논문 작성  ( 총론 ) Jung Yong Ahn, MD, PhD Department of Neurosurgery Yonsei University College of Medicine
Agony of Beginners <ul><li>Why? - Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>What?  - Rarity, Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>How? - Teacher ...
Reasons given for not writing <ul><li>Not enough time </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to write about </li></ul><ul><li>No one to...
Reasons why we write <ul><li>Gain intellectual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Share ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Report research...
What is Clinical Research? <ul><li>“ ··· a component of medical and health research intended to produce knowledge essentia...
Medical Research Questions <ul><li>What is the problem  ( Symptomatology ) </li></ul><ul><li>How big is the problem ( Inci...
Intracranial aneurysms in Medline <ul><li>Genome screen to detect linkage to intracranial aneurysm susceptibility genes. T...
Writing models for beginners (I) <ul><li>Interest: Literature review and Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of Topic and Com...
Writing models for beginners (II) <ul><li>Difficult to write an original article </li></ul><ul><li>Leading models appropri...
Some Suggestions <ul><li>Choose a target journal(s) and write for it </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a clear message </li></ul><u...
Determinants of Publication <ul><li>Interest to target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection rate </li></ul><ul><li>Recent ...
Choose a target Journal <ul><li>Top journals vs. lower status journals </li></ul><ul><li>Top 5 general medical journals: N...
Top Journal <ul><li>Well planned, Well implemented + Good Luck </li></ul><ul><li>시간이 촉박하지 않다면 , rejection rate 이 높은  journ...
Top journal or lower journal? <ul><li>If you are feeling patient, and several rejections will not hurt your ego, aim top (...
Literature Review
Medline Search <ul><li>PubMed:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez </li></ul><ul><li>SCIRUS:  http://www.scirus.com/sr...
General Neurosurgery Journals <ul><li>Neurosurgery (2.587)  </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurosurgery (2.446)  </li></ul...
General Neurology-Neurosurgery Journals <ul><li>Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry (3.122)  </li></ul><ul...
General Neurology Journals <ul><li>Lancet Neurology (12.167)  </li></ul><ul><li>Annals of Neurology (7.571)  </li></ul><...
Neuroradiology Journals <ul><li>Neuroimage (5.288) </li></ul><ul><li>American Journal of Neuroradiology (2.525) </li></ul>...
Neuropathology Journals <ul><li>Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (4.471) </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Patho...
Subspecialty Journals (I) <ul><li>Stroke (5.855) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrovascular Disease (2.319) </li></ul><ul><li>Spine...
Subspecialty Journals (II) <ul><li>Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology (1.141) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurogenetics (0.94...
Topic Neurosurgery Neurology Radiology Others <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrinolog...
Translational Research (I) <ul><li>PCR, RT-PCR, DNA microarray…. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate gene study </li></ul><ul><li>...
Translational Research (II) <ul><li>Role of Homocysteine in the Post-stroke Depression  (Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Cl...
Case Report <ul><li>Miscellany: British Journal of Neurosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: Archives of Neurology </li...
Review Articles <ul><li>Current Opinion in Neurology   </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet Neurology   </li></ul><ul><li>What’s new...
논문 준비 사항 Figure Journal  review Select journal Data analysis Table manuscript TOPIC, IDEA
논문의 구성 <ul><li>Cover letter </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul...
Cover Letter <ul><li>Dear Editor, </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to submit our article entitled “Endovascular treatment of...
Instruction for authors/Copyright
Check List
Authors contributions <ul><li>Study concept and design </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of data </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis an...
Written Consent for Publication
논문 투고의 예 <ul><li>Competing interests </li></ul><ul><li>The authors declare that there are no competing interests. </li></u...
Summary <ul><li>문헌 고찰을 열심히 </li></ul><ul><li>전문분야에서 다양한 학문적  Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Bench marking </li></ul><ul><li>전문성있는 ...
Conclusions 논문의 활성화 Translational research Co-work System  High quality article
논문 작성  ( 각론 ) Jung Yong Ahn, MD, PhD Department of Neurosurgery Yonsei University College of Medicine
논문의 구성 성분 <ul><li>Cover letter </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>References </li><...
Title page <ul><li>Article Type </li></ul><ul><li>Full Title of the Paper </li></ul><ul><li>All Authors’ Full Names (Highe...
Title Page Title Authors affiliation Address of corresponding author Author
Title <ul><li>Keyword 를 나열 </li></ul><ul><li>모자라면  subtitle: be  동사 , of </li></ul><ul><li>100 자 이내 </li></ul><ul><li>단순 ,...
Title <ul><li>Result, Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Relation, relationship, correlation, association </li></ul><ul><li>Changes...
Author <ul><li>ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) </li></ul><ul><li>연구의 개념 설정 ,  디자인 ,  자료획득 ,  분석...
Abstract Backgrounds Objectives 독자의 호기심을 자극 Methods Results 호기심을 충족 Conclusions 명확하고 강렬한 메시지가 필요 전문을 읽을 욕구
Abstract <ul><li>250 자 이내 </li></ul><ul><li>Structured abstract: Background, Objective, Design, Subjects, Measurements, Re...
Introduction <ul><li>연구주제의 설명 ,  의의 및 중요성을 서술 </li></ul><ul><li>참고자료의 분석 및 서술 </li></ul><ul><li>It is well known (document...
Introduction <ul><li>Recent advances in ~ have provided an opportunity for  </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable progress has be...
Introduction <ul><li>알려져 있지 않은 사실이나 논쟁의 여지가 있는 사항을 서술 :  연구목적의 필요성을 유도 </li></ul><ul><li>However, ~ has not been determine...
Introduction <ul><li>주된 연구목적을 간략히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>The aim (purpose, objective, goal) of this study was to evaluate ~....
Methods <ul><li>Study designs </li></ul><ul><li>Patient selections  </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion or exclusion criteria </li...
Methods <ul><li>연구가 진행된 순서에 따라 혹은 연구 내용의 형태에 따라 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>독자가 실험을 재현할 수 있도록 상세히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>사용한 실험 동물과...
Results <ul><li>Data:  연구가 진행된 순서 혹은 중요한  Data 부터 나열 </li></ul><ul><li>Data 는 본문에는 최소한 ,  대부분은  Figure or table </li></ul>...
Discussion <ul><li>연구의 목적을 간략히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>연구 결과 중 그 대답을 지지하는 결과를 제시 </li></ul><ul><li>The first objective of thi...
Conclusion, Summary <ul><li>저자의 연구성적에 바탕을 둔 것으로 정리 </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that~, It is concluded that ~, The results...
Acknowledgments <ul><li>저자 자신이 근무하고 있는 연구소나 병원의 연구자로부터 도움을 받았으나 그 논문의 저자로는 자격이 없은 경우 </li></ul><ul><li>The authors thank ~...
Footnote <ul><li>각주는 연구 방법을 규정할 때 ,  통계학적 처리 상태를 표시할 때 ,  </li></ul><ul><li>약어를  설명할 때 ,  표가 인용된 문헌 등을 언급할 때 사용한다 .  </li>...
명사 <ul><li>복수형으로 쓸수 없는  Uncountable nouns </li></ul><ul><li>evidence, literature, information, percent, ascites, managemen...
명사에 대한 적합한 형용사의 사용방법 <ul><li>fast  reaction:  slow  reaction </li></ul><ul><li>profuse  discharge:  scanty  discharge </li...
형용사 <ul><li>형용사의 위치 </li></ul><ul><li>exact  evaluation of mechanism of MCT (X) </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of  exact  me...
형용사의 비교급 <ul><li>than  다음에 대명사 ,  전치사 ,  대동사 혹은 조동사를 필요로 할 경우가 있으니 주의해야 한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>Higher concentrations were ...
확률부사 ,  형용사  <ul><li>확률을 나타내는 부사에는 여러 가지가 있으나 ,  그 사전상의 의미로는 정확한 사용이 어렵다 .  </li></ul><ul><li>연구결과 (results) 에서  % 로 기술된 데...
빈도부사  <ul><li>빈도부사를  % 로 기억해 두면 고찰 (discussion) 부분을 기술하는데 유용하다 . </li></ul><ul><li>always : 100% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>us...
가능한 한  not 을 사용하여 부정문을 만들지 않는다 <ul><li>A compound of this sort was  not available . (X) </li></ul><ul><li>->  A compound o...
수 ,  서수 , 부호 ,  기호의 표기법 <ul><li>수  (numeral),  서수  (ordinal number),  부호 ,  기호를 문두에 두지 않는다 . </li></ul><ul><li>3  ->  Thre...
동사 <ul><li>긴 문장에서 동사를 끝에 놓지 않는다  ( dangling phrase )  </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of thickened mucosa in the maxillary s...
자주 보는 영작문 오류 <ul><li>culture, specific test  에  positive, negative 사용하며 , CT scans, radiographic studies, isotope scans  등...
사족  (Redundant Word) 를 사용한  영작문 오류 <ul><li>advance  planning  outside  of </li></ul><ul><li>red  in color   true  fact </l...
구어  ( Jargon ) <ul><li>blood sugar ->  blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>emergency room  -> emergency department </li></ul><...
병렬구문  (Parallel Construction) <ul><li>병렬문장에서는 병렬구조 ( 명사 - 명사 ,  구 - 구 등 ) 을 사용한다 </li></ul><ul><li>부정법이 병렬연결 : </li></ul><...
이태릭체의 사용법 <ul><li>동 ,  식물 학명 </li></ul><ul><li>Ambrosia trifida, Streptococcus pneumoniae </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens <...
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논문 작성 (총론) Jung Yong Ahn, MD, PhD

  1. 1. 논문 작성 ( 총론 ) Jung Yong Ahn, MD, PhD Department of Neurosurgery Yonsei University College of Medicine
  2. 2. Agony of Beginners <ul><li>Why? - Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>What? - Rarity, Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>How? - Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Where? - JNS, Neurosurgery </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reasons given for not writing <ul><li>Not enough time </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to write about </li></ul><ul><li>No one to work with in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of secretarial support </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge as to how to research information </li></ul><ul><li>No mentor for writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>No motivation </li></ul><ul><li>No self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know how to start </li></ul><ul><li>“ I hate writing!” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons why we write <ul><li>Gain intellectual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Share ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Report research </li></ul><ul><li>Generate discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Advance one’s discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Attain promotion/tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance one’s personal reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve some small measure of immortality by </li></ul><ul><li>publishing our ideas </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Clinical Research? <ul><li>“ ··· a component of medical and health research intended to produce knowledge essential for understanding human disease, preventing and treating illness. Clinical research embraces a continuum of studies involving interaction with patients, clinical materials or data, or population ···” </li></ul><ul><li>- a broad definition from AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) Task Force on Clinical Research (2000) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Medical Research Questions <ul><li>What is the problem ( Symptomatology ) </li></ul><ul><li>How big is the problem ( Incidence ) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cause or mechanism ( Pathophysiology ) </li></ul><ul><li>How can we diagnoses ( Diagnosis ) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the therapy ( Treatment ) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the prognosis ( Prognosis, Outcome ) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance/control ( Quality of Life ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intracranial aneurysms in Medline <ul><li>Genome screen to detect linkage to intracranial aneurysm susceptibility genes. The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm Study. Stroke (Pathophysiology, Incidence) </li></ul><ul><li>Predictors and outcomes of intraprocedural rupture in patients treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The CARAT study. Stroke (Prognosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for the surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery (Treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration of intracranial arteries and development of aneurysms: a follow-up study. Neurology (Pathophysiology) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of post-procedure changes in aneurysmal lumen following detachable coil-placement using multi-planar reconstruction of high-field MRA. Acta Neurochir (Diagnosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring papilledema with Heidelberg RetinaTomograph in ruptured aneurysm patients. Surg Neurol (Symptomatology) </li></ul><ul><li>Coiling versus clipping for the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a longitudinal investigation into cognitive outcome. Neurology (Prognosis, Quality of life) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing models for beginners (I) <ul><li>Interest: Literature review and Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of Topic and Communication </li></ul><ul><li>기초 - 임상 , 임상분야 </li></ul><ul><li>Bench marking </li></ul><ul><li>Database: primary or secondary </li></ul>
  9. 9. Writing models for beginners (II) <ul><li>Difficult to write an original article </li></ul><ul><li>Leading models appropriate for neophyte writers: review articles, case reports, editorials, letters, book reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Case reports: So what? And where will my article be published? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some Suggestions <ul><li>Choose a target journal(s) and write for it </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a clear message </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve high quality in your writing </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to reviewer’s comments </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with the editors </li></ul><ul><li>R.Brian Haynes et al. Clinical Epidemiology-How to Do Clinical Practice Research. 3 rd ed. LWW 2005 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Determinants of Publication <ul><li>Interest to target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection rate </li></ul><ul><li>Recent publication on the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the findings are “positive” or “negative” </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the findings are newsworthy in editor’s view </li></ul><ul><li>Who your article is sent to as reviewers </li></ul><ul><li>How well you have written the article </li></ul>
  12. 12. Choose a target Journal <ul><li>Top journals vs. lower status journals </li></ul><ul><li>Top 5 general medical journals: NEJM, Lancet, JAMA, BMJ, Ann Intern Med </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of journals </li></ul><ul><li>- General journals </li></ul><ul><li>- Subspecialty journals </li></ul>
  13. 13. Top Journal <ul><li>Well planned, Well implemented + Good Luck </li></ul><ul><li>시간이 촉박하지 않다면 , rejection rate 이 높은 journal 에 도전 가능 </li></ul><ul><li>Top journals </li></ul><ul><li>-Accept 되지 않을 가능성이 높다 </li></ul><ul><li>-Review process 가 빠른 편이다 ( 빠르면 수시간 , 대부분 3 개월 내 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-Review comment 가 논문 수준을 높이는데 도움을 줄 수 있음 </li></ul><ul><li>- 글자수 제한이 매우 엄격함 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Top journal or lower journal? <ul><li>If you are feeling patient, and several rejections will not hurt your ego, aim top (high) journals. </li></ul><ul><li>If impatience and vulnerability characterize your psychological state, choose a lower status journal more likely to accept your paper on first submission. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Literature Review
  16. 16. Medline Search <ul><li>PubMed:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez </li></ul><ul><li>SCIRUS: http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/advanced/index.jsp?q1 = </li></ul><ul><li>Google: http://scholar.google.co.kr/ </li></ul><ul><li>Cochrane Library: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/cochrane_search_fs.html </li></ul><ul><li>ISI Web of knowledge: http://apps.isiknowledge.com/UA_GeneralSearch_input.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&SID=N154hLJpi@EnJPA@Dcj&preferencesSaved= </li></ul>
  17. 17. General Neurosurgery Journals <ul><li>Neurosurgery (2.587)  </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurosurgery (2.446)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurosurgical Review (1.425)  </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical Neurology (1.142)  </li></ul><ul><li>Acta Neurochirurgica (1.064)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurosurgical Clinic of North America (0.851)  </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Invasive Neurosurgery (0.75)  </li></ul><ul><li>British Journal of Neurosurgery (0.568)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurogia Medico-chirurgica (0.393)  </li></ul>
  18. 18. General Neurology-Neurosurgery Journals <ul><li>Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry (3.122)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological Research (1.638)  </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery (1.089)  </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Journal of Neurological Science (1.126)  </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Clinical Neuroscience (0.665)  </li></ul>
  19. 19. General Neurology Journals <ul><li>Lancet Neurology (12.167)  </li></ul><ul><li>Annals of Neurology (7.571)  </li></ul><ul><li>Brain (7.535)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurology (4.947)  </li></ul><ul><li>Archives of Neurology (4.9)  </li></ul><ul><li>Current Opinion in Neurology (4.873)  </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalagia (4.657)  </li></ul><ul><li>Headache (2.455)  </li></ul><ul><li>European Journal of Neurology (2.244)  </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurological Science (2.035)  </li></ul><ul><li>Acta Neurologia Scandinavica (1.982)  </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar of Neurology (1.548)  </li></ul><ul><li>Neurologist (1.486)  </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatric Neurology (1.368)  </li></ul><ul><li>European Neurology (1.056)  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Neuroradiology Journals <ul><li>Neuroimage (5.288) </li></ul><ul><li>American Journal of Neuroradiology (2.525) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neuroimaging (1.558) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroradiology (1.488) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neuroradiology (0.606) </li></ul><ul><li>Interventional Neuroradiology (0.124) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Neuropathology Journals <ul><li>Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (4.471) </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Pathology (4.041) </li></ul><ul><li>Acta Neuropathologica (2.527) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuropathology (1.167) </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Neuropathology (0.918) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Subspecialty Journals (I) <ul><li>Stroke (5.855) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrovascular Disease (2.319) </li></ul><ul><li>Spine (2.187) </li></ul><ul><li>European Spine Journal (1.763) </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord (1.067) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine (1.222) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Spinal Disorder and technique (1.538) </li></ul>Vascular <ul><li>Journal of Neuro-Oncology (2.325) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro-Oncology (4.15) </li></ul>Tumor Pediatric <ul><li>Pediatric Neurosurgery (1.049) </li></ul><ul><li>Childs Nervous System (0.957) </li></ul>Spine Trauma <ul><li>Journal of Neurotrauma (2.574) </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Injury (1.471) </li></ul>Functional <ul><li>Stereotactic Functional Neurosurgery (0.951) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Subspecialty Journals (II) <ul><li>Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology (1.141) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurogenetics (0.944) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurogenetics (2.938) </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsia (3.227) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurophysiology (3.853) </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Neurophysiology (2.64) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology (1.544) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroendocrinology (2.65) </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Endocrinology (3.412) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurocritcal Care (0.527) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Care (2.932) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Topic Neurosurgery Neurology Radiology Others <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrinology </li></ul><ul><li>Critical care </li></ul><ul><li>Symptomatology </li></ul>Pathology
  25. 25. Translational Research (I) <ul><li>PCR, RT-PCR, DNA microarray…. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate gene study </li></ul><ul><li>Gene expression study </li></ul><ul><li>Familial gene search </li></ul><ul><li>New instrument or Drug </li></ul><ul><li>Cell therapy </li></ul>
  26. 26. Translational Research (II) <ul><li>Role of Homocysteine in the Post-stroke Depression (Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, In press) </li></ul><ul><li>ACE I/D Polymorphism in Korean Patients with Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes (Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Differential gene expression distinguishing branching aneurysms from non-branching aneurysms by DNA microarray (Stroke, In press) </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing intracranial angioplasty (IRB, In study) </li></ul><ul><li>The association of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 VNTR polymorphisms with intracranial stent restenosis (IRB, In study) </li></ul><ul><li>The association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity and polymorphism with growth rate of menningioma (IRB, In study) </li></ul><ul><li>G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells therapy for acute stroke: A comparative study (Cell Transplantation, In press) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Case Report <ul><li>Miscellany: British Journal of Neurosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: Archives of Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Images in Neurology: Archives of Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroimages: Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: Neuro-Oncology </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical correspondence: Cephalagia </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Notes: Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Short reports: JNNP </li></ul><ul><li>Short communications: Journal of Neurological Science, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Short Illustrative Review: Acta Neurochirurgica </li></ul>
  28. 28. Review Articles <ul><li>Current Opinion in Neurology  </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet Neurology  </li></ul><ul><li>What’s new? </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics of intracranial aneurysm (Neurosurgery 60, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment trials in human spinal cord injury (Neurosurgery 59, </li></ul><ul><li>2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and answers </li></ul><ul><li>What are safe anticonvulsants to use in pregnancy? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the benefit from skull base surgery? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the early signs of dissecting aneurysm? </li></ul><ul><li>Current controversies </li></ul><ul><li>Ischemic stroke: Urokinase, r-TPA, thrombolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of cerebral aneurysms: coiling or clipping </li></ul><ul><li>The ethical issues in stem cell transplantation </li></ul>
  29. 29. 논문 준비 사항 Figure Journal review Select journal Data analysis Table manuscript TOPIC, IDEA
  30. 30. 논문의 구성 <ul><li>Cover letter </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Figure legends </li></ul><ul><li>Figures </li></ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of authors </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution of authors </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure of state </li></ul><ul><li>-ments </li></ul>Oncology Conclusions Patients Methods Results Introduction Discussion
  31. 31. Cover Letter <ul><li>Dear Editor, </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to submit our article entitled “Endovascular treatment of intracranial vertebral artery dissections with stents and/or detachable coils” to be considered for publication in your journal. In this manuscript, we are reporting the efficacy and limitations of endovascular treatment with stents and/or detachable coils for intracranial vertebral artery dissections. Occlusion of the dissection site or proximal occlusion with detachable coils is the current method of choice to prevent subsequent rupture in the acute stage. The use of stents with or without detachable coils in the treatment for the ruptured dissecting pseudoaneurysms seems to be fascinating, however, it may not be sufficient therapy in the acute stage. These methods are useful in treating the unruptured dissecting aneurysms and ruptured dissecting aneurysms in the subacute or chronic stage after the wall of the lesion becomes stable. Due to these reasons, we hope that our manuscript to be carefully read and found suitable for publication in American Journal of Neuroradiology . </li></ul><ul><li>Sincerely, </li></ul><ul><li>Jung Yong Ahn, MD </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Neurosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Yonsei University College of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>146-92, Dogok-dong, Kangnam-gu </li></ul><ul><li>Seoul, 135-720, Republic of Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: +82-2-2019-3391 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: +82-2-3461-9229 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail : jyahn@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr </li></ul>
  32. 32. Instruction for authors/Copyright
  33. 33. Check List
  34. 34. Authors contributions <ul><li>Study concept and design </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of data </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and interpretation of data </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting of the manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Critical revision for important intellectual content </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative, technical and material support </li></ul><ul><li>Study supervision </li></ul>
  35. 35. Written Consent for Publication
  36. 36. 논문 투고의 예 <ul><li>Competing interests </li></ul><ul><li>The authors declare that there are no competing interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors’ contributions </li></ul><ul><li>JYA conceptualized the study, gathered the data and drafted the manuscript. JHC participated in Gamma Knife radiosurgery and took charge of post-operative managements together with JYA. SHK carried out the pathologic studies. KSL supervised the process and finally approved the manuscript for been published. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Written consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>문헌 고찰을 열심히 </li></ul><ul><li>전문분야에서 다양한 학문적 Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Bench marking </li></ul><ul><li>전문성있는 잡지에 투고 </li></ul><ul><li>교훈적이고 , 일관성 있게 논문을 쓰는 훈련 </li></ul><ul><li>고급 통계를 이용하여 논문의 질 향상 </li></ul><ul><li>타 분야와의 학문적 교류 </li></ul><ul><li>Translational research 의 확대 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusions 논문의 활성화 Translational research Co-work System High quality article
  39. 39. 논문 작성 ( 각론 ) Jung Yong Ahn, MD, PhD Department of Neurosurgery Yonsei University College of Medicine
  40. 40. 논문의 구성 성분 <ul><li>Cover letter </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Figure legends </li></ul><ul><li>Figures </li></ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of authors </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution of authors </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure of state </li></ul><ul><li>-ments </li></ul>Oncology Conclusions Patients Methods Results Introduction Discussion
  41. 41. Title page <ul><li>Article Type </li></ul><ul><li>Full Title of the Paper </li></ul><ul><li>All Authors’ Full Names (Highest Academic Degree) </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental and Institutional Affiliations </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Author Information </li></ul><ul><li>Running Title </li></ul><ul><li>Page Number, 1 st Author </li></ul>
  42. 42. Title Page Title Authors affiliation Address of corresponding author Author
  43. 43. Title <ul><li>Keyword 를 나열 </li></ul><ul><li>모자라면 subtitle: be 동사 , of </li></ul><ul><li>100 자 이내 </li></ul><ul><li>단순 , 간결하게 작성 </li></ul><ul><li>연구목적과 부합되는 내용 </li></ul><ul><li>정확하고 구체적인 용어 사용 , 추상적이고 모호한 표현은 삼가 </li></ul><ul><li>단어 배열 순서에 유의 </li></ul><ul><li>약어 , 속어 , 상품명은 제외할 것 </li></ul><ul><li>예 : Clipping vs coiling of posterior communicating artery aneurysms with third nerve palsy (Neurology 66: 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>예 : Treatment of spontaneous arterial dissections with stent placement for preservation of the parent artery (Acta Neurochir 147, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>예 : Endovascular thrombolysis and stenting of a middle cerebral artery occlusion beyond 6 hours post-attack: Special reference to the usefulness of diffusion-perfusion MRI (Neurol Res 28, 2006) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Title <ul><li>Result, Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Relation, relationship, correlation, association </li></ul><ul><li>Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Disease entity </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison, compared </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul>
  45. 45. Author <ul><li>ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) </li></ul><ul><li>연구의 개념 설정 , 디자인 , 자료획득 , 분석과 해석 </li></ul><ul><li>초안 작성 , 지식적 내용을 포함하는 논문 수정 </li></ul><ul><li>출간을 위한 마지막 점점 </li></ul><ul><li>자격이 없는 경우 : 연구자와 같은 팀의 구성원 , 소속과장 , 연구실 또는 실험실의 책임자 , 증례를 제공한 사람 혹은 주치의 </li></ul><ul><li>Acknoledgment </li></ul>
  46. 46. Abstract Backgrounds Objectives 독자의 호기심을 자극 Methods Results 호기심을 충족 Conclusions 명확하고 강렬한 메시지가 필요 전문을 읽을 욕구
  47. 47. Abstract <ul><li>250 자 이내 </li></ul><ul><li>Structured abstract: Background, Objective, Design, Subjects, Measurements, Results, Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>종설 : Objective, Data sources, Study selection </li></ul><ul><li>약어 </li></ul><ul><li>Key word: PubMed 의 MeSH browser </li></ul>
  48. 48. Introduction <ul><li>연구주제의 설명 , 의의 및 중요성을 서술 </li></ul><ul><li>참고자료의 분석 및 서술 </li></ul><ul><li>It is well known (documented, established) that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>It has generally been accepted (demonstrated, reported) that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely assumed that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>It has long been recognized (proposed) that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>There is general consensus (evidence) that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>There has been general reluctance to term~ </li></ul><ul><li>The results of ~ indicated that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately ~% of ~ arise from </li></ul><ul><li>~ account for ( 빈도 : less than 3%) of ~ , It is estimated that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>~ exist in the literature </li></ul>
  49. 49. Introduction <ul><li>Recent advances in ~ have provided an opportunity for </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable progress has been made recently toward </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous attempts have been made to </li></ul><ul><li>Some controversy has existed concerning ~ </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence continues to accumulate indicating that </li></ul><ul><li>Findings of ~ have been used to </li></ul><ul><li>No information is available on </li></ul>
  50. 50. Introduction <ul><li>알려져 있지 않은 사실이나 논쟁의 여지가 있는 사항을 서술 : 연구목적의 필요성을 유도 </li></ul><ul><li>However, ~ has not been determined (entirely understood) </li></ul><ul><li>There has been considerable disagreement regarding the ~ </li></ul><ul><li>There is also controversy about ~ </li></ul><ul><li>There has been relatively little information (few reports) in the ~ </li></ul><ul><li>To (the best of) our knowledge, ~ </li></ul><ul><li>This study is the first evaluation of ~ </li></ul><ul><li>No study has examined ~ </li></ul>
  51. 51. Introduction <ul><li>주된 연구목적을 간략히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>The aim (purpose, objective, goal) of this study was to evaluate ~. </li></ul><ul><li>This study was designed to ~. </li></ul><ul><li>The current study attempts to determine whether~ </li></ul><ul><li>To confirm ~, we conducted ~ </li></ul><ul><li>In order to characterized ~, ~ were investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the intention of this study to provide ~ </li></ul><ul><li>This research was carried out to demonstrate ~ </li></ul><ul><li>We compared (undertook) ~ </li></ul><ul><li>This review describes ~ </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to answer the question, we have reviewed our experience </li></ul><ul><li>In this study, we report a case of ~ </li></ul><ul><li>문헌 고찰 사항은 현재 시제 </li></ul><ul><li>The authors or We, Investigators or Reporter or Researchers, Many physician </li></ul><ul><li>연구자 이름은 가능한 자제 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Methods <ul><li>Study designs </li></ul><ul><li>Patient selections </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion or exclusion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul>
  53. 53. Methods <ul><li>연구가 진행된 순서에 따라 혹은 연구 내용의 형태에 따라 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>독자가 실험을 재현할 수 있도록 상세히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>사용한 실험 동물과 개체수를구체적으로 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>International System of Units (SI Unit) </li></ul><ul><li>m, kg, mL, °C, Hz </li></ul><ul><li>시약 , Kit, 기계는 괄호 속에 모델번호 , 제작회사명 , 도시명 , 국가명을 기입 </li></ul><ul><li>과거 시제로 , 수동태로 주로 기술 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Results <ul><li>Data: 연구가 진행된 순서 혹은 중요한 Data 부터 나열 </li></ul><ul><li>Data 는 본문에는 최소한 , 대부분은 Figure or table </li></ul><ul><li>실측지보다는 백분율의 변동을 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>Data 를 먼저 기술하고 , 의의를 설명함 </li></ul><ul><li>비교문은 Compare with 보다는 than </li></ul><ul><li>P-value 는 가능한 그대로 기술 </li></ul>
  55. 55. Discussion <ul><li>연구의 목적을 간략히 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>연구 결과 중 그 대답을 지지하는 결과를 제시 </li></ul><ul><li>The first objective of this study was achieved </li></ul><ul><li>연구 결과와 합치되는 참고문헌을 제시 </li></ul><ul><li>Results of the present study correspond with the earlier study which </li></ul><ul><li>reported that </li></ul><ul><li>Our results confirmed (are consistent with) </li></ul><ul><li>In accordance with previous studies, </li></ul><ul><li>These results are in agreement with those of previous studies </li></ul><ul><li>These results are in close agreement with those of numerous authors </li></ul><ul><li>연구 결과의 새로운 점과 중요성을 지적 </li></ul><ul><li>Prove, demonstrate, document, show, indicate, suggest, imply, speculate, </li></ul><ul><li>suppose, assume, extapolate, infer, inspire, presume, postulate </li></ul><ul><li>예기치 않은 소견이 있으면 , 설명하고 고찰 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Conclusion, Summary <ul><li>저자의 연구성적에 바탕을 둔 것으로 정리 </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that~, It is concluded that ~, The results of this study confirm </li></ul><ul><li>In summary, this study demonstrates that ~ </li></ul><ul><li>These results provide evidence that </li></ul><ul><li>구체적인 수치나 Data 를 나열하지 않는다 . </li></ul><ul><li>도출한 결론에 입각하여 향후의 연구방향 , 기대효과를 부언할 수 있다 </li></ul><ul><li>Further studies will be required to , Future work will focus on the </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing trials with ~ will address </li></ul><ul><li>현재 시제로 기술 </li></ul><ul><li>Can>Will>Would>Should>May>Could>Might </li></ul>
  57. 57. Acknowledgments <ul><li>저자 자신이 근무하고 있는 연구소나 병원의 연구자로부터 도움을 받았으나 그 논문의 저자로는 자격이 없은 경우 </li></ul><ul><li>The authors thank ~ for supplying tumor tissues, and ~ for their skilled technical assistance, and ~ for preparation of the manuscript. </li></ul><ul><li>We would like to thank Dr.~ for his comments on the manuscript. </li></ul><ul><li>기술적 도움에 관한 감사 </li></ul><ul><li>후원의 내용을 구체적으로 밝힌 , 경제적 , 물질적 지원에 대한 감사 </li></ul><ul><li>This work was supported by ~. </li></ul><ul><li>이익의 상층을 야기시킬 관계 </li></ul>
  58. 58. Footnote <ul><li>각주는 연구 방법을 규정할 때 , 통계학적 처리 상태를 표시할 때 , </li></ul><ul><li>약어를 설명할 때 , 표가 인용된 문헌 등을 언급할 때 사용한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>어떤 학술지에서는 각주에 설명되어진 표 안의 각 항목에 윗 첨자 </li></ul><ul><li>(superscript) 로 번호 를 붙이도록 요구하는데 , 이는 제곱 , 세제곱 </li></ul><ul><li>같은 윗 첨자나 참고문헌 번호와 혼동되는 경우가 많다 . 따라서 </li></ul><ul><li>대부분의 학술지는 각주 기호 (footnote sign) 를 사용하는 것을 권장 </li></ul><ul><li>하고 있으며 , 영어 알파벳 소문자 를 윗 첨자 로 사용할 수도 있다 . </li></ul><ul><li>표에서 사용할 수 있는 각주 기호 (footnote sign) 의 일반적인 순서 </li></ul><ul><li>* † ‡ § ∥ ¶ # ** †† </li></ul>
  59. 59. 명사 <ul><li>복수형으로 쓸수 없는 Uncountable nouns </li></ul><ul><li>evidence, literature, information, percent, ascites, management, therapy, leukorrhea, childhood 등 </li></ul><ul><li>같은 명사가 여러 개 나열되는 경우 </li></ul><ul><li>figure 1, figure 3 and figure 8 (×) </li></ul><ul><li>figures 1, 3, and 8 (O) </li></ul><ul><li>The maxillary and ethmoidal sinues are infected (O) </li></ul><ul><li>The maxillary and the ethmoidal sinus are infected (O) </li></ul>
  60. 60. 명사에 대한 적합한 형용사의 사용방법 <ul><li>fast reaction: slow reaction </li></ul><ul><li>profuse discharge: scanty discharge </li></ul><ul><li>good [strong] possibility: bad [weak] possibility </li></ul><ul><li>strong intensity, activity, significance: weak intensity, activity, significance </li></ul><ul><li>high rate, prevalence, incidence, dose: low rate, prevalence, incidence, dose </li></ul><ul><li>☞ 무의식적으로 severe, mild 를 사용하는 사람이 많다 ! </li></ul>
  61. 61. 형용사 <ul><li>형용사의 위치 </li></ul><ul><li>exact evaluation of mechanism of MCT (X) </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of exact mechanism of MCT (O) </li></ul><ul><li>형용사의 어순 </li></ul><ul><li>thirty-two healthy young rabbits </li></ul><ul><li>부사의 위치 : 짧은 단어 가 앞에 위치한다 </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytic nevi look clinically like melanomas. </li></ul><ul><li>부사의 어순 : 장 소 , 방 법 , 빈 도 , 시 간의 순서로 나열한다 </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining fluid was centrifuged in a centrifuger </li></ul><ul><li>at 800 revolutions per minute three times for 5 minutes. </li></ul>
  62. 62. 형용사의 비교급 <ul><li>than 다음에 대명사 , 전치사 , 대동사 혹은 조동사를 필요로 할 경우가 있으니 주의해야 한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>Higher concentrations were found in the substance W than in the sub-stance T. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar gave lower swelling temperature than did equal quantities of </li></ul><ul><li>compound A. </li></ul><ul><li>The decrease in A was larger than that obtained for B. </li></ul><ul><li>The reactions of amine with macrolides proceed fivefold faster </li></ul><ul><li>than do those of the peptide. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flow to the thyroid gland is about one third of the renal blood flow.(X) </li></ul><ul><li>⇒ Blood flow to the thyroid gland is about one third of that to the kidney.(O) </li></ul>
  63. 63. 확률부사 , 형용사 <ul><li>확률을 나타내는 부사에는 여러 가지가 있으나 , 그 사전상의 의미로는 정확한 사용이 어렵다 . </li></ul><ul><li>연구결과 (results) 에서 % 로 기술된 데이터 숫자고찰 (discussion) 에서 그대로 인용하지 않고 , 확률부사 • 형용사를 사용하여 기술하게된다 . 따라서 각 부사•형용사가 가지는 대략의 확률을 기억해 두면 유용하다 . </li></ul><ul><li> probably : 대략 80%-90% 의 확률을 나타낸다 </li></ul><ul><li>likely : 대략 50% 의 확률을 나타낸다 </li></ul><ul><li>less likely (40%), least likely (30%) 나 more likely (60%), </li></ul><ul><li>most likely (70%) 를 활용할 수도 있다 </li></ul><ul><li>possibly = perhaps : 대략 10%-20% 의 확률을 나타낸다 </li></ul><ul><li>[ 참고 : maybe 는 주로 회화체에서 사용됨 ] </li></ul>
  64. 64. 빈도부사 <ul><li>빈도부사를 % 로 기억해 두면 고찰 (discussion) 부분을 기술하는데 유용하다 . </li></ul><ul><li>always : 100% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>usually : 대략 70% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>often : 대략 50% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>frequently : 대략 30% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes= occasionally : 대략 20% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>seldom : 대략 10% 의 빈도 </li></ul><ul><li>never : 0% 의 빈도 </li></ul>
  65. 65. 가능한 한 not 을 사용하여 부정문을 만들지 않는다 <ul><li>A compound of this sort was not available . (X) </li></ul><ul><li>-> A compound of this sort was unavailable. (0) </li></ul><ul><li>The molecular structure was not altered . (X) </li></ul><ul><li>-> No alteration was observed in its molecular (0) </li></ul><ul><li>structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for glandular formation was not obtained . (x) </li></ul><ul><li>-> No evidence for glandular formation was obtained.(o) </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare planners should not forget that laboratory medicine </li></ul><ul><li>is rapidly evolving. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Healthcare planners should remember that laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>medicine is rapidly evolving. </li></ul>
  66. 66. 수 , 서수 , 부호 , 기호의 표기법 <ul><li>수 (numeral), 서수 (ordinal number), 부호 , 기호를 문두에 두지 않는다 . </li></ul><ul><li>3 -> Three 또는 The 3 </li></ul><ul><li>+ -> Plus 또는 The + </li></ul><ul><li>β - -> Beta 또는 The β - </li></ul><ul><li>And, But 도 문두에 두지 않음 : And -> In addition, But -> However, </li></ul><ul><li>9 이하의 정수나 서수는 단어로 표기한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>one --- nine the first --- the ninth </li></ul><ul><li>10 이상의 정수나 서수는 숫자로 표기한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>10 --- 25 the 10 th --- the 25 th </li></ul><ul><li>한 문장에 정수나 서수가 여러 개 연결 될 때는 간결하게 표기한다 . </li></ul><ul><li>1, 3, 21, and 27 </li></ul><ul><li>the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 13th, and 24th </li></ul><ul><li>10-9 읽기 -> ten to the minus ninth power </li></ul>
  67. 67. 동사 <ul><li>긴 문장에서 동사를 끝에 놓지 않는다 ( dangling phrase ) </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of thickened mucosa in the maxillary sinus was done . (X) </li></ul><ul><li>-> Thickened mucosa was measured in the maxillary sinus. (O) </li></ul><ul><li>수동태 (passive voice) 를 잘못 사용한 문장 </li></ul><ul><li>1)All the tissues of the body are originated from the germ cell of the female. (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] are originated -> originate </li></ul><ul><li>2)Their ages were ranged from 25 to 62 years. (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] were ranged -> ranged </li></ul><ul><li>3)Subjects were consisted of 25 healthy men varying in age from 20 to 29. (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] were consisted -> consisted </li></ul><ul><li>4) A pain on the evening of March 14 was gradually worsened until March 23 </li></ul><ul><li>when the patient was admitted to this hospital. (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] was worsened -> worsened </li></ul><ul><li>5) Hallucination and delusion were abated . (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] were abated -> abated </li></ul><ul><li>6) The crisis of coma was decreased with the use of insulin. (X) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 수정 ] was decreased -> decreased </li></ul>
  68. 68. 자주 보는 영작문 오류 <ul><li>culture, specific test 에 positive, negative 사용하며 , CT scans, radiographic studies, isotope scans 등의 imaging methods 및 EEG, ECG 는 normal , abnormal 사용 </li></ul><ul><li>The electroencephalogram was positive in the temporal regions. </li></ul><ul><li>-> The electroencephalogram showed abnormalities in the temporal regions. </li></ul><ul><li>acute, chronic 은 질병의 상태 , 증상 등에서 기간을 표현할 때 사용한다 </li></ul><ul><li>chronic heroin users -> long-term heroin users </li></ul><ul><li>acute administration of penicillin -> immediate administration of penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>단어 percent 와 % 기호는 앞에 숫자가 있을 때만 사용한다 </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease was present in a small percent of the subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Heart disease was present in a small percentage of the subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>respectively( 각각 ) 과 respective( 각각의 ) 는 두 개 이상의 group 에서 1 대 1 의 관계를 표현할 때 사용한다 </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 rats were 12 and 14 weeks old, respectively . </li></ul><ul><li>-> The 2 rats were 12 and 14 weeks old. </li></ul><ul><li>-> The 1 rat in the control group and 1 rat in the treatment group were 12 and 14 weeks old, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 rats’ respective ages were 12 and 14 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>-> The 2 rats were 12 and 14 weeks old. </li></ul><ul><li>9 이하의 숫자와 10 이상의 숫자가 공존하면 숫자로 표기한다 </li></ul>
  69. 69. 사족 (Redundant Word) 를 사용한 영작문 오류 <ul><li>advance planning outside of </li></ul><ul><li>red in color true fact </li></ul><ul><li>2 out of 12 younger [older] than 50 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>brief in duration combine together </li></ul><ul><li>estimated at about ~ fewer in number </li></ul><ul><li>soft in consistency careful monitoring </li></ul>
  70. 70. 구어 ( Jargon ) <ul><li>blood sugar -> blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>emergency room -> emergency department </li></ul><ul><li>exam -> examination </li></ul><ul><li>lab -> laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>4+ albuminuria -> proteinuria (4+) </li></ul><ul><li>genitourinary infection -> genitourinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>left heart failure -> left ventricular failure </li></ul><ul><li>pap smear -> Papanicolaou test </li></ul><ul><li>symptomatology -> symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>maybe -> probably, possibly, perhaps </li></ul>
  71. 71. 병렬구문 (Parallel Construction) <ul><li>병렬문장에서는 병렬구조 ( 명사 - 명사 , 구 - 구 등 ) 을 사용한다 </li></ul><ul><li>부정법이 병렬연결 : </li></ul><ul><li>The text was written for residents, interns , and to help them teach their students. </li></ul><ul><li>-> The text was written to educate residents and interns and to help them teach their </li></ul><ul><li>students. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 구 + 구”가 병렬 연결 </li></ul><ul><li>There was a long delay between the purchase of a magnetic resonance imager and </li></ul><ul><li>when it started to be widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>-> There was a long delay between the purchase of a magnetic resonance imager and </li></ul><ul><li>its widespread use. </li></ul><ul><li>부사가 병렬연결 </li></ul><ul><li>Three patients either [ not only ] took their medication incorrectly or [ but also ] not at all. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Three patients took their medication either [ not only ] incorrectly or [ but also ] not at all. </li></ul>
  72. 72. 이태릭체의 사용법 <ul><li>동 , 식물 학명 </li></ul><ul><li>Ambrosia trifida, Streptococcus pneumoniae </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>잡지명 </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Neurosurgery, Acta Neurochirurgica </li></ul><ul><li>라틴어 </li></ul><ul><li>et al, e.g., etc., i.e., in vivo, in vitro </li></ul><ul><li>통계학 용어 </li></ul><ul><li>P -value, Multiple partial F -test, Student’s t -distribution </li></ul><ul><li>유전자 </li></ul><ul><li>NOS , ECO R1 </li></ul>
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