Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005
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Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005

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Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005 Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005 Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to the Neurology Module 2005 Theatre Event 2.1
  • Content
    • Overview of the module
    • Basic structure of the central nervous system
    • Basic structure of the peripheral nervous system
    • Overall functions of the nervous system
  • Unit Outline
    • 5/52 unit
    • Theatre events
    • Practical Tutorials
    • Tutorials
    • Workshops
    • Hydrotherapy
    • Skills sessions
    • Room OB305
    • Assessment
    • Poster presentation
    • Skills exams
  • Conditions Studied in the Module
    • Spinal cord injuries
    • Guillan - Barre Syndrome (GB)
    • Stroke / Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA)
    • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • Parkinson's Disease (PD)
    • Head Injuries (HI)
  • Organisation of Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Sensory Motor Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  • Overview of the CNS
  • The Brain – component parts
    • Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Cerebrum
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Basal Ganglia
    • Cerebellum
    • Brain stem
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
  • Lobes of the Brain
  •  
  •  
  • Brain stem
  • Cerebellum
  • Anatomy of the spinal cord
    • Spinal nerves divide into dorsal and ventral roots near to the cord.
    • Dorsal roots carry afferent fibres
    • Ventral roots carry efferent fibres
    • Separation of cell bodies from nerve fibres gives a “H” or butterfly shape
    • Four extensions of grey matter project to wards the dorsal/ventral roots of the spinal cord = dorsal / ventral horns
  • Spinal cord
  • Spinal reflex
  • Grey and White matter, Nuceli and Tracts
    • Grey matter
    • Areas rich in nerve cell bodies
    • White matter
    • Nerve processes (usually axons) often myelinated
    • Nuclei
    • Groups of nerve cell bodies with similar anatomical connection and functions
    • Tracts
    • Nerve processes sharing common connections and functions with tendency to follow the same course or pathway
  • Decussation of sensory / motor pathways
    • Pathways conveying sensory information to a conscious level cross over (decussate)
    • The same is true of most descending pathways that control movement
    • In general each cerebral hemisphere perceives sensation from and controls the movement of the contra lateral side of the body
  •  
  • Principle Tracts
    • Ascending
    • Dorsal columns (Fasciculis Gracilis, Fasciculis Cuneatus)
    • Spinothalamic
    • Spinocerebellar
    • Descending
    • Corticospinal
    • Vestibulospinal
    • Reticulospinal
    • Rubrospinal
  •  
  • Support Systems
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • Vascular systems
    • Meninges
  •  
  • Cerebral arteries
  •  
  • Meninges
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Divided into 2 halves
    • Sensory (Afferent)
    • Motor (Efferent system)
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves (CSP, TSP, LSP, Sacral, coccygeal )
    • 12 pairs of cranial nerves (originating from the brain stem)
  • Afferent, Efferent and Inter neurones
    • Afferent Neurones
    • Nerve cells that carry information from peripheral receptors to CNS
    • Efferent Neurones
    • Nerve cells that carry impulses away from the CNS
    • Interneurones / Relay neurones
    • Make up the vast majority of neurones in the CNS
  • Afferent, efferent and interneurons
  • Essential reading
    • Stokes, M (1998) Neurological physiotherapy. London: Mosby.
    • Edwards, S (2002) Neurological physiotherapy – a problem solving approach. 2 nd edition. New York: Churchill Livingston.
    • Trew, M and Everett, T (2001) Human Movement. 4 th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
  • Useful Websites
    • http://fb4d.com
    • http://www.postgradmed.com
    • http://www.emedicine.com
  • Study pack
    • Study tasks that need to be completed for tutorial sessions are clearly outlined within the unit study pack.
    • Please note the study tasks for tutorial 2.1 and 2.2