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Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
Microsoft Powerpoint
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Microsoft Powerpoint

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  • 1. Decision-Making And Health Grade IX, Group A Gems__the Learners' Mine
  • 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>How do the decisions of today influence us later? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important to be aware of diseases? </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases in Karachi </li></ul><ul><li>What precautions can be taken to be safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Human body and diseases </li></ul>
  • 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>What are the diseases that are a continuous threat to Karachi? </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis – a major Health Hazard in Karachi? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people get infected with Hepatitis? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>World Hepatitis Awareness Day </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways we can work in our community and globally for a better and healthier tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>Sources And References </li></ul>
  • 4. Decision-Making <ul><li>Decision making is a cognitive process or a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational </li></ul>
  • 5. Decision-Making <ul><li>Common examples include shopping , deciding what to eat , when to sleep , and deciding whom or what to vote for in an election or referendum . </li></ul>
  • 6. How the decisions of today influence us later? <ul><li>The decisions that we take today, the choices that we make now, will have an obvious effect on our lives; whether it is our job, health issues, relationships or education. When we are young our parents make decision for us </li></ul>
  • 7. Why is it important to be aware of diseases? <ul><li>Disease: Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). </li></ul>
  • 8. Diseases in Karachi <ul><li>Neurological diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution-related diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Waterborne diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul>
  • 9. What precautions can be taken to be safe? VACCINATION
  • 10. human body and diseases There are different systems that work in our body and are responsible for several functions
  • 11. What are the diseases that are a continuous threat to Karachi? Our group investigated and arranged it in the following order:
  • 12. What is Hepatitis? <ul><li>Hepatitis (plural hepatitides ) implies injury to liver characterized by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue . The condition can be self limiting, healing on its own or can progress to scarring of liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute hepatitis is when it lasts less than 6 months and chronic hepatitis is when it persists longer. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most liver damages worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol), other infections or from autoimmune process. It may run a subclinical course when the affected person may not feel ill . </li></ul><ul><li>The patient becomes unwell and symptomatic when the disease impairs liver functions that include among other things, screening of harmful substances, regulation of blood composition and production of bile to help digestion. </li></ul>
  • 13. How do people get infected? <ul><li>Acute hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A to E (more than 95% of viral cause), Herpes simplex , Cytomegalovirus , Epstein-Barr , yellow fever virus , adenoviruses . </li></ul><ul><li>Non viral infection: toxoplasma , Leptospira , Q fever , [2] rocky mountain spotted fever [3] </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins: Amanita toxin in mushrooms, Carbon tetrachloride, asafetida </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs: Paracetamol, amoxycillin, anti tuberculosis medicines, minocycline and many others ( see longer list below ). </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory insufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Auto immune conditions e.g. SLE </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic diseases e.g. Wilson's disease </li></ul>
  • 14. Chronic hepatitis <ul><li>Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis B with or without hepatitis D, Hepatitis C (Hepatitis A and E do not lead to chronic disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune: Autoimmune hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs: methyl-dopa, nitrofurantoin, isoniazide, ketoconazole </li></ul><ul><li>Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity : Wilson's disease, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis occasionally mimic chronic hepatitis [4] </li></ul>
  • 15. Types of Hepatitis <ul><li>Viral </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases of acute hepatitis are due to viral infections: </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B with D </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis E </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis F (existence unknown) </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis G </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the hepatitis viruses (please note that the hepatitis viruses are not all related). Other viruses can also cause hepatitis, including cytomegalovirus , Epstein-Barr virus , yellow fever , etc. </li></ul>
  • 16. World Hepatitis Awareness Day <ul><li>World Hepatitis Awareness Day 2006 , observed on Sunday October 1, has been designated by hepatitis patient associations around the world as a day on which to raise awareness about hepatitis and demand action to curb the spread of the disease and treat people who are infected. </li></ul><ul><li>Around the world almost 600 million people are infected with either hepatitis B or C. Both forms of viral hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver transplantation and yet both can often be treated effectively, and in many cases, even cured. </li></ul>
  • 17. Hepatitis spreading rapidly in Pakistan <ul><li>Hepatitis is growing rapidly in Pakistan and the government needs to bring the disease under control before more people become its victim,. Impure water, defective sewage, reuse of syringes, dental extraction, reuse of razors at barber shops, unscreened blood transfusion, sexual contact with an infected partner and contaminated surgical instruments are the main causes of the disease's spread. </li></ul>
  • 18. In what ways we can work in our community and globally for a better tomorrow? <ul><li>Only by talking openly about the disease and by encouraging people who might be at risk to Get Tested can we begin to tackle this global problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Development expresses values of fairness, equality, accountability, opportunity, choice, participation, mutuality, reciprocity and continuous learning. Educating, enabling and empowering are at the core of Community Development. </li></ul>
  • 19. How do our decisions of today effect us later? <ul><li>Decisions made by our parents when we are little, sometimes have effect on us later. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision to take proper vaccinations when we are little by our parents could save us from many fatal diseases later on. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions to lead a healthier lifestyle today may save us from traumatic times </li></ul>
  • 20. Sources And References <ul><li>http://www.decisionmaking.org/good_judgment_in_decision_making.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3011 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hakia.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cancerpage.com/centers/Illustrations/index.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dawn.com/2006/08/04/local1.htm </li></ul>
  • 21. Sources And References <ul><li>http://warriors.warren.k12.il.us/dburke/human_body_fact_sheet.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.com/images </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_development </li></ul>

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