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Neurological acute stroke care: the role of European neurology

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  • 1. European Journal of Neurology (1997), 4,435-441 SPECIAL SECTION Neurological acute stroke care: the role of European neurology European Federation of Neurological Societies Task Force Correspondence to: Michael Brainin, Center for Neuroscience, Danube University Krems, and Depatfment of Neurology, Landesnervenklinik Gugging, Hauptstrasse 2, A -3400 Maria Gugging, Austria In 1995 the EFNS has made stroke treatment and prevention a major policy issue and established a Task Force to develop guidelinesfor acute neurological stroke care for use by neurologists throughout Europe and to be modified according to local and national requirements. This Task Force report Supplementsrecommendations and treatment guidelinespreviously pub- lished. It focuses on the need of adapting neurological hospital services to immediate stroke care and Sets up lines of argu- mentation and organisationalrecommendationscompiled on various levels of evidence. Due to the increaseof agingpopulations across Europe the socioeconomic and health burden of stroke will increase in many countries within the next decades. In addition, acute stroke mortality differs greatly among European countries being the highest in many countries of Eastern Europe and lowest in many of the Western nations. This implies that management of acute stroke varies in intensity and quality and a uniform improvement of care can be achieved in many countries by involving more neurologists. The viability of ischemic brain tissue may extend up to 18 or even 24 hours but experimental and human stroke research shows that the earlier the intervention takes place the more likely the outcome is favourable. Thrombolysis has been recommended for use within a therapeutic time window of up to 3 hours following the onset of stroke, a time window of up to 6 hours is currently being tested. Neuroprotection drugs are being tested for time windows up to 12 hours. Factors delaying early hospital refer- ral as well as factors delaying in-hospital management can be overcome if neurologists participate in public education pro- grammes that propagate early recognition of symptoms and advocate emergency hospitalization. Training Programmes for medical and paramedical staff can improve initial diagnosis of stroke. Organizational structures within the hospital are recommended that allow neurologists to react quickly and have access to all investigations on an emergency basis. It is important to have an early accurate diagnosis of the stroke as various subtypes have different frequencies with which com- plications and associated comorbidities occur, have varying rates and patterns of worsening and recurrence. It is essential to establish neurological stroke units for acute care wherever possible. Such units have been shown to be effective but their elements and components making them most efficacious are still not well known. Neurological acute stroke units have the primary aim of initiating stroke treatment on an emergency basis and of clarifying the stroke cause. Ready availability of CT, neurosonological investigations, ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory tests including coagulation is mandatory. Cardiac monitoring as well as monitoring of blood pressure, blood gases, body temperature and blood glucose should be performed immediately upon hospital arrival. When available, arteriography, MRI, EEG monitoring, and new brain imaging tech- niques should be used. An acute stroke unit should consist of 6 (4-8) beds. Depending on the severity of stroke, case-mix and complication rates such a unit can serve a population between 200,000 and 400,000 inhabitants and treat 350 to 800 strokes per year. After stabilisation, referral to a non-intensive stroke rehabilitation unit is recommended. In larger hospitals where a stroke unit cannot be installed easily it is recommended to set up a mobile neurological acute stroke team that is available at emergency departments. Neurologists should be able to take up the history of the patient from the paramedics immedi- ately upon arrival, make the first assessment and follow the patient to other departments. Seamless management includes early neurorehabilitation, the use of a stroke pathway and access to all investigations in order to perform therapies on an emergency basis. INTRODUCTION: THE INCREASING BURDEN OF STROKE In Europe stroke is a leading cause of death and the most ern European countries, death from stroke has declined common cause of severedisability in adults. In most West- by 30-50% since 1975, but in the countries of Eastern Europe stroke mortality has remained stable or slightly Participants of the European Federation of Neurological Societies Task increased over the same period of time (Asplund, 1996; Force on neurological acute stroke: Michael Brainin, Austria (Chair); Khaw, 1996; Stegmayr et al., 1996). Despite the decline Markku Kaste, Finland (Vice-Chair); Anna Czlonkowska, Poland; Hans- in mortality in Western Europe, the incidence of stroke is ChristophDiener,Germany;Pavel Kavlach, Czech Republic; Tom Skyhoj expected to increase within the next few decades, mainly Olsen, Denmark; Danilo Toni, Italy ;Graham Venables,United Kingdom. due to a 30% growth in the elderly population, which will 1351-5101 © 1997 Rapid Science Publishers European Journal of Neurology . Vol 4 . 1997 435
  • 2. EFNS TASK FORCE lead to an increase in the health burden of stroke with (American Academy of Neurology, 1996). The WHO/Eu- consequent increases in economic costs. Lifetime costs ropean Stroke Council “Helsingborg Declaration” (World of first-ever stroke are estimated at between US$40,000 Health Organization/European Stroke Council, 1996) ad- in the Netherlands and US$80,000 in Sweden, of which dressed the need to develop specific acute care and reha- hospitalcosts accountfor45% in the first year after a stroke bilitation facilities in an organized fashion in order to re- (Asplund et al., 1993; Bergman et al. , 1995); it is esti- duce mortality and disability. The present guidelines are mated that hospital costs will increase increase by 1.5% intended to focus on the role of neurological services and per year (Bergman et al., 1995). Across Europe, there- neurologists in the acute care of people with stroke, and fore, with its ageing population, there is a pressing need supplement already existing reports and guidelines. to cope with this increase, and make stroke prevention and treatment a priority to reduce the growing health bur- NEUROLOGISTS MUST COPE WITH STROKE den and lessen its socio-economic impact. EMERGENCIES ON A DAILY BASIS Improving acute stroke care along established and evi- dence-based principles is a substantial undertaking. The Neurologists have played a major part in experimental and World Health Organization (WHO) Monitoring in Car- clinical research into therapy of cerebrovasculardiseases. diovascular Disease (MONICA) project (Thorvaldsen et Harrison et al. (197 1) first suggested that aspirin might al., 1995) has demonstrated a large variation between reduce the frequency of transient ischaemicattacks. These countries in case fatality rates (the proportion of fatalities observations opened the way for the first of many large occurring within 28 days after onset of acute stroke), rang- randomized trials of aspirin in both secondary prevention ing from 15% in northern countries to 50% in some East- (Canadian Cooperative Study Croup, 1978) and, more ern European states. The implications of these findings recently, acute intervention trials in ischaemic stroke (In- are that the quality of acute stroke care varies between ternational Stroke Trial Collaborative Group, 1997; Chi- countries and that an improvement in initial diagnosis, nese Acute Stroke Trail Collaborative Group, 1997). treatment and rehabilitation programmes will reduce case Data from both animal and human stroke research sug- fatality rates. gest that the earlierintervention takes place the more likely it is that the outcome will be favourable. Cerebral tissue EFNS TASK FORCE ON STROKE AND EXISTING may remain viable for up to 18-24 h after acute ischae- GUIDELINES mia, even if cerebral blood flow is below 22 ml/100 g per min, provided there is a high level of oxygen extraction National neurological societieshave become increasingly and a high cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (Baron et aware of the need to address the problem of acute stroke al., 1995). Thrombolyis is now recommended in North care through consensus statements and training pro- America if undertaken within 3 h of the onset of stroke, grammes. In particular, there is a need to set up special- and further clinical trials testing the efficacy of throm- ized treatment facilities for the acute care of patients with bolysis are under way with a time window of up to 6 h. stroke. In 1995 the European Federation of Neurological Neuroprotectiontrials presently test a therapeutictime win- Societies (EFNS) made stroke treatment and prevention a dow up to 12 h. major policy issue. A Task Force on Neurological Acute Therefore, neurologists involved in the acute care of Stroke Care was instructed to develop guidelines for the stroke must now operate within organizational structures implementation of stroke management policies for use by that allow them to react quickly, as therapeutic measures neurologists in all European countries with the intention undertaken outside the appropriate time windows are less that these guidelines could then be modified according to likely to be effective and may be harmful. The fact that local and national requirements. neurologistsmust now cope with stroke emergencies on a Other guidelines have focused on general issues of daily basis represents a major turning point in clinical stroke care, public awareness and education programmes neurology. and treatment, rehabilitation and organizational issues. An ad hoc consensus group (European Ad Hoc Consensus TREATMENT DELAYS BOTH OUTSIDE AND Group, 1996, 1997) has compiled all available evidence INSIDE THE HOSPITAL CAN BE AVOIDED about early intervention in acute stroke and laid down the principles of intensive care. A report from the American Various factors are responsible for delay in patient refer- Heart Association has developed guidelines for the man- ral to hospital. These include a poor awareness of the stroke agement of patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Adams by the victim or family, reluctance to seek emergency or et al., 1994). This has been supplemented by a practice medical help, incorrect diagnosisby the paramedical serv- advisory document on thrombolytic therapy for acute is- ice and rating stroke as a non-emergency by medical per- chaemic stroke by the American Academy of Neurology sonnel and the family physician. In Germany, only 5% of 436 European Journal of Neurology . Vo1 4 . 1997
  • 3. NEUROLOGICALACUTE STROKE CARE the population are aware of the warning signs of stroke and CT criteria proved to be correct in 62% of patients compared with 50% who know about myocardial ischae- compared with a final diagnosis 3 months later for all mia (A. Kottmaier, unpublished data). Jørgenson et al. stroke types (Madden et al., 1995).Even then, 15% could (1996) showed that patients who had previously suffered not be categorized. In another study, lacunar stroke was a transient ischaemic attack underwent shorter admission correctly distinguished from non-lacunar stroke in 56%. times when they experienced a stroke in comparison to of cases within 12h after onset in 517patients presenting patients with first-ever strokes not known to’have had a with first-ever stroke (Toni et al., 1995).The effect of this transient ischaemic attack. Ambulance staff are known to on prognosis was demonstrated by Libman et al. (1995) make an incorrect diagnosis in 50% of patients compared who showed that pure motor hemiparesis tended to im- with 25% by paramedics (Kothari et al., 1995). prove rapidly over 10 days. These studies show that even Because of these factors, traditional settings for the for expert neurologists, the early diagnosis of stroke treatment of patients with acute stroke may not be appro- subtype is difficult on clinical grounds alone but may be- priate. Neurologists should be involved in the public edu- come more reliable when the results of further examina- cation and training of paramedical staff, stress the impor- tions, in addition to the initial CT, are readily available. tance of awareness about stroke, the early recognition of symptoms and the need for emergency hospitalization. NEUROLOGICAL STROKE UNITS ARE NOW Within the hospital, factors delaying early intervention WIDELY ACCEPTED include admission polices that require placement of pa- The use of neurological stroke units within the first week tients on general medical wards, lack of access to early has yet to be evaluated in formal trials. Most of the evi- brain-imaging facilities,the rating of stroke as non-urgent dence for the effectiveness of organized stroke care has by hospital staff,non-existenttreatment facilities for stroke come from stroke rehabilitation. at the point of admission and unavailability of a neurolo- gist in the emergency room. This may lead to delays in Level I evidence the early recognition of stroke, prolonged ‘door to drug’ Randomized studies have shown that stroke units are ef- times, failure to use new treatment modalities, including fective in reducing mortality compared with treating pa- thrombolysis, and the introductionof early secondary pre- tients on general medical ward. A meta-analysisof all tri- vention measure. Conditions other than stroke that pres- als of stroke units compared with care in a general medical ent stroke-likesyndromes,such as hypoglycaemiaor sub- setting showed a 21% reduction in mortality after 12 dural haematoma,may be life-threatening,and non ischae- months (Langhorne et al., 1993).Individualtrials include mic stroke may account for up to 25% of acute stroke a prospective randomized study of acute stroke patients admissions(Bratina et al., 1995).Delay in imaging is com- in which there was an improvement in functionaloutcome mon (Anderson et al., 1995):despite a median arrivaltime and a reduction in the need for long-term care in patients of 4.3 h for ischaemic stroke and 2 h for intracerebral or who randomly allocated to a non- intensive stroke unit subarachnoid haemorrhage, computed tomography (CT) compared with a general medical ward (Strand et al., was delayed by a median of 66 h for the former compared 1985). In this study, 15% of those randomized to stroke with a few hours by the intervention of the emergency unit care and 39% of those on a general ward remained stroke team (Bratina et al., 1995). hospitalized. Functional outcome was better, as measured by the Activities of Daily Living scale, including meas- EARLY ACCURATE DIAGNOSIS CAN BE urements in the domainsof walking, personal hygiene and ACHIEVED dressing. The precise mechanism for this remains unclear, though the authors suggest that teamwork and early onset Different stroke subtypes have different aetiologies, dif- of rehabilitation may be important. Kaste et al. (1995) fering frequencies with which complications and associ- showed that patients randomly allocated to care in the neu- ated comorbidities occur, differing rates of early recur- rology department left hospital earlier, went home directly rence and varying rates and patterns of deterioration and more often, and were more commonly independent after prognosis; therefore accurate diagnosis is required for 1year than those treated on medical wards. While the fa- appropriate management. tality rate was no different,the authors suggested that bet- A history and physical examination may assist in the ter organizationof care played a part in the improved out- classificationof the stroke subtype and allow priorities to come. be determinedfor additional investigations and treatments. Demographic variables are well matched in most stud- Subtypes include stroke due to arterial atherothrombosis, ies, but data about the time of admission and the onset cardiac embolism, small-vessel occlusion and and intensity of rehabilitation measures are usually lack- crypotogenicand uncertain aetiologies. In a recent study, ing in these studies, so that no general conclusions can be early categorization of the initial stroke type on clinical drawn about the efficacy of acute stroke units. European Journal of Neurology .Vo1 4 . 1997 437
  • 4. EFNS TASK FORCE Level II evidence with internists and general practitioners. This mirrors Two studies have compared the efficacy of stroke reha- Medicare costs for myocardial infarction as cardiologists bilitation units with historical controls treated on general have gradually taken over the care of this group of pa- medical wards. Jørgenson et al. (1995) studied 936 acute tients. stroke patients managed in a stroke unit of 61 beds and There are no evidence-based guidelines in the follow- compared them with 305 patients managed in general ing areas, though clinical trials are under way in some: wards at another hospital. Both groups were similar in the management of swallowing disorders and the preven- terms of age and time of admissionto the unit. Case fatal- tion of aspiration using either a nasogastric tube or via ity rates, percentage discharged to a nursing home, length percutaneous gastrostomy (Holas et al., 1994; Smithard of stay for all patients and length of stay for those aged et al., 1996), nutritional supplements after a stroke, the over 70years were all lower among those treated in a stroke use of intracranial monitoring and other aspects of inten- unit. The authors (Jørgenson et al., 1995) attributed their sive care, including optimal control of hyperpyrexia success to a standardevaluationprogramme, intensive ob- (Grotta et al., 1995; El-Ad et al., 1996;Reith et al., 1996; servation and goal-oriented treatment in the first few days Schwab et al., 1996;European Ad Hoc Consensus Group, after admission. 1997). Bath et al. (1996) provided some evidence that imme- Ethical issues also need to be considered,and a rational diate admission to a stroke unit might be efficacious. Pa- approach to ‘do not resuscitate’ orders is required, espe- tients admitted immediately to an eight-bed stroke unit cially to assist in the management of patients who are and transferred after an average of 7 days to postacute locked in or in vegetative states (Alecandrow et al., 1995, treatment facilitieswere compared with historical controls 1996). treated on a general medical or geriatric ward. The pa- Further unanswered questions about acute stroke care tients treated in a special unit showed a reduced time to include questions about appropriatediagnostic techniques admission from the emergency unit, earlier CT, more ca- (Mohr et al., 1995; Schneider et al., 1996), pharmaco- rotid sonography, a greater likelihood of being given as- therapy for cerebral ischaemia (Marshall and Mohr, 1993) pirin on discharge and a reduced in-patient hospital stay. and effectivemeans of preventing complications (Daven- Bath et al. (1996) suggest that a better outcome might be port et al., 1966). related to an improved diagnosis, directed rehabilitation, None of the studies reported above give a detailed analy- fewer early complications and better early secondary pre- sis of the elements of stroke care that might be essential in vention measures. a neurological acute stroke unit and detailed descriptions of all the components remain to be undertaken. Level III evidence In a survey in 18 Spanish hospitals, the time from the on- RECOMMENDATIONS set of a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack to contact Two models of care are proposed. One involves the use of with a neurologistwas compared. Those admitted or evalu- dedicated facilities for acute neurological care within a ated early had an improved outcome as measured by an hospital,the other a mobile neurological acute stroke team impairment scale and a reduced length of stay (Davalos et when dedicated facilities are not available. al., 1995).Intensive management of hypertensionand hy- The primary aim of either model is: perglycaemia in the acute phase was thought to have con- accurate diagnosis to minimize complications and tributed to this. Some evidence from North America sug- recurrence; gests that neurologists who treat stroke are more likely to initiation of acute stroke treatment. be knowledgeable about the causes of stroke that others, Acute care starts with the patient as soon as symptoms and their patients have a better outcome than those treated are experienced. Patients require education about the sig- by internists or general practitioners. Medicare evaluated nificance of their symptoms, while paramedical staff and 20% of their stroke patients treated in 1991 and found general practitioners need to know how to accessthe stroke that patients treated by neurologists had a significantly team or stroke unit. All admissions trails should therefore lower 90-day mortality (Mitchell et al., 1996); however be clearly visible and available to the community prehos- these patients were not matched for stroke severity or pita1 services. Within the hospital setting neurologists comorbid disease. The same data showed that neurolo- should have early access to patients with stroke and full gists used more imaging procedures, including CT, mag- access to appropriate investigational facilities. netic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and more prothrombin tests for anticoagulant control. They also Neurological acute stroke unit made more use of rehabilitation facilities and made less It is important to have a stroke unit within a defined set- use of nursing facilities and nursing homes. However, the ting. These units mostly consist of a small number of beds neurologistsincurred high hospitalization costs compared which are exclusively and immediately available for all 438 European Journal of Neurology . Vo1 4 . 1997
  • 5. NEUROLOGICAL ACUTE STROKE CARE TABLE I. Investigative facilities required to be readily accessible Acute stroke (24 h) for acute neurologicalstroke units Computed tomography Neurosonologicalinvestigations (extracranial and intracranial vessels, colour-coded Duplexsonography, transcranial Doppler sonography) Regional Paramedics Emergency Electrocardiography Hospital Echocardiography (transthoracic) physicians Laboratory examinations (including coagulation parameters) General Acute Blood pressure, blood gases, blood glucose, body temperature Medical/Geriatic Neurological Emergeny Ward Stroke Department Unit Coronary Care TABLE II. Additional investigatory facilities recommended to be Intensive Care Unit Unit available for patients in acute neurological stroke units Magnetic resonance imaging/Magnetic resonance angiography Computed tomography angiography Echocardiography (transoesophageal) Cerebral arteriography Stroke Rehabilitation Neurological Regional Transcranial Doppler sonography (embolus detection Home Unit Ward Hospital monitoring) Electroencephalography monitoring FIG. 1. Flow chart showing organization of an acute neurological Monitoring of central breathing disturbances stroke unit. admissions with stroke-like symptoms. Many neurologi- Acute stroke units have the primary aim of initiating cal departments treating acute patients already have moni- stroke treatment on an emergency basis and of clarifying toring devices available for their patients as well as neu- the causes of the stroke in order to prevent further relapses rologists with a specialized interest and training to treat and complications. All other aspects are secondary. acute strokes. With an increasing tendency to apply early Prehospital structures must be adapted to this primary aim. and very early interventions, especially thrombolysis, it Within the hospital their patients must have access to all is also evident that neurological acute stroke units will be investigations on an emergency basis. There should be a the specialized setting for any kind of treatment which ready availability of CT, arteriography, echocardiography, has to be performed within the first few hours after the Dopplersonography including transcranial Doppler onset of a stroke. Initial management on a general ward sonography and transcranial Doppler monitoring, as well will not be easily justified for treatments that have a haz- as CT angiography,MRI and MRA if situated within reach ardous potential. (Tables 1 and 2). A concept for neurological acute stroke care should follow an integrated concept for treatment and include the Neurological acute stroke team prehospital emergency setting, rapid transfer to centers Many hospitals do not yet have acute stroke units. These with a neurological stroke unit, emergency treatment fol- are often large general hospitals with a neurological de- lowing admission, initial neurological and neuroradiolog- partment that consists of a small number of beds provid- ical assessment, additional investigations, secondary and ing a ward consultation service. In this type of traditional tertiary prophylaxis, continuous neuromonitoring and ther- setting, neurologists are recommended to install mobile apy during the acute phase, and consecutive transfer, pref- stroke teams that are rapidly available on an emergency erably to a non-intensive-care stroke rehabilitation unit basis throughout the hospital (Fig. 2). These neurologists (Fig. 1). should have the primary competence for all acute strokes This acute stroke unit has the primary task of perform- as soon as they are admitted. If there is an emergency room ing very early evaluation and management following the or emergency department for all hospital admissions, a early days after a stroke. Other additional elements are neurologist should be easily and rapidly available for those optional and vary from country to country. In some coun- admissions and have a chance to take a history from the tries or regions, stroke units have been established to in- paramedics and make a first assessment. They should fol- clude early rehabilitation as well. This is a compatible low the patients to intensive care, to coronary care, to gen- addition to an acute stroke unit. Stroke units that exclu- eral medical or geriatric wards. After initial management, sively focus on rehabilitation in the postacute phase fol- neurologists should be able to start with neurorehabilita- low a different task and their efforts cannot easily be com- tion as soon as possible. Physiotherapists, occupational pared with a neurological acute stroke unit. therapists and speech therapists should therefore also be- European Journal of Neurology . Vo14 . 1997 439
  • 6. EFNS TASK FORCE phy should be made available within an organizational Acute stroke structure which defines the accessibility to those teams according to the emergency status of the patient. Within the first few hours and days the patient will be Paramedics monitored continuously. It is essential that a portable Emergency physicians monitor for electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse- oxymetry is available when the patient is moved to ex- General Medical Emergency aminations outside the acute stroke unit (Tables 1 and 2). Ward Ward Blood pressure, ECG lood glucose, peripheral oxygen Acute Neurological Neurological Intensive Care saturation, body temperature and fluid balance should be Mobile Ward Ward Stroke monitored continuously while the patient is in the unit. A Unit Coronary Care short neurological stroke scale repeated at regular inter- Geriatic Ward Unit vals in helpful to detect progression or deterioration. It is essential to observe changes in consciousness and to rec- ognize secondary or tertiary complication. GEOGRAPHICAL RECOMMENDATIONS Stroke Rehabilitation Neurological Regional A neurological acute stroke unit should consist of four to Home Unit Ward Hospital eight beds (ideal size six beds) and aim at treating acute FIG. 2. Flow chart showing organization of an acute neurological strokes for 2-7 days (average 4-5 days) depending on the mobile stroke team. severity, complicationsand case-mix. With a regional in- cidence of 200 first-ever strokes per 100000 inhabitants long to the mobile stroke team. After some time, a suc- per year and a hospitalization rate of 70-80%, one acute cessful mobile stroke team is often able to install an acute stroke unit may serve approximately 200,000-300,000 stroke unit with beds and neuromonitoring equipment. In inhabitants. This implies that 350-500 strokes are treated order to justify this, the work of this team should be care- per year, including recurrent strokes. If the average pa- fully and separately documented from the beginning, to tient stay can be reduced to 2-4 days, a stroke unit can allow an evaluation of the clinical successes and the costs serve a larger population of approximately 300,000- of the interventions. In addition, a checklist of interven- 400,000 inhabitant, thus treating up to 800 strokes per tions and investigations is helpful in recording the work year. on an individual patient. A written clinical pathway for acute strokes is even better than a mere checklist because ORGANIZATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS it makes the process of clinical decision-making more transparent. Interdisciplinary cooperation with other med- Diagnosticand therapeutic measures are standardized and ical specialists is essential for the general management of are updated at regularintervals. Strokeprotocols and pres- stroke. ent clinical pathways are important for a continuous as- sessment of the quality of performance of the stroke unit. Prehospital and acute inhospital management The first assessment includes the decision on whether the A neurological acute stroke unit must startoutside the hos- patient has to be intubated and ventilated and therefore pital: Emergency physicians, paramedics and referring transferred to an intensive.care unit. If no intensive care doctors as well as the general population within the dis- unit is easily available some strokeunits might decide to trict should know that this acute stroke unit exists and is start artificial or assisted ventilation before transferring operational at all hours. A neurologist should be available the patient. The majority of patients, however, do not re- 24 h a day on an emergency basis in order to attend to all quire ventilation and can be referred on after stabilization, admissions with a stroke syndrome, to perform a rapid preferably to a non-intensive-care stroke rehabilitation neurological investigation and to check vital and cardio- unit. Physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech vascular parameters. He will take a short patient history therapy can be started in order to guarantee seamless care. and decide on the location and cause of the infarct. Inev- itably, a CT scan and a laboratory screening will be need- REFERENCES ed on an emergency basis as well as further investigations. Adams HP, Brott TG Crowell RM, Furlan AJ, Gomez, CR, Grotta J, Doppler investigations of the extra- and intracranial ves- Helgason, CM, Marler JR, Woolson RF, Zivin JA, Feinberg W sels, echocardiographic investigations of the heart and and Mayberg M (1994 ) Guidelines for the management of pa- aortic arch and the option to perform cerebral angiogra- tients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 25,1901-1914. 440 European Journal of Neurology . Vo1 4 . 1997
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