have SAH on CT or LP 5
    5 Mills ML, Russo LS, Vines FS, et al. High yield criteria for urgent cranial computed tomography scans. Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15:1167-1172 (III) 6 Harling DW, Peatfield RC, Van Hille PT, et al Thunderclap headache: is it a migraine? Cephalagia. 1989;9:87-90 (II)
  • 14. “Sudden Worst Headache”
    • Prospective study of 27 patients
      • All patients had acute sudden-onset HA with normal neurologic findings
      • All patients had CT, if negative an LP was performed and were then followed for 3 months
      • 9 patients had SAH, 1 intraventricular hemorrhage, 1 bacterial meningitis, 1 with viral meningitis
    7 Lledo A, calandre L, Marinez-Menendez B, et al. Acute headache of recent onset and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective study. Headache. 1994;34:172-174 (I)
  • 15. “Sudden Worst Headache”
    • Some studies have failed to demonstrate a significant correlation
    • One retrospective review of 333 ED patients complaining of acute or acutely worsening HA
      • 17 patients had “worst headache of life”; only one had positive CT results 7
    • Another study found only 1/27 patients with “worst headache complaint to have intracranial pathology 8
    8 Reinus WR, Wippold FJ, Erickson KK. Practical Selection Criteria for Unenhanced Cranial CT in Patients With Acute Headache. Emerg Radiol. 1994;94:67-70(II) 9 Mitchell CS, Osborn RE, Grosskreutz SR. Computed tomography in the headache patient: is routine evaluation really necessary? Headache.1993;33:82-86 (III)
  • 16. Headache in HIV Related Disorders
    • Prospective study
    • 49 consecutive HIV patients with headache
      • 82% had a serious identifiable cause.
    • HIV positive patients with headache should be considered for CT and LP
    10 Lipton RB, Feraru ER, Weiss G, et al. Headache in HIV Related Disorders. Headache. 1991;31:518-522 (II)
  • 17. ED Utilization of Noncontrast Head CT in HIV Infected Patients
    • Prospective convenience sample of 110 HIV patients with neurologic complaints
      • New seizure, depressed or altered mental status, and headache that was different in character or lasted longer than 3 days
    • New or different HA was reported in 25% of the cases
    • All cases of focal lesions identified
    11 Rothman RE, Keyl PM, McArthur JC, et al . A decision guideline for the utilization of noncontrast head CT in HIV infected patients. Acad Emerg Med. 1999;6:1010-1019 (II)
  • 18. Patient Management Recommendations
    • Level A Recommendations
      • None
    • Level B Recommendations
      • Patients presenting to the ED with headache and abnormal findings on neurologic examination should undergo emergent noncontrast head CT.
      • Patients presenting with acute sudden-onset headache should be considered for emergent head CT scan.
      • HIV positive patients with a new type of headache should be considered for urgent neuroimaging study.
  • 19. Patient Management Recommendations
    • Level C Recommendations
      • Patients who are older than 50 years old with a new type of headache without abnormal finding on neurologic exam should be considered for urgent neuroimaging.
  • 20. Gracias!
  • 21. References
    • 1 Dhopesh V, Anwar R, Herring C. A retrospective assessment of emergency department patients with complaint of headache. Headache. 1979;19:37-42 (Retrospective review, 872 patients; III)
    • 2 Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa C, Cicero J, et al. Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol 1997;54:1506-1509. (Retrospective review, 329 patients; III)
    • 3 American College of Neurology. Practice parameter: The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache patients with normal neurologic examination. Neurology . 1994;44:1353-1354. (Evidence based guidelines, (III)
    • 4 US Headache Consortium. Evidence-based guidelines in the primary care setting: neuroimaging in patients with nonacute headache. American Academy of Neurology . 2000 (Evidence based review, II)
    • 5 Mills ML, Russo LS, Vines FS, et al. High yield criteria for urgent cranial computed tomography scans. Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15:1167-1172 (Prospective, 407 patients; III)
    • 6 Harling DW, Peatfield RC, Van Hille PT, et al Thunderclap headache: is it a migraine? Cephalagia . 1989;9:87-90 (Prospective, 49 patients; II)
  • 22. References
    • 7 Lledo A, calandre L, Marinez-Menendez B, et al. Acute headache of recent onset and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective study. Headache. 1994;34:172-174 (Prospective, 27 patients; I)
    • 8 Reinus WR, Wippold FJ, Erickson KK. Practical Selection Criteria for Unenhanced Cranial CT in Patients With Acute Headache. Emerg Radiol. 1994;94:67-70(Retrospective, 333 patients; II)
    • 9 Mitchell CS, Osborn RE, Grosskreutz SR. Computed tomography in the headache patient: is routine evaluation really necessary? Headache.1993;33:82-86 (Prospective, 350 patients; III)
    • 10 Lipton RB, Feraru ER, Weiss G, et al. Headache in HIV Related Disorders. Headache. 1991;31:518-522 (Prospective, 49 patients; II)
    • 11 Rothman RE, Keyl PM, McArthur JC, et al . A decision guideline for the utilization of noncontrast head CT in HIV infected patients. Acad Emerg Med. 1999;6:10101-1019 (Prospective, 110 patients; II)

×