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Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases
 

Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

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    Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 13 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities
    • Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions - Risk Factors
      • Disease-causing agents = pathogens
      • Epidemics = widespread outbreak of a disease in a community/region
      • Virulent = invading organism’s ability to resist treatment
      • Mulitfactorial Disease = caused by several factors
      • host (weakened) + susceptible (agent for disease present)
    • Risk Factors - You Can’t Control
      • Heredity - parent’s
      • longevity and you
      • diabetes / CHD
      • Chromosomal Disorders
      • Aging - after 40 more
      • susceptible to disease
      • Environmental Conditions - harmful elements (drugs, chemicals, sanitation, pollution)
      • Immunolgical competence
    • Risk Factors You Can Control
      • Disease varies with socioeconomic status, culture, geographic location…. etc,etc .
      • Stress
      • Nutrition
      • Physical Inactivity
      • Substance Abuse
      • High Risk Behaviours
      • - you get the idea!!!!
    • The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion * disease-producing organism the "attackers"
      • Kissing / sexual relations / touching (direct or indirect)
      • Hands greatest source of transmission
      • Autoinoculate - spread disease from one body part to another
    • The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion
      • Airborne Contact
      • sneezing / breathing
      • Food-borne Infection
      • E. coli bacteria
      • Animal-borne
      • dogs/cats - bites / insects carried / feces
      • Water-borne
      • drinking / washed food
      • Body - swimming / streams
    • Bacteria single-celled organisms - plant-like / lacks chlorophyll most plentiful pathogen bacteria / causes disease by secreting toxins (poisonous).
      • Three Types:
      • Cocci
      • Bacilli
      • Spirilla
      • 1000’s exist only approximately 100 cause disease in HUMANS
    • Staphylococcal Infections:
      • present on our skin
      • break in epidermis allows staphylococcal to invade
      • infected wounds / acne
      • strep throat (severe sore throat)
      • scarlet fever, acute fever, sore throat, rash
      • rheumatic fever
      • Toxic Shock Syndrome?
    • Pneumonia:
      • Pneumonia -bacterially caused…..
      • chronic cough, chest pain, chills, high fever, fluid accumulation in lungs.
    • Legionnaire's Disease
      • - bacterially generated disease
      • airborne transmission
      • symptoms similar to those of pneumonia.
      • Commonly misdiagnosed and given wrong treatment
    • Tuberculosis:
      • bacterial infiltration of respiratory system
      • transmitted among people by breathing air infected by coughing or sneezing
      • symptoms:
      • persistent coughing, weight loss, fever, and spitting up blood
      • High Risk - fighting disease / HIV - Related Diseases
    • Periodontal Diseases
      • Diseases of tissues surrounding the teeth
      • 3/4 of adults over 35years
      • result of poor teeth brushing/flossing
      • not getting regular check ups at dentist
    • Viruses minute parasitic microbes that live inside another cell
      • 1/500th the size of bacteria
      • approx. 150 cause disease in humans
      • consist of protein structure - DNA or RNA
      • no capacity for cellular function (i.e. respiration/metabolism)
      • unable to reproduce on their own or outside the body
      • parasitic relationship within cells invaded
    • Inject their DNA or RNA into Invaded Cell
      • take over cell reproductive process
      • instruct cells to produce new viral particles
      • viruses are released and enter other cells
      • viruses cannot reproduce outside of living cells -
      • difficult to culture in lab  detection and study difficult
    • Treatment
      • treatment is difficult  viruses withstand heat/radiation
      • some have incubation periods of several years
      • slow progression of symptoms.
      • Interferon - body’s protection against viruses
    • The Common Cold Endemic (always present to some degree)
      • 100 + viruses cause it?
      • Colds can be caught via contact air-borne droplets, touching, mucus membrane contact
      • Hands - frequent contact of hands to mouth / nose
    • Treatment? Prevention Best Medicine!
      • Keep Resistance levels high
      • good nutrition
      • physical activity
      • rest
      • stress reduction
      • Got a cold!
      • (getting cold doesn’t make you sick!)
      • bed rest / fluids / aspirin
      • most contagious first 24 hours
      • must run course 7 to 10 days
    • Influenza (FLU):
      • Influenza (FLU)
      • viral disorder of respiratory tract
      • symptoms include aches, pains, nausea, fever, etc.
      • 3 forms
      • A - most virulent
      • B - 2nd most virulent
      • C - 3rd
      • Concern for Older Adults
    • Infectious Mononucleosis: the "kissing disease” or "MONO"
      • symptoms = sore throat, fever, headache, chills, and continuous sense of weakness;
      • treatment: bed-rest, nutrition, and medications to control symptoms.
    • Hepatitis virally induced inflammation of liver symptoms = fever, headache, nausea, and loss of appetite, jaundice, and diarrhea .
      • Hepatitis A
      • "infectious hepatitis"
      • transmitted by fecal-oral route, bad hygiene
      • persons in contact with children in day-care settings
      • persons who inject drugs
    • Hepatitis B: "serum hepatitis"
      • transmitted by body fluids (blood, serum, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids)
      • also transmitted by needle stick, contact with needles (drug users), and sexual contact
      • some patients may develop cirrhosis and/or cancer of the liver, and eventually death
    • Mumps:
      • prior to 1968, fairly common among children
      • effective vaccine found in 1968
      • incidence before 1968: 80/100,000
      • incidence in 1984: 2/100,000
      • greatest danger - sterility in men young adulthood
      • hearing loss
    • Chicken Pox:
      • Many children contract disease / then remains dormant
      • skin eruptions that itch + blister
      • symptoms include fever, fatigue (17 days after exposure)
      • some lead to shingles
    • Measles
      • viral disorder frequently affects young children
      • German measles (rubella) is a milder viral infection transmitted by inhalation
      • can move into bloodstream
      • causes a rash
      • not serious, except for pregnant women and newborns
      • fetus in 1st trimester may be born blind, deaf, retarded, or with congenital heart defects
    • FUNGI
      • single or multi-celled organisms
      • moldy breads, cheeses, and mushrooms
      • (vaginal yeast infection), athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch
      • treatment: keep infected area dry and clean, and treat with antifungal antibiotics
    • PROTOZOA
      • single-celled microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxins
      • destroying cells or interfering with their function
      • tropical diseases (malaria)
      • treatment: relieve the symptoms, replace lost blood or fluid, and drug therapy
    • PARASITIC WORMS
      • multi-cellular animals
      • attack specific tissues/organs and compete with host for nutrient
      • problem in developing countries
      • entering the body via uncooked meats
      • treat with drugs/surgery.
    • Your body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well
      • Physical and Chemical Defenses
      • Skin
      • Sweat - enzymes that destroy microorganisms
      • body pH levels (normal pH 7.0 can change)
      • body temperature(fever)
      • lining in the tracts of the body, trap / engulf
      • cilia move particles out of body tears, nasal secretions, ear wax and others
    • The Immune System: Your Body Fights Back
      • Antigens: invader causing immune response
      • Antibodies:individually matched to specific antigens / work to destroy and/or lessen impact of antigen body recognizes size/shape of antigen
      • White Blood Cells (lymphocytes): they protect against foreign agents; responsible of antigen-antibody response - Macrophages - phagocytic cell-eating cell
    • Protection
      • B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
      • T- lymphocytes (T-cells)
      • Killer T - Cells directly attack infected or malignant cells
      • Memory B & T cells respond faster to the same pathogen
    • Fever & Pain
      • An increase in body temperature decreases the the efficacy of the pathogen
      • Stimulates White Blood Cell production
      • High temperature and be dangerous to the host
      • Pain (a warning signal) - persistent pain can be an indicator of disease
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections
      • STI’s - Infectious diseases transmitted via some form of intimate, usually sexual contact
      • Modes of Transmission
      • Use condoms / quality / check expiration date
    • STIs
      • Chlamydia - Bacterially caused STI of the urogenital tract
      • Conjunctivitis: Serious inflammation of the eye / pathogens / irritants (chlamydia)
      • Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID)
      • various infection of the female reproductive tract
    • STIs
      • Gonorrhea - most common STI in Canada - if untreated can cause sterility
      • Syphilis - widespread, progresses through phases - if untreated serious results
      • Chancre - sore at syphilis infection site
    • STIs
      • Public Lice (“crabs”)
      • parasites that inhabit body areas….. Genitals
      • Verneral Warts
      • warts that appear in genital area, anus…..human papilloma viruses
      • Vaginitis - set of symptoms characterized by vaginal itching, swelling, and burning
    • STIs
      • Trichomoniasis - protozoan infection / foamy-yellowish discharge + unpleasant odor
      • Genital Herpes -STI from herpes simplex virus type two
      • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) extremely virulent sexually transmitted disease / effects immune system
      • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS
    • Noninfectious Diseases Respiratory Disorders
      • Allergy-Induced Problems -occurs as the body attempts to rid the body of antigen/allergens
      • Antibodies
      • Histamines - dilate blood vessels / increase mucus secretions / produce allergy symptoms
      • Hay Fever - chronic respiratory disorder - ragweed / pollen
    • Respiratory Disorders
      • Asthma - chronic respiratory disorder - attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing spasms
      • Emphysema - respiratory disease / alveoli distend or rupture / dysfunctional
      • Chronic Bronchitis - respiratory disorder / bronchial tubes inflamed & swollen / function impaired
    • Neurological Disorders
      • Headaches - almost everybody experiences them - usually not too bad
      • Tension Headache - muscle contractions or tension in neck or head
      • stress, chemicals, sleep, menstruation
      • relaxation, hot water treatments, “holistic treatments”
    • Neurological Disorders
      • Migraine - localized headaches from alternating dilation & constriction of blood vessels
      • Epilepsy - neurological disorder / abnormal
    • Sex-Related Disorders
      • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - a series of physical and emotional symptoms that appear prior to their menstrual period
      • Endometriosis:abnormal development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus resulting in serious side-effects
      • Hysterectomy - Surgical Removal of the Uterus
      • Fibrocystic Breast Condition
      • common/noncancerous condition where breasts contain fibrous or liquid filled cysts
    • Digestion - Related Disorders
      • Insulin - hormone produced in pancreas / required for CHO metabolism
      • Diabetes - disease / pancreas can produce sufficient insulin
      • Hyperglycemia - High blood sugar
      • Ulcerative colitis - inflammatory disorder / affects mucus membranes large intestines……with bloody
      • diarrhea
    • Digestion - Related Disorders
      • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - nausea, gas, pain, or diarrhea / certain foods
      • Diverticulosis - bulges in wall of intestines / irritation + infection
      • Peptic ulcer - damage to stomach or intestine lining / juices
    • Musculoskeletal Diseases
      • Arthritis - painful inflammation of the joints
      • Osteoarthritis - degeneration of bones and joints / progressive / “wear & tear”
      • Rheumatoid arthritis- serious inflammatory joint disease
      • Lupus - immune system attacks body……antibodies destroy or injure organs
      • Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks
    • Musculoskeletal Diseases
      • Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks
      • Prevention 90% from lumbar region - being careful, know proper technique and physically fit to perform lifts