How does Blue Gene, today’s most powerful supercomputer, compare with the human brain?
*Data provided by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Supercomputer and the Human Brain Human brain is 100 times more powerful Supercomputer 100,000 lbs 5,000 cubic ft 2,000,000 watts 100 trillion cycles per second Human Brain 4 lbs 0.06 cubic ft ????? 10 quadrillion cycles per second
A software mind should be at least as complex as an operating system?
1993 Windows NT 3.1 6 million lines of code
1994 Windows NT 3.5 10 million lines of code
1996 Windows NT 4.0 16 million lines of code
2000 Windows 2000 29 million lines of code
2002 Windows XP 40 million lines of code
40 million lines of code and 9 years of development
Imagine this development cycle, except that, due to sensor error, you never knew exactly where the user was clicking with the mouse, or you never knew exactly what key was being selected on the keyboard. How would this affect the development cycle?
Architectures for Modeling Cognition Symbolic Complex cognition = Serial in nature Localized representation Cognitive Architectures Subsymbolic Simple cognition = Parallel in nature Distributed representation Neural Networks X + Y = Z
Intellectual continuum within the human anatomy Reflexes The actions of reflexes are similar to a simple feed-forward Neural Network Frontal Lobes The actions of the Frontal Lobes are similar to complex Symbolic processing architectures Kelley, T. D., (2003), “Symbolic and sub-symbolic representations in computational models of human cognition: What can be learned from biology?” Theory and Psychology , TAP 13(6), December.
In a DARPA report (2001) by Singh and Thayer of the CMU Robotics Institute the authors concluded that:
“a mixed strategy [hybrid] provides a more reasonable method for robot coordination for a general case where there are natural constraints during operation in a complex environment.”
Stimuli Subsymbolic processing Camera inputs Laser inputs Sound inputs Parallel processing all of the inputs simultaneously Results go to memory Production system operates on memories “Attention” is the highest level goal Semantic network Symbolic Subsymbolic SS-RICS Production System Goals