Nursing 310 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I

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Nursing 310 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I

  1. 1. 1 Nursing 310 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I Course Outline Fall 2008 Unit 1: Core Concepts in Pharmacology Following completion of the Unit the student will be able to: 1. Identify key events in the history of pharmacology. 2. Define pharmacology, therapeutics, and pharmacotherapeutics. 3. Explain the interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology, pathophysiology and the nursing process 4. Discuss the role of the nurse in relation to pharmacotherapeutics. 5. Identify current challenges of pharmacotherapy. 6. Identify categories of therapeutic agents. 7. Discuss the process of dispensing and regulating drugs. 8. Explain the process of drug approval in the USA. 9. Describe methods of scheduling and classifying drugs 10. Discuss the prototype approach to classification of drugs 11. Define mechanism of action 12. Discuss drug names. 13. Define controlled substances and discuss why drug schedules are necessary. 14. Verbalize responsibilities and processes related to drug administration. 15. Explain the application of pharmacokinetics in practice 16. Describe the principles of pharmacodynamics and their importance to clinical practice Teaching/Learning Activities: Required readings: Adams et. al: Chap.1, 2, 4, 5, 6, Classroom Activities: History of Pharmacology Time Line Drug names and classifications Principles of Drug Administration (Ch. 4) Pre-test
  2. 2. 2 Unit 2: Pharmacology and the Nurse-Patient Relationship Following completion of this unit the student will be able to: 1. Apply the Nursing Process in the management of medications. 2. Explain the nursing and pharmacologic implications associated with all stages of growth and development 3. Explain how physical, cognitive and psychomotor development influences pharmacotherapeutics. 4. Discuss risk and benefit in relation to drug administration. 5. Define the term teratogen and discuss the implications related to teratogens. 6. Identify Pregnancy categories and discuss the implications for practice. 7. Apply ethical principles to the effective administration of medications 8. Discuss medication errors and risk reduction strategies utilizing the nursing process. 9. Describe the significance of Nurse Practice Acts and Standards of Care in mediation administration 10. Describe how to report a medication error and explain why it is important to do so. 11. Discuss the relevance of client education to medication administration and error reduction. 12. Identify psychosocial, cultural and spiritual values and beliefs that can influence pharmacotherapeutic outcomes 13. Relate the implications of gender, community and environmental factors to the actions of certain drugs. 14. Explain the role of complimentary and alternative medicine in patient wellness Teaching/Learning: Required Reading: Adams, et al: Chap. 7,8,9,10,11 Handouts: • Nursing and Pharmacological Implications Associated with Developmental Age Groups
  3. 3. 3 Unit 3: Dimensional Analysis Following completion of this unit the student will be able to: 1. Confidently calculate accurate medication dosages using Dimensional Analysis. 2. Pass a medication calculation exam with a minimum of 85% proficiency. Required Reading: • Medication Math Errors and the Nursing Student (Handout provided by Instructor) • A Guide to Dimensional Analysis (Handout provided by instructor) Web site: • www.alysion.org/dimensional/analysis.htm (Visit web-site prior to class session) Handouts: • Dimensional Analysis (Overview) • Dimensional Analysis Examples Classroom Activities: • What If…What Else…What Then? • Math Worksheet: Clinical Calculations Supplemental Material: • Practice Questions
  4. 4. 4 Unit 4: The Perioperative Patient and Pharmacotherapeutics • Review of the Autonomic Nervous System • Pain Control • Anesthesia Following completion of this unit the student will be able to: 1. Compare and contrast the types of responses that occur when the different brain receptors are activated. 2. Compare and contrast drugs that affect the Autonomic Nervous System in terms of indications, mechanisms of action, primary actions, expected outcomes, contraindications, side effects, and adverse effects. 3. Discuss the nurse’s role in the pharmacologic management of patients receiving drugs affecting the Autonomic Nervous System. 4. Identify disorders that require drugs affecting the ANS. 5. Categorize drugs used for anesthesia based on their classifications and drug actions. 6. Describe actions of local and general anesthetics on the nervous system 7. Use the nursing process to care for patients who are receiving medications before, during and after surgery 8. Identify specific prototypes of anesthetic medications 9. Categorize drugs used in the treatment of pain based on their classification and mechanism of action 10. Explain the neural mechanisms for pain and the role of neurotransmitters in pain management 11. Identify specific pain medication prototypes 12. Use the nursing process to manage the pharmacologic aspects of the pain experience Teaching / Learning: Required Reading: Adams, et al Chap 18 & 19 Handouts: • Autonomic Nervous System Drug Classifications • Common Adjunct Agents • The WHO “Analgesic Ladder”
  5. 5. 5 Unit 5: The Nervous System Following completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 1. Compare and contrast the types of responses that occur when the different receptors are activated. 2. Compare and contrast drugs that affect the Nervous System in terms of indications, mechanisms of action, primary actions, expected outcomes, contraindications, side effects, and adverse effects. a. ANS b. Anxiety and insomnia c. Seizures and epilepsy d. Degenerative neurological disorders e. Ischemic Stroke 3. Discuss the nurse’s role in the pharmacologic management of patients receiving drugs affecting the Nervous System. a. ANS b. Anxiety and insomnia c. Seizures and epilepsy d. Degenerative neurological disorders e. Ischemic Stroke 4. Identify disorders that require drugs affecting the ANS. 5. Identify brain regions associated with anxiety, sleep and wakefulness. 6. Identify three classes of drugs used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders. 7. Discuss the pathophysiology of seizures and epilepsy. 8. Discuss lab tests used to evaluate effectiveness and adverse effects of antiseizure drugs 9. Explain the pathophysiology and neurochemical basis for Parkinson’s Disease, focusing on the role of dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain. 10. Explain the goals of pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease and the existing medications. 11. Explain the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. 12. Discuss the use of thrombolytics in the emergency treatment of stroke. Teaching/Learning Required Reading: Adams et al., Chapters 14,15,16,17,20 Handout: • SSRIs: Striking a Delicate Balance
  6. 6. 6 Unit 6: Musculoskeletal System Following the completion of this unit the student will be able to: 1. Identify different body systems contributing to muscle movement. 2. Discuss nonpharmacological therapies used to treat muscle spasms and spasticity. 3. Explain the goals of pharmacotherapy with skeletal muscle relaxants. 4. Describe the nurse’s role in the pharmacological management of muscle spasms. 5. Compare and contrast the roles of the following drug categories in treating muscle spasms and spasticity: centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants and direct-acting antispasmotics. 6. Identify major disorders, signs, and symptoms associated with an imbalance of calcium, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin. 7. Discus drug treatments for hypocalcemia, osteomalacia, and rickets. 8. Describe the nurse’s role in the pharmacological management of disorders caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. 9. Identify important disorders characterized by weak, fragile bones and abnormal joints. 10. Explain the nonpharmacological therapies used to treat bone and joint disorders. 11. Describe the nurse’s role in the pharmacological management of disorders related to bones and joints. Required Readings: Adams et al., Chapters 21, 47
  7. 7. 7 Unit 7: Patients with Endocrine Problems and Pharmacotherapeutics Following completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 1. Describe the functions of the endocrine system and the concept of negative feedback 2. Identify underlying problems producing pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and pancreatic disorders 3. Categorize drugs used in the treatment of endocrine disorders based on classification and mechanism of action 4. Use the Nursing process to care for Patients who are receiving drug therapy for pituitary, thyroid and adrenal disorders 5. Describe endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas 6. Compare Type I and Typ II diabetes 7. Compare types of insulin and other antidiabetic agents 8. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for pancreatic disorders Teaching/Learning: Required Reading; Adams et al Chapters 43, 44 Handouts: • Overall scheme of the endocrine system • Hormone worksheet • Insulin pharmacotherapy • Differentiating between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia • Oral hypoglycemics
  8. 8. 8 Unit 8: Patients with problems of the gastrointestinal system and Pharmacotherapeutics Following completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 1. Identify common causes, signs and symptoms of peptic ulcer disease 2. Compare duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers 3. Categorize drugs used in the treatment of peptic ulcer based on their classification and mechanism of action 4. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for peptic ulcer disease. 5. Identify conditions where pharmacotherapy of bowel disorders and of nausea and vomiting is indicated 6. Explain pathogenesis of constipation and diarrhea 7. Categorize drugs used in the treatment of bowel disorders, nausea and vomiting based on their classification and mechanism of action 8. Use the nursing process to care for patients who are receiving drug therapy for bowel disorders, nausea and vomiting Teaching/Learning: Required Reading: Adams et al Chapters 40, 41, 42
  9. 9. 9 Unit 9: The Patient with Problems of Coagulation and Hematopoiesis and pharmacotherapeutics Following completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 1. Discuss the significance of the important steps of hemostasis and fibrinolysis 2. Describe thromboembolic disorders that are indications for coagulation modifiers 3. Identify the primary mechanisms by which coagulation modifiers act 4. Explain the significance of laboratory testing in monitoring anticoagulant pharmacotherapy 5. Categorize coagulation-modifying drugs based on classifications and mechanism of action 6. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for coagulation disorders 7. Describe the process of hematopoiesis and how it is regulated 8. Classify anemias based on their causes 9. Categorize drugs used in the treatment of hematopoietic disorders based on classification and mechanism of action 10. Use the nursing process to care for patients who are receiving drug therapy for hematopoietic disorders Teaching/Learning: Required Reading: Adams et al Chapters 27, 28
  10. 10. 10 Unit 10: The Immune Compromised Patient and Pharmacotherapeutics Following completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 1. Compare specific and non specific body defenses 2. Compare humoral and cell mediated immune responses 3. Identify specific drugs related to the immune system as well as their actions and important effects 4. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for immune disorders 5. Outline the steps of the inflammatory process 6. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for inflammation, fever and allergies 7. Describe classifications of bacteria 8. Explain the mechanisms of resistance and superinfections 9. Identify specific classes of antibiotics and their prototypes 10. Describe structural components of viruses 11. Identify viral diseases that may benefit from pharmacotherapy 12. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for viral infections 13. Compare pharmacotherapy of superficial an systemic fungal infections 14. Identify protozoan an helminth infections that may benefit from pharmacotherapy 15. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving drug therapy for fungal, protozoan and helminth infections 16. Explain differences between normal cells and cancer cells 17. Identify causes, lifestyle factors and primary therapies for cancer 18. Explain the significance of growth fraction and cell cycle in chemotherapy 19. Explain the significance of combination therapy and special dosing protocols in chemotherapy 20. List general adverse effects of chemotherapy 21. Categorize anticancer drugs based on classification and mechanism of action 22. Use the nursing process to care for patients receiving antineoplastic medications Teaching/Learning: Required readings: Adams et al Chapters 32,33,34,35,36,37

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