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Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene
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Gas gangrene

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  • 1. Gas Gangrene
    • Epidemiology
      • War wounds; dirt contamination of wounds, tissue death, impaired circulation in patients with poor circulation
      • Common after:
      • Arteriosclerosis, diabetes predispose
      • 40% mortality (with therapeutic care)
    • Prevention and treatment
      • Prompt cleaning of wounds is:
      • Surgical removal of dead and infected tissues
      • Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, antitoxin
      • Penicillin to kill vegetative C. perfringens
  • 2. Plague
    • Symptoms
      • Sudden onset of high fever, large lymph nodes (buboes) , skin hemorrhages, severe cough, bloody and frothy sputum
    • Pathogen – Yersinia pestis
      • Capsulated bacterium, multiple virulence factors
      • Virulence factors:
    • Pathogenesis
      • Y. pestis contracted from bite of infected flea
      • Survive phagocytosis and infect lymph nodes ->
      • May be carried into bloodstream ->
      • Hemorrhages under skin result in dark patches, skin color
      • Lung infection -> contagious, lethal pnuemonic plague ->
  • 3. Transmission of Yersinia pestis
  • 4. Yersinia pestis
  • 5. Plague
    • Epidemiology
      • Endemic in wild animals and fleas
      • Rare but
      • Transmitted person to person via fleas
      • Pneumonic plague: coughing –
    • Prevention and treatment
      • Vaccine offers short-term protection
      • Avoid contact with wild rodents
      • Insecticides and rat control
      • to prevent high mortality
  • 6. Lyme Disease – Phases
    • Phase 1:
    • Erythema migrans characteristic rash present – 80% of cases
    • Malaise; chills; fever; headache; stiff neck; joint and muscle pain; backache
    • Phase 2:
    • Cardiac dysfunction
    • Neurological symptoms (meningitis, encephalitis, peripheral nerve neuropathy
    • Phase 3:
    • Arthritis; joint pain, tenderness, swelling
    • Chronic nervous system impairments
  • 7. Lyme Disease – Borrelia burgdorferi
  • 8. Lyme Disease
    • Causative Agent
      • Borrelia burgdorferi – microaerophilic spirochete
    • Pathogenesis
      • Spirochetes injected into skin:
      • Multiply ->
      • Tissue damage result of immune response
  • 9. The life cycle of Ixodes
  • 10. Ixodes scapularis – Black-legged tick
  • 11. Lyme Disease
    • Epidemiology
      • Increased prevalence – encroachment on wooded areas; increase in deer populations
      • Spread by infected tick bite –
      • Ixodes – preferred host: white-footed mouse, white-tailed deer
    • Prevention and Treatment
      • Prevent by:
      • Antibiotics are effective:
        • Penicillin, doxycycline
      • Prolonged antibiotics late in infection may be curative
  • 12. Lyme disease in the U.S.
  • 13.
    • Viral infections of the cardiovascular system
  • 14. Mononucleosis
    • Symptoms
      • Fatigue , fever, sore throat , lymph node enlargement
      • Most people return to school/ work:
    • Causative agent – Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
      • dsDNA virus, herpesvirus family
      • Isolated from Burkitt’s lymphoma
    • Pathogenesis
      • Virus enters throat ->
      • Infection of B cells ->
      • Hemorrhage of spleen is rare but serious complication
      • May play role in causing malignant tumors –
  • 15. Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus
  • 16. Mononucleosis
    • Epidemiology
      • Spread in:
      • Kissing is common mode of transmission
      • Lifelong recurrent shedding of virus in saliva
      • Very common in college students
    • Prevention and treatment
      • Avoid sharing items contaminated by saliva
      • Acyclovir beneficial in some cases
  • 17. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    • Signs and symptoms – Fever, fatigue, dizziness, muscle pain, exhaustion
      • Minor petechiae
      • Severe internal hemorrhaging and bleeding from mouth, eyes and ears
      • Death from:
    • Pathogens – ssRNA viruses – Filoviridae family
      • Enveloped, filamentous virus
    • Pathogenesis
      • Hemorrhaging due to malfunction of blood clotting system
      • Infected macrophages trigger localized blood clotting ->
  • 18. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    • Epidemiology
      • Primarily in Africa
      • No human carriers but natural animal hosts
      • Transmission through:
      • Airborne?
      • Ebola – 90% fatal
      • Marburg – 25% fatal
    • Prevention and Treatment
      • No effective antiviral drugs
      • Currently no vaccine for humans
    Ebola virus
  • 19. Some viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • 20. Sites of Marburg and Ebola virus epidemics

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