Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005

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Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005

  1. 1. Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005 Theatre Event 2.1
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Overview of the module </li></ul><ul><li>Basic structure of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Basic structure of the peripheral nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Overall functions of the nervous system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unit Outline <ul><li>5/52 unit </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre events </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Skills sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Room OB305 </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Poster presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Skills exams </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conditions Studied in the Module <ul><li>Spinal cord injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Guillan - Barre Syndrome (GB) </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke / Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Sclerosis (MS) </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson's Disease (PD) </li></ul><ul><li>Head Injuries (HI) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organisation of Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Sensory Motor Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  6. 6. Overview of the CNS
  7. 7. The Brain – component parts <ul><li>Cerebral Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lobes of the Brain
  9. 11. Brain stem
  10. 12. Cerebellum
  11. 13. Anatomy of the spinal cord <ul><li>Spinal nerves divide into dorsal and ventral roots near to the cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal roots carry afferent fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral roots carry efferent fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of cell bodies from nerve fibres gives a “H” or butterfly shape </li></ul><ul><li>Four extensions of grey matter project to wards the dorsal/ventral roots of the spinal cord = dorsal / ventral horns </li></ul>
  12. 14. Spinal cord
  13. 15. Spinal reflex
  14. 16. Grey and White matter, Nuceli and Tracts <ul><li>Grey matter </li></ul><ul><li>Areas rich in nerve cell bodies </li></ul><ul><li>White matter </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve processes (usually axons) often myelinated </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of nerve cell bodies with similar anatomical connection and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve processes sharing common connections and functions with tendency to follow the same course or pathway </li></ul>
  15. 17. Decussation of sensory / motor pathways <ul><li>Pathways conveying sensory information to a conscious level cross over (decussate) </li></ul><ul><li>The same is true of most descending pathways that control movement </li></ul><ul><li>In general each cerebral hemisphere perceives sensation from and controls the movement of the contra lateral side of the body </li></ul>
  16. 19. Principle Tracts <ul><li>Ascending </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal columns (Fasciculis Gracilis, Fasciculis Cuneatus) </li></ul><ul><li>Spinothalamic </li></ul><ul><li>Spinocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>Descending </li></ul><ul><li>Corticospinal </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibulospinal </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulospinal </li></ul><ul><li>Rubrospinal </li></ul>
  17. 21. Support Systems <ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular systems </li></ul><ul><li>Meninges </li></ul>
  18. 23. Cerebral arteries
  19. 25. Meninges
  20. 26. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) <ul><li>Divided into 2 halves </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (Afferent) </li></ul><ul><li>Motor (Efferent system) </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs of spinal nerves (CSP, TSP, LSP, Sacral, coccygeal ) </li></ul><ul><li>12 pairs of cranial nerves (originating from the brain stem) </li></ul>
  21. 27. Afferent, Efferent and Inter neurones <ul><li>Afferent Neurones </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cells that carry information from peripheral receptors to CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent Neurones </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cells that carry impulses away from the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Interneurones / Relay neurones </li></ul><ul><li>Make up the vast majority of neurones in the CNS </li></ul>
  22. 28. Afferent, efferent and interneurons
  23. 29. Essential reading <ul><li>Stokes, M (1998) Neurological physiotherapy. London: Mosby. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, S (2002) Neurological physiotherapy – a problem solving approach. 2 nd edition. New York: Churchill Livingston. </li></ul><ul><li>Trew, M and Everett, T (2001) Human Movement. 4 th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston. </li></ul>
  24. 30. Useful Websites <ul><li>http://fb4d.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.postgradmed.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emedicine.com </li></ul>
  25. 31. Study pack <ul><li>Study tasks that need to be completed for tutorial sessions are clearly outlined within the unit study pack. </li></ul><ul><li>Please note the study tasks for tutorial 2.1 and 2.2 </li></ul>

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