Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

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Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities
  2. 2. Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions - Risk Factors <ul><li>Disease-causing agents = pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemics = widespread outbreak of a disease in a community/region </li></ul><ul><li>Virulent = invading organism’s ability to resist treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Mulitfactorial Disease = caused by several factors </li></ul><ul><li>host (weakened) + susceptible (agent for disease present) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Risk Factors - You Can’t Control <ul><li>Heredity - parent’s </li></ul><ul><li>longevity and you </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes / CHD </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomal Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Aging - after 40 more </li></ul><ul><li>susceptible to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Conditions - harmful elements (drugs, chemicals, sanitation, pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunolgical competence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Risk Factors You Can Control <ul><li>Disease varies with socioeconomic status, culture, geographic location…. etc,etc . </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Inactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk Behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>- you get the idea!!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion * disease-producing organism the &quot;attackers&quot; <ul><li>Kissing / sexual relations / touching (direct or indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>Hands greatest source of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Autoinoculate - spread disease from one body part to another </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion <ul><li>Airborne Contact </li></ul><ul><li>sneezing / breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Food-borne Infection </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Animal-borne </li></ul><ul><li>dogs/cats - bites / insects carried / feces </li></ul><ul><li>Water-borne </li></ul><ul><li>drinking / washed food </li></ul><ul><li>Body - swimming / streams </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacteria single-celled organisms - plant-like / lacks chlorophyll most plentiful pathogen bacteria / causes disease by secreting toxins (poisonous). <ul><li>Three Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Spirilla </li></ul><ul><li>1000’s exist only approximately 100 cause disease in HUMANS </li></ul>
  8. 8. Staphylococcal Infections: <ul><li>present on our skin </li></ul><ul><li>break in epidermis allows staphylococcal to invade </li></ul><ul><li>infected wounds / acne </li></ul><ul><li>strep throat (severe sore throat) </li></ul><ul><li>scarlet fever, acute fever, sore throat, rash </li></ul><ul><li>rheumatic fever </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Shock Syndrome? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pneumonia: <ul><li>Pneumonia -bacterially caused….. </li></ul><ul><li>chronic cough, chest pain, chills, high fever, fluid accumulation in lungs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Legionnaire's Disease <ul><li>- bacterially generated disease </li></ul><ul><li>airborne transmission </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms similar to those of pneumonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly misdiagnosed and given wrong treatment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tuberculosis: <ul><li>bacterial infiltration of respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>transmitted among people by breathing air infected by coughing or sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>persistent coughing, weight loss, fever, and spitting up blood </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk - fighting disease / HIV - Related Diseases </li></ul>
  12. 12. Periodontal Diseases <ul><li>Diseases of tissues surrounding the teeth </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 of adults over 35years </li></ul><ul><li>result of poor teeth brushing/flossing </li></ul><ul><li>not getting regular check ups at dentist </li></ul>
  13. 13. Viruses minute parasitic microbes that live inside another cell <ul><li>1/500th the size of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>approx. 150 cause disease in humans </li></ul><ul><li>consist of protein structure - DNA or RNA </li></ul><ul><li>no capacity for cellular function (i.e. respiration/metabolism) </li></ul><ul><li>unable to reproduce on their own or outside the body </li></ul><ul><li>parasitic relationship within cells invaded </li></ul>
  14. 14. Inject their DNA or RNA into Invaded Cell <ul><li>take over cell reproductive process </li></ul><ul><li>instruct cells to produce new viral particles </li></ul><ul><li>viruses are released and enter other cells </li></ul><ul><li>viruses cannot reproduce outside of living cells - </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to culture in lab  detection and study difficult </li></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment <ul><li>treatment is difficult  viruses withstand heat/radiation </li></ul><ul><li>some have incubation periods of several years </li></ul><ul><li>slow progression of symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Interferon - body’s protection against viruses </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Common Cold Endemic (always present to some degree) <ul><li>100 + viruses cause it? </li></ul><ul><li>Colds can be caught via contact air-borne droplets, touching, mucus membrane contact </li></ul><ul><li>Hands - frequent contact of hands to mouth / nose </li></ul>
  17. 17. Treatment? Prevention Best Medicine! <ul><li>Keep Resistance levels high </li></ul><ul><li>good nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>rest </li></ul><ul><li>stress reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Got a cold! </li></ul><ul><li>(getting cold doesn’t make you sick!) </li></ul><ul><li>bed rest / fluids / aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>most contagious first 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>must run course 7 to 10 days </li></ul>
  18. 18. Influenza (FLU): <ul><li>Influenza (FLU) </li></ul><ul><li>viral disorder of respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms include aches, pains, nausea, fever, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3 forms </li></ul><ul><li>A - most virulent </li></ul><ul><li>B - 2nd most virulent </li></ul><ul><li>C - 3rd </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for Older Adults </li></ul>
  19. 19. Infectious Mononucleosis: the &quot;kissing disease” or &quot;MONO&quot; <ul><li>symptoms = sore throat, fever, headache, chills, and continuous sense of weakness; </li></ul><ul><li>treatment: bed-rest, nutrition, and medications to control symptoms. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hepatitis virally induced inflammation of liver symptoms = fever, headache, nausea, and loss of appetite, jaundice, and diarrhea . <ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;infectious hepatitis&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>transmitted by fecal-oral route, bad hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>persons in contact with children in day-care settings </li></ul><ul><li>persons who inject drugs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hepatitis B: &quot;serum hepatitis&quot; <ul><li>transmitted by body fluids (blood, serum, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids) </li></ul><ul><li>also transmitted by needle stick, contact with needles (drug users), and sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>some patients may develop cirrhosis and/or cancer of the liver, and eventually death </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mumps: <ul><li>prior to 1968, fairly common among children </li></ul><ul><li>effective vaccine found in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>incidence before 1968: 80/100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>incidence in 1984: 2/100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>greatest danger - sterility in men young adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>hearing loss </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chicken Pox: <ul><li>Many children contract disease / then remains dormant </li></ul><ul><li>skin eruptions that itch + blister </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms include fever, fatigue (17 days after exposure) </li></ul><ul><li>some lead to shingles </li></ul>
  24. 24. Measles <ul><li>viral disorder frequently affects young children </li></ul><ul><li>German measles (rubella) is a milder viral infection transmitted by inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>can move into bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>causes a rash </li></ul><ul><li>not serious, except for pregnant women and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>fetus in 1st trimester may be born blind, deaf, retarded, or with congenital heart defects </li></ul>
  25. 25. FUNGI <ul><li>single or multi-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>moldy breads, cheeses, and mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>(vaginal yeast infection), athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch </li></ul><ul><li>treatment: keep infected area dry and clean, and treat with antifungal antibiotics </li></ul>
  26. 26. PROTOZOA <ul><li>single-celled microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxins </li></ul><ul><li>destroying cells or interfering with their function </li></ul><ul><li>tropical diseases (malaria) </li></ul><ul><li>treatment: relieve the symptoms, replace lost blood or fluid, and drug therapy </li></ul>
  27. 27. PARASITIC WORMS <ul><li>multi-cellular animals </li></ul><ul><li>attack specific tissues/organs and compete with host for nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>problem in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>entering the body via uncooked meats </li></ul><ul><li>treat with drugs/surgery. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Your body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Physical and Chemical Defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat - enzymes that destroy microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>body pH levels (normal pH 7.0 can change) </li></ul><ul><li>body temperature(fever) </li></ul><ul><li>lining in the tracts of the body, trap / engulf </li></ul><ul><li>cilia move particles out of body tears, nasal secretions, ear wax and others </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Immune System: Your Body Fights Back <ul><li>Antigens: invader causing immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies:individually matched to specific antigens / work to destroy and/or lessen impact of antigen body recognizes size/shape of antigen </li></ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells (lymphocytes): they protect against foreign agents; responsible of antigen-antibody response - Macrophages - phagocytic cell-eating cell </li></ul>
  30. 30. Protection <ul><li>B-lymphocytes (B-cells) </li></ul><ul><li>T- lymphocytes (T-cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Killer T - Cells directly attack infected or malignant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Memory B & T cells respond faster to the same pathogen </li></ul>
  31. 31. Fever & Pain <ul><li>An increase in body temperature decreases the the efficacy of the pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates White Blood Cell production </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature and be dangerous to the host </li></ul><ul><li>Pain (a warning signal) - persistent pain can be an indicator of disease </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>STI’s - Infectious diseases transmitted via some form of intimate, usually sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Use condoms / quality / check expiration date </li></ul>
  33. 33. STIs <ul><li>Chlamydia - Bacterially caused STI of the urogenital tract </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis: Serious inflammation of the eye / pathogens / irritants (chlamydia) </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID) </li></ul><ul><li>various infection of the female reproductive tract </li></ul>
  34. 34. STIs <ul><li>Gonorrhea - most common STI in Canada - if untreated can cause sterility </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis - widespread, progresses through phases - if untreated serious results </li></ul><ul><li>Chancre - sore at syphilis infection site </li></ul>
  35. 35. STIs <ul><li>Public Lice (“crabs”) </li></ul><ul><li>parasites that inhabit body areas….. Genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Verneral Warts </li></ul><ul><li>warts that appear in genital area, anus…..human papilloma viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginitis - set of symptoms characterized by vaginal itching, swelling, and burning </li></ul>
  36. 36. STIs <ul><li>Trichomoniasis - protozoan infection / foamy-yellowish discharge + unpleasant odor </li></ul><ul><li>Genital Herpes -STI from herpes simplex virus type two </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) extremely virulent sexually transmitted disease / effects immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS </li></ul>
  37. 37. Noninfectious Diseases Respiratory Disorders <ul><li>Allergy-Induced Problems -occurs as the body attempts to rid the body of antigen/allergens </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Histamines - dilate blood vessels / increase mucus secretions / produce allergy symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Hay Fever - chronic respiratory disorder - ragweed / pollen </li></ul>
  38. 38. Respiratory Disorders <ul><li>Asthma - chronic respiratory disorder - attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing spasms </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema - respiratory disease / alveoli distend or rupture / dysfunctional </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis - respiratory disorder / bronchial tubes inflamed & swollen / function impaired </li></ul>
  39. 39. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Headaches - almost everybody experiences them - usually not too bad </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Headache - muscle contractions or tension in neck or head </li></ul><ul><li>stress, chemicals, sleep, menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation, hot water treatments, “holistic treatments” </li></ul>
  40. 40. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Migraine - localized headaches from alternating dilation & constriction of blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy - neurological disorder / abnormal </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sex-Related Disorders <ul><li>Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - a series of physical and emotional symptoms that appear prior to their menstrual period </li></ul><ul><li>Endometriosis:abnormal development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus resulting in serious side-effects </li></ul><ul><li>Hysterectomy - Surgical Removal of the Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrocystic Breast Condition </li></ul><ul><li>common/noncancerous condition where breasts contain fibrous or liquid filled cysts </li></ul>
  42. 42. Digestion - Related Disorders <ul><li>Insulin - hormone produced in pancreas / required for CHO metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes - disease / pancreas can produce sufficient insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia - High blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcerative colitis - inflammatory disorder / affects mucus membranes large intestines……with bloody </li></ul><ul><li>diarrhea </li></ul>
  43. 43. Digestion - Related Disorders <ul><li>Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - nausea, gas, pain, or diarrhea / certain foods </li></ul><ul><li>Diverticulosis - bulges in wall of intestines / irritation + infection </li></ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcer - damage to stomach or intestine lining / juices </li></ul>
  44. 44. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Arthritis - painful inflammation of the joints </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis - degeneration of bones and joints / progressive / “wear & tear” </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis- serious inflammatory joint disease </li></ul><ul><li>Lupus - immune system attacks body……antibodies destroy or injure organs </li></ul><ul><li>Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks </li></ul>
  45. 45. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention 90% from lumbar region - being careful, know proper technique and physically fit to perform lifts </li></ul>

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