Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness. Based on a 1999 estimate, 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the United States each year.
Infection with E. coli often leads to bloody diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure. People can become infected with E.coli O157:H7 in a variety of ways. Though most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, people have also become ill from eating contaminated bean sprouts or fresh leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach.
Forensic use of DNA patterns “DNA Fingerprints” The E. coli outbreak in spinach was investigated using DNA fingerprinting techniques to trace the strain of bacteria.
Using restriction fragment patterns to distinguish DNA from different alleles
The "flu shot" — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the arm.
The nasal-spray flu vaccine — a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for “live attenuated influenza vaccine” or FluMist®). LAIV (FluMist®) is approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.
Each vaccine contains three influenza viruses-one A (H3N2) virus, one regular, seasonal A (H1N1) virus , and one B virus. The viruses in the vaccine change each year based on international surveillance and scientists' estimations about which types and strains of viruses will circulate in a given year.
About 2 weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection develop in the body.
Pandemic viruses appear as the result of antigenic shift, which causes new combinations of proteins on the surface of the virus. If the new virus spreads easily from person to person a pandemic can result.
“ breakbone fever” severe pain in muscles and joints. Infections usually mild, but dengue hemorrhagic shock can be lethal
Concern over possible spread to the continental U.S.
Fever, headache, muscle pain, may progress to organ failure and death.
Mosquito control has greatly decreased its impact
Emerging concern in U.S.
Dengue Distribution of Aedes aegypti (red shaded areas) in the Americas in 1970, at the end of the mosquito eradication program, and in 1997 American countries with laboratory-confirmed hemorrhagic fever (red shaded areas), prior to 1981 and from 1981 to 1997.
West Nile Virus – 2005 (Jan 11 Th ) For all of 2007, more than 1,200 cases of severe West Nile illness were reported, and 124 deaths. The peaks occurred in 2002 and 2003, when severe illnesses numbered nearly 3,000 and deaths surpassed 260.