Lyme Disease


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Lyme Disease

  1. 1. LYME DISEASE Ninfa Pe ña-Purcell, PhD, CHES
  2. 2. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>Define Lyme disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what causes Lyme disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe symptoms and signs of Lyme disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss ways to protect against Lyme disease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Lyme disease? <ul><li>Most common tick/insect-borne disease in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>A disease that can cause skin, joint, heart and nervous system problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyme disease can affect people of all ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut where it was first described in 1976. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What causes Lyme disease? <ul><li>Caused by a specialized type of bacteria called spirochete. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by the bite of an infected tick or flea. Other insects that feed on animal blood may be involved. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ticks that cause Lyme disease <ul><li>Black-legged (or deer) tick: Transmits Lyme disease to humans. Found in north-central and northeastern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Lone star tick: Found in Texas and has been know to transmit Lyme disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky Mountain tick: Can transmit Lyme disease as well as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ticks that cause Lyme disease Black-legged Tick Lone Star Tick Rocky Mountain Tick
  7. 7. <ul><li>Two stages of Lyme disease: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 (Early stage) – 3 to 30 days after bite. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms develop within 7 – 14 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms include fatigue, headache, fever and chills, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and, a non-productive cough. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin lesion(s) may appear as a small red circular rash around the bite and expand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary skin rashes appear in nearly 80% of individuals with Lyme disease. </li></ul></ul>Lyme Disease: Signs and Symptoms
  8. 8. Lyme Disease – Skin Rash <ul><li>Multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Erythema </li></ul><ul><li>Migrans </li></ul><ul><li>(Skin rash) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lyme Disease: Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Two stages of Lyme disease: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage II (Late) – May occur weeks or months after the onset of Lyme disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe headache and neck pain or stiffness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthritis will develop in 60% of patients weeks or months after infection (rarely more than 2 years). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifteen percent of people infected with Lyme disease develop neurological symptoms, including psychiatric problems. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Diagnosing Lyme Disease <ul><li>Notify a doctor if you become ill after being bitten by a tick. </li></ul><ul><li>A diagnosis will be made based on clinical signs and symptoms and the results of a blood test. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preventing Lyme Disease <ul><li>Take protective measures when outdoors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear light-colored clothing so that ticks can be easily seen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuck pants into boots or socks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a repellant containing DEET. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk in the center of trails, and avoid contact with high grass and brush at trail edges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep pets free of ticks. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How to remove a tick <ul><li>Use tweezers to grasp the tick at the surface of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>If tweezers are not available, use a tissue to protect your fingers. (Exposure to the tick’s fluids may lead to transmission of the disease). </li></ul><ul><li>With a steady motion, pull the tick straight out. </li></ul><ul><li>After removing tick, disinfect the bite site, and wash hands with soap and water. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other facts <ul><li>Lyme disease cannot be transmitted person-to-person. </li></ul><ul><li>People being treated with antibiotics for Lyme disease should not donate blood. Scientists have found that the Lyme disease bacteria can live in blood stored for donation. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot get Lyme disease from eating venison or squirrel meat. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions?
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). Lyme disease. Retrieved on March 18, 2008 from ncidod/dvbid/lyme/index.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Department of State Health Services (2005). Lyme disease. (No. 7-35). Austin, TX: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Rawlings, J. (1999). Lyme Disease in Texas. Disease Prevention News 59 (10) 1-4. </li></ul>