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    • Come and Play Research Programme Report “The impact of music and music-making on children’s development” Prepared by: Come and Play May/June 2004
    • Table of contents 1 Background Given the growing body of evidence linking music making to various aspects of children’s academic, social and cognitive development, 4Children’s Come & Play project aims to undertake detailed research to highlight and measure the impact of music making on a selected group of children and out of school clubs. The research project, funded by Youth Music, is national in scope and will take place across 2004 / 2005. As part of the first phase of this project, this report serves to provide an overview of relevant research findings detailing the effects that music has on the development of children, as well as highlighting commentary on current trends in thinking within this field of enquiry. 2 Objectives of the research Author: May Bleeker 2 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • The key objectives informing this research project have been identified as follows: • Make the public policy argument for music making activities as a key element of out-of-school services • Create systems to assess how music-making contributes to the social development of children • Construct and initiate baseline measurements to measure before and after impacts of the programme and report results in the form of an in- depth study to Youth Music and key policy makers and stakeholders 3 Methodology 3.1 Research undertaken for the purposes of this report took, primarily, the form of internet research due to the time and financial constraints associated with the project. 3.2 Contact was also made with a number of researchers, (who have published research findings relevant to the scope of this project) based at various academic institutions for their references and input. 3.3 Given the amount of material available, as well as the limits inherent to internet-based research, the findings should not be regarded as exhaustive. 4 Management Summary The following report summarises the quality and scope of existing research into how music affects children’s development. It also serves to identify Author: May Bleeker 3 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • research gaps and provide a rationale for the next steps to be taken for further research by the Come & Play project. Research involving music and human development has multiple perspectives. Beside the large and formal body of work revolving around traditional aspects of music education, music is increasingly being investigated in its broader context as an influence on the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social aspects of children’s lives, as a support or even entry point into other topics of learning (maths and literacy) and as an aid to personal development. While pockets of research overlap, at present these do not necessarily provide a comprehensive and coherent framework for understanding the impact that music has on human development or clearly define the mechanisms involved. Research review projects undertaken by local and international bodies to build an overview of findings indicate that there is much ground to be covered. Clear, well-supported correlations have been found between music instruction or musical experience and cognitive/neurological development, academic improvement, and social/emotional/personal development. However, researchers are cautious about drawing conclusions about music actually causing these results. Findings are regarded as inconclusive and in at least one case have been criticised as being “somewhat desperate efforts to prove that music has an effect on schoolwork or social adjustment” (Keith Swanwick, 2001). An area that seems fairly well-researched and documented is that of learning through the arts programmes in schools throughout Canada and in some schools in Australia and the USA. In these projects efforts have been made to integrate music instruction with the rest of the school curriculum. These programmes provide clear evidence for the effects of music on children’s development. They focus on the effects of music on specific cognitive or Author: May Bleeker 4 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • academic-achievement-based outcomes, are generally long-term in scope, and employ diverse methodologies. Positive correlations were found between learning through music and academic improvement in maths and literacy, as well as increased engagement (Improving Math Scores: Lessons of Engagement, Upitis, R., Smithrim, K., Patteson, A., MacDonald, J., & Finkle, J., 2003). This last was considered to be one of the greatest programme effects, with researchers speculating that differences in academic performance were at least partly due to increased engagement. The benefits occurred for children of all socio- economic classes and it was suggested that learning in and through the arts can help level the playing field for youngsters from disadvantaged circumstances. According to these studies the relative advantage of involvement in the arts increases appreciably over time, with some effects not occurring until three years of programming had taken place. Research projects dealing with music and enhancement of cognitive functions such as spatial reasoning (The Mozart Effect) have generated considerable press and public interest, as well as debate amongst researchers concerning the validity and limitations of the findings. Other areas of focus for research projects include personal development and social skills, musical activity as a communicative force, and the links between music and early physiological development. One perspective is that the effects of music are stronger in the social domain than in the cognitive domain, as music tuition involves social interaction and co-operative activity, which depend on good listening skills, and attributes such as trust, patience, tolerance and kindness (Spychiger, Maria, B., 1998). However, there appear to be fewer long-term, integrated studies focusing primarily on the social domain. (Note: to what extent this reflects the bias of the internet as publishing medium is not known). Author: May Bleeker 5 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • The scope for further investigation into this area is thus highlighted, as well as the need to direct more attention towards findings of this nature. The general consensus seems to be that arts appear to be important when it comes to a variety of non-arts outcomes, but that more research is required into the nature of the correlations found and the mechanisms involved (Upitis, R., Smithrim, K., 2001; Upitis, R., et. al., 2003; Gardiner, M.F., 2000; Catterall, J.S., Chapleau, R., Iwanaga, J., 1999; Champions of Change; The Impact of the Arts on Learning, 1999; Scripp, L., 2003; The Power of Music, Hallam, S.). Given the evidence of positive relationships between music and cognitive functioning, Come & Play is going to progress with research using objective measurements (what kind?) to investigate whether, and to what extent, these effects are evident in relation to its making-music programmes. Concerns exist around defining what will be measured, given the nature of previous research and the fact that results have been correlational and not conclusive enough to prove causality. Furthermore, since previous research has emphasised that results can only be expected over the long-term, there is also a concern whether short-term programmes may yield measurable differences. 5 Key Findings The remainder of this report details the findings from the research and covers the following areas:  Music, Cognitive Development & Learning  Music, Personal Development and Social Skills  Music, Emotion, Attitude & Behaviour Author: May Bleeker 6 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • A worldwide literature review of authoritative articles which address “the value of music in our lives” highlight the following key points: • Music is powerful at the level of the social group because it facilitates communication which goes beyond words, induces shared emotional reactions and supports the development of group identity. • Music is powerful at the individual level because it can induce multiple responses – physiological, movement, mood, emotional, cognitive and behavioural. • The brain’s multiple processing of music makes it difficult to predict the particular effect of any piece of music on any individual. • Music has powerful therapeutic effects which can be achieved through listening or active music making. • Music can promote relaxation, alleviate anxiety and pain, promote appropriate behaviour in vulnerable groups and enhance the quality of life of those who are beyond medical help. • Music can play an important part in enhancing human development in the early years. • Active involvement in music making in children may increase self- esteem and promote the development of a range of social and transferable skills. • The easy availability of music in everyday life is encouraging individuals to use music to optimise their sense of well-being. Author: May Bleeker 7 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • • Music can influence our behaviour in ways which are beyond our conscious awareness. Knowledge of these effects can be used to manipulate our work and purchasing behaviour. • The easy availability of music means that it tends to be taken for granted. This can lead to neglect in considering how the infrastructure supporting music and musicians is resourced, maintained and developed. (Susan Hallam, The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk) 5.1 Music, Cognitive Development & Learning Much evidence has been put forward indicating the positive relationship between music instruction or musical experience and cognitive development (Altenmüller & Gruhn, 1997; Costa-Giomi, in press – from Susan Hallam and Alexandra Lamont, BERA Music Education Review Group). Some researchers recognise music as one of the basic building blocks for the brain’s higher cognitive functions (Frances Rauscher, 1994) and studies have shown neurological differences between those who have been exposed to music instruction and those who have not. Furthermore, correlations have been found between music instruction at an early age and skills improvement in areas such as creativity (K.L. Wolff. Essential Advocacy Resources for Music), spatial reasoning (F. Rauscher, 1994; L. Scripp, 2003), and academic improvement specifically in the areas of Author: May Bleeker 8 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • maths and literacy (J.S. Catterall et al., 1999a; L. Scripp, 2003, R. Upitis et.al. 2003). The idea has been put forward that music develops flexibility in thinking because it draws on so many different attributes. According to Dr Howard Gardner1 (best known for his theory of multiple intelligences) “Musical training is an effective way, not only to enhance the conceptual-holistic-creative thinking process, but also to assist in the melding and merging of the mind’s capabilities” (Gardner, 1884, as quoted in James R. Ponter, Feb 1999). The idea of ‘mental stretching’ was also proposed to explain the interactions between music and learning. The idea being that our brains can take advantage of analogous thinking in two areas such as music and maths, and that learning how to process in one area may improve one’s ability to process in the other, related area. 5.1.1 Music & Cognitive Development a. Neurological differences According to Dr Susan Young (Exeter University), there is currently a growing interest in the idea that musical experience in the very early years (0-3) encourages valuable synaptic networks. Research data indicates that those who study music, particularly beginning at an early age, show neurological differences when compared to those who 1 Dr Howard Gardner, Professor in Cognition and Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Harvard University; Adjunct Professor of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine; and Chair of the Steering Committee of Project Zero – an educational research group established in 1967 at Harvard Graduate School of Education. Author: May Bleeker 9 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • have not had much training. Adult musicians have stronger and faster brain responses to musical tasks (Faita and Besson,1994 as quoted by Donald A. Hodges, Institute for Music Research) and certain parts of their brains, related to music processing, are larger or more responsive (Elbert et al., 1995; Flohr, Persellin, & Miller, 1996; Pantev et al., 1998; Pascual-Leone et al., 1995; Petsche, 1992; Petsche et al., 1985; 1988, 1993; Schlaug et al., 1994, 1995; Williamson and Kaufman, 1988). Research strongly suggests that early musical experiences imprint themselves on the brain as do all learning experiences that have the potential for changing brain organization. Whether or not these changes have implications for other domains of learning continues to be investigated. (Donald A. Hodges, Institute For Music Research, University of Texas at San Antonio) Practicing musicians demonstrate 25 percent more brain activity than non- musicians when listening to musical sounds”. (Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, Exposure to Music Is Instrumental to the Brain) “The part of the brain responsible for planning, foresight, and coordination is substantially larger for instrumental musicians than for the general public.” (Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, Music on the Mind) “Researchers at the University of California and the Niigata Brain Research Institute in Japan have found an area of the brain that is activated only when reading musical scores.” (Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, Musical Brain – Special Brain Area Found for Reading Music Scores) b. ‘Mental Stretching’ Researchers such as Dr Martin F. Gardiner, (Brown University, USA, Centre for the Study of Human Development) have collected data to measure the impact music lessons can have on the ways children learn. He introduces the Author: May Bleeker 10 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • concept of ‘mental stretching’ to help explain how, why, and when interactions between music training and learning can take place. The theory proposes cross-fertilization of specific mental skills or capabilities from one area of learning (e.g. arts) to another (e.g. maths) if the required mental skills to be developed are sufficiently closely related. (Dr Martin F. Gardiner, Jan 1999) For example: types of mental processing – such as organization, production of melodies and learning pitch – needed for making music also help students to learn maths. “Once you learn how to organise and use a scale in your thinking, that may make it easier for your brain to organize and use a number line,’ he said. …‘Your mind is now different than it was before…It’s stretched out in some particular area and now has a new capability which can be applied, it seems, in other areas.” (Dr Martin F. Gardiner, as quoted by Eleanor Chute, 1998) c. The effects of music on spatial reasoning – The Mozart Effect. Studies done by Rauscher, F.H. and Shaw, G.L., indicated that music and music instruction play a positive role in enhancing spatial reasoning – the brain’s ability to perceive the visual world accurately, to form mental images of physical objects, and to recognize variations of objects. In specific, results showed that listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448 enhanced spatial-temporal performance in what has become known as ‘The Mozart Effect’. These results generated considerable interest and also gave rise to several misconceptions. The debate centred on whether there really is a “Mozart Effect”, and whether listening to Mozart can ‘increase intelligence’ (a claim the researchers assert they did not make). According to Rauscher, many of these misconceptions have been reflected in attempts to replicate the research. Despite proving difficult to replicate in some instances, ‘The Mozart Effect’ has been confirmed by various other studies, as well as meta-analysis of 26 other Author: May Bleeker 11 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • “Mozart Effect” studies (Lois Hetland, 2000). It is reported to be “limited to a specific type of spatial task that requires mental rotation in the absence of a physical model”. On the basis of this meta-analysis Hetland agreed that “music instruction enhances spatial–temporal reasoning for preschool- and elementary-age children while instruction is occurring and through at least two years of such instruction”, but also points out that “the educational implications of raising children’s intelligence or long-term spatial skills through exposure to classical music were not demonstrated in the analyzed studies”. (Joanne Haroutounian, 2001) The importance of this finding lies in the fact that spatial reasoning is regarded as “essential to success in a variety of academic subjects, notably maths, the sciences, and engineering” (Frances Rauscher, 1994) and, in fact, Rauscher also suggested that “mere listening can boost spatial reasoning…” However, this effect is generally regarded as being temporary in nature and not necessarily applicable to other aspects of cognitive functioning. Follow-up studies by Rauscher and Shaw confirmed that that listening to Mozart has a positive effect on spatial-temporal tasks involving mental imagery and temporal ordering. Rauscher emphasises that they do not claim that Mozart enhances intelligence (a popular misconception). Evidence from other studies that appear to support Rauscher’s findings is set out below: “…with upper-primary school-aged children in a school setting. Scores on a Paper Folding Task (PFT) for a class which listened to Mozart during testing were significantly higher than the PFT scores of a control class…a similar result was obtained for another class which listened to Bach during testing. The musical educational experience of the children…did not significantly contribute to the variance in PFT scores. We believe that this study is the first to find a Mozart Effect for school children in a natural setting…” (Vesna K. Ivanov and John G. Geake, 2003) Author: May Bleeker 12 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • “Learning to play a musical instrument has been shown to produce small temporary effects on spatial reasoning but not on other aspects of cognitive functioning”. (The Power of Music, Applications) “Keyboard instruction does predict higher test scores in young children’s spatial-temporal cognitive tasks.” (Larry Scripp, 2003) “[In] a pilot study in which ten three-year-old children were given music training – either singing or keyboard lessons, the scores of every child improved significantly on the Object Assembly Task, a section of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – revised, that measure spatial reasoning.” (Frances Rauscher, 1994) “[In] a follow-up experiment…we found that the spatial reasoning performance of 19 preschool children who received eight months of music lessons far exceeded that of a demographically comparable group of 15 preschool children who did not receive music lessons.” (Frances Rauscher, 1994) In a further follow-up study undertaken in 1997, Rauscher and Shaw comparing the effects of musical and non-musical training on intellectual development. “78 three and four-year olds from working class families [were] divided into four groups. One group had six months of private piano lessons; another got computer lessons, a third, singing lessons and the fourth, no training. Unlike the kids who learned piano, Rauscher notes, those given singing lessons were taught little about musical concepts. By the end of the study, the piano students scored 34 percent higher than the others on a test of spatial-temporal reasoning – putting a puzzle together to gauge their ability to process information in sequence and space.” (Judy Foreman). What Drs. Rauscher and Shaw have emphasized has been the causal relationships between early music training and development of the neural circuitry that governs spatial intelligence. Their studies indicate that music Author: May Bleeker 13 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • training generates the neural connections used for abstract reasoning, including those necessary for understanding mathematical concepts. (Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, Music Making Beats Computers at Enhancing Early Childhood Development). 5.1.2 Music, Learning & Academic / Skills Improvement a. Music and increased academic achievement Evidence from various studies has shown strong correlations between music instruction and ‘learning through the arts’ and academic improvement: “Students involved in the arts may exhibit higher academic achievement than their peers who are not involved in the arts.” (Catterall, 1998; Catterall, Chapleau, & Iwanaga, 1999a, 1999b; Deasy, 2002; Fowler, 1996; Hamblen, 1993; Hetland, 2000; Luftig, 1995; Moore & Caldwell, 1993; Murfee, 1995; Parks & Rose, 1997; Welch & Greene, 1995 as reported by Upitis, Rena et. al, 2003). It is suggested that “involvement in music can develop transferable skills which may raise academic achievement”. (Harland et al., 1998; Weber et al., 1993; Zulauf, 1993 – as reported by Susan Hallam and Alexandra Lamont, BERA Music Education Review Group). Furthermore, meta-analysis studies based on large bodies of research over the last decade demonstrate positive relationships between music learning and learning in other academic subject areas. (Larry Scripp, 2003) This appears to be particularly relevant to music and mathematics, with students who have consistently high levels of involvement in instrumental music over the middle and high school years showing “significantly higher levels of mathematics proficiency by grade 12. This holds both generally and also for low SES students as a subgroup (SES refers to socio-economic Author: May Bleeker 14 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • status – a measure of family education level, income, and type of job[s] held by parent[s]).” (James Catterall et. al., 1999). These findings are further supported by meta-analyses of six experimental studies on the relationships between music and mathematics achievement where it was indicated that “music study appears to cause increases in mathematics achievement”. (Vaughn, 2000, quoted in Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003). Similarly, it was found that “students concentrating in instrumental music do substantially better in mathematics than those with no involvement in music.” (James Catterall et al., 1999) Other researchers analysing data from Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) programmes in Canadian schools found that “the Grade 6 students (10 – 12 year olds) scored significantly higher on tests of computation and estimation than students in the two types of control schools.” It was also found that taking music lessons outside of school was found to be a “significant contributor to achievement on the computation and estimation test”. (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003), with those students who took music lessons outside of school scoring “significantly better on all language and mathematics measures than their peers, regardless of household income level and education.” (Dr Rena Upitis and Dr Katharine Smithrim, 2001). Similar results were found in a 3 year study involving students in Austrian and Swiss schools. “Those who had 5 music classes per week instead of the usual 1 or 2 (at the expense of classes in mathematics and language) were as good in maths and better in languages than their peers with regular schedules at the end of the 3 year study” (Armstrong, A. & Casement, C. (1997). The child and the Machine. Toronto: Key Porter, and Weber, E.W., Spychiger, M., & Patry, J. (1993). Music makes the School. Schlussbericht zu “Bessere Bildung mit mehr Musik”. Padagogisches Institut der Universitat, Freiburg/C.H. – as reported by R. Upitis (2002) Author: May Bleeker 15 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • It therefore appears that not only does involvement in the arts not come at the expense of achievement in mathematics and language (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003), but even when students are pulled out of ordinary lessons to participate in music lessons they achieved higher scores in proficiency tests than their non-pullout peers. (Michael D. Wallick, Essential Advocacy Resources for Music) It was also found that students of the arts outperform their non-arts peers on the SAT® (formerly called Scholastic Aptitude Tests, used by colleges and universities in the USA as a standard way of assessing students that come from different schools using different grading systems, who wish to progress to higher education). “In 2001, SAT takers with coursework/experience in music performance scored 57 points higher on the verbal portion of the test and 41 points higher on the maths portion than students with no coursework/experience in the arts…Longer arts study proved to parlay into even higher test scores.” (The College Board. Profile of SAT and Achievement Test Takers, 2001, 1996) While it is clear from this evidence that learning through music, or receiving music instruction, is positively related to better performance in other subjects, and in particular maths and language, this does not necessarily mean that music was the cause of the improvements observed as much of the research is “correlational in nature…” (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003) An important element found in learning through the arts programmes was that the use of music in learning programmes results in increased engagement on the part of the student. Some researchers speculate that this increased engagement with the subject matter may actually be behind the increases in achievement found amongst children involved in those programmes (as compared to children in control schools). This may be particularly relevant to improved achievement in computation, as this is “the kind of task than can be Author: May Bleeker 16 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • improved by paying closer attention to the material at hand”. (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, & Janice Finckle, May 2003) It is also important to note that the positive effects in maths achievement associated with ‘learning through the arts’ are reported to be gradual rather than sudden. It was observed that effects grow significantly over time (James S. Catterall et. al., 1999), and in some cases effects did not occur until three years of programming had taken place (Upitis R, et.al. 2003) Researchers therefore warn that oversimplifying expectations for learning transfer from the arts to academics “may limit the impact of arts-based programmes. Research suggests that inter-disciplinary learning transfer effects are more complex and less linear than the usual “cause-and-effect” models of education that the general public expects from the popular media.” (Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning) b. The link between musical ability and literacy skill A study showing an association between rhythmic ability and reading prompted the examination of the relationship between musical ability and literacy skills. A further pilot intervention study showed that “training in musical skills is a valuable additional strategy for assisting children with reading difficulties”. (Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., Levine, L. J., Wright, E.L., Dennis, W.R. & Newcomb, R.L. (1997) as reported in The Power of Music). It has thus been suggested that a structured programme of musical activities can be used to help children develop a multi-sensory awareness and response to sounds. Based on research showing that the ability to respond physically to a musical beat is closely linked to children’s skills in reading, writing and concentration, a motor-skills class given at an elementary school in Ventura, California teaches first through fifth-grade classes how to keep a steady on-two beat Author: May Bleeker 17 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • with music. Using various activities such as dance, clapping, marching or jumping rope in weekly classes, children are given the opportunity to improve these skills. The teacher, Joanne Bowie, bases her instruction on workshops taken from Phyllis S. Weikart, a retired physical education professor from the University of Michigan and nationally recognized expert in motor-skills development for children. Weikart maintains that children should begin to develop an innate sense of timing when they are infants and that through activities such as patting or stroking babies to the tune of a lullaby, caregivers are helping children make connections between what they hear and what they do. She further maintains that this ‘hearing-feeling connection’ is what allows children to listen to something that is being said or watch something that is being done and follow the directions. She says: “What you are linking is action, thought and language.” She also maintains that having a sense of inner timing allows children to speak or read in whole sentences instead of just one word at a time. The principal of the school, Beverly McCaslin says that the class helps kids concentrate and hold their attention span longer. She says “We have seen kids who have difficulty reading and writing improve because they are able to organize their thoughts better.” (Maia Davis, Los Angeles Times, 1994) With regards to the above-mentioned example, scepticism has been levelled at what is referred to as ‘beat competency’, with the idea being that is has not been adequately substantiated. “A massive two-year study in Switzerland run with 1200 children in more than 50 classes scientifically showed how playing music improved children’s reading and verbal skills through improving concentration, memory and self expression. Younger children who had three more music classes per week and three fewer main curriculum classes made rapid developments in speech Author: May Bleeker 18 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • and learned to read with greater ease.” (Weber, E.W., Spychiger, M., and Patry, J-L., 1993, as reported in Music. Play for Life) “A 1965 study by H. Pelletier found that teaching students to play string instruments in third grade increased their reading achievement…The two groups were equated on I.Q., sex, reading achievement, and spelling achievement. The experimental group received 25 weeks for instrumental (string) instruction during the school day…At the conclusion of the study he found that the experimental groups’ reading gain was 1.9 months higher than the control group. He further noted that when the low readers in each group were compared, it was found that the experimental group students were 3.5 months ahead of the same students in the control group.” (Music and Reading Skills, Essential Advocacy Resources for Music) A study done by Debby Mitchell at the University of Central Florida titled “The Relationship between Rhythmic Competency and Academic Performance in First Grade Children” explored how sensory and motor development may influence later cognitive, perception and language skills. Findings showed that there was a significant difference in the academic achievement levels of students classified according to rhythmic competency. Students who were achieving at academic expectation scored high on all rhythmic tasks, while many of those who scored lower on the rhythmic test achieved below academic expectation. The study concludes that the large percentage of children who are achieving below academic expectation are lacking in foundation skills that should have been developed prior to entering school. (The College Board, Profile of SAT and Achievement Test Takers, 1998, 1996). A meta-analysis of 30 studies on the relationship between music instruction and performance in reading, done by Butzlaff (2000), which included 24 correlational studies and six experimental designs, found consistent Author: May Bleeker 19 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • correlations between reading and music instruction, but did not find a reliable causal link between these two activities. (as reported in Rena Upitis, et.al. 2003) Studies exploring the effects of increasing the amount of classroom music within the curriculum have found that children receiving extra music lessons kept up with their peers in language and reading skills despite having fewer lessons although there were differences between different ability groups. (The Power of Music, Applications). For those students who have the greatest difficulties with early literacy, music’s enhancement to reading is thus regarded as an investment worth making, even if it takes some time away from tutoring (Scripp,L. 2003). c. “Levelling the playing fields” for disadvantaged youngsters In research enlisting the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (USA), a panel study which has followed more than 25,000 students in American secondary schools for 10 years, it was found that the probability that children were engaged in arts activities were “almost twice as high for students from economically advantaged families” and “the probability of low arts involvement is about twice as high if one comes from an economically disadvantaged family”. (James S. Catterall, et. al., 1999). It was found in this same study that “all high SES students do better than the average student” when it comes to achievement in maths (James S. Catterall, et al., 1999) and “…low SES students with high involvement in music do better than the average student at attaining high levels of mathematics proficiency.” (James S. Catterall, et al., 1999) Given the benefits shown from being engaged in music or arts activities, specifically when it comes to maths achievement learning in and through the arts can help ‘level the playing field’ for youngsters from disadvantaged Author: May Bleeker 20 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • circumstances. (Champions of Change, The impact of the arts on learning, Music Forum Article) Other sources affirm the value that learning through the arts offers to children from lower socio-economic backgrounds: “music programmes in schools may enable the disadvantaged to learn on a more equal footing with children from more affluent backgrounds. Because it is nonverbal, music…does not force disadvantaged children to struggle with language or cultural differences”. (Frances Rauscher, 1994) “For all students, but particularly for those in the low SES (Socio-Economic Status) group, academic performance, attitudes and behaviour were positively correlated with long-term involvement in the arts.” (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003) “..insofar as there was a programme effect, the benefits of the Learning Through The Arts programme occurred for children of all socioeconomic classes” (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003) “In our pilot study with preschool children, those from disadvantaged backgrounds displays (sic) a particularly dramatic improvement in spatial reasoning ability following music training.” (Frances Rauscher, 1994) d. Effects of music on children with learning difficulties/developmental delays Music used as a therapeutic intervention is known to have a number of positive effects. Amongst others, it is reported that music therapy can help children with learning difficulties to focus their attention, increase their concentration span and, over time, improve vocalisations, looking behaviour, imitation, and initiation of ideas. (The Power of Music, Applications) Author: May Bleeker 21 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • In improvised musical play, music and lyrics have been used to facilitate social play between developmentally delayed and non-developmentally delayed children in mainstream settings. “The intervention improved the length of play episodes beyond those normally reported in the literature.” (The Power of Music, Applications) Furthermore, there is a substantial body of research showing that music can be effective with children with learning difficulties when it is offered as a reward for particular behaviours, for instance, to develop attention, reading or numeracy skills or reduce the incidence of aggression or maladaptive behaviour. (The Power of Music, Applications) “Music therapy seems to have an effect on personal relationship, emphasising the positive benefits of active listening and performing, and this in turn sets the context for developmental change. A further investigation of the data revealed the importance of hand-eye coordination for developmental change. The active element of musical playing, which demands the skill of hand-eye coordination, appears to play a significant role in the developmental changes as they occur in the therapeutic musical relationship.” (Aldridge, D., Gustroff, G., & Neugebauer, L. (1995), as quoted in The Power of Music) e. Music for all Where music instruction has traditionally been seen as specialised learning relevant to a fortunate, talented few, it has been demonstrated that the benefits of music instruction are not confined to those with musical performing “talent”. “Notational skills in music – and not musical performance ability – correlated positively with academic achievement in maths and reading. That is, among kindergartners, first graders, second graders, and pre-literate children, those who can work with symbols in music were more likely to do better on the Author: May Bleeker 22 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Stanford tests of Academic Achievement….Thus the most obvious learning connection between music and other subject areas does not rely on musical performing talent independent of academic skill, but rather the opposite. The ability to process musical symbols and representations,…is a leading predictor of music’s association with learning in other subject areas.” (Scripp, L. 2003) While simply listening to music appears to produce only temporary effects in humans, evidence for the impact of arts training on broader learning when training of skill is included has been provided in the work of Rauscher and Shaw (e.g. Rauscher et al., 1993; Rauscher et al., 1997). According to Dr Martin F. Gardiner, “strong attention should be paid to making certain that students develop not only appreciation but also skill in the arts” (Dr M. F. Gardiner, 2000). As such, music instruction that is aimed at giving children notational skills or music reading ability would be regarded as useful and beneficial. 5.2 Music, Personal Development and Social Skills In the review of research on the benefits that music has for humankind titled “The Power of Music”, Susan Hallam (UK) notes that “children receiving additional or regular classroom music lessons have shown increased social cohesion within class, greater self-reliance, better social adjustment and more positive attitudes. These effects are particularly marked in low ability, disaffected pupils. Children of low economic status receiving individual piano lessons have also exhibited increases in self-esteem compared with controls. There is also some evidence that involvement in music can increase social inclusion”. (The Power of Music, Applications) These effects are supported by other researchers who report “there is growing evidence for the positive influence of music on social-emotional development and behaviour in schools”. (Scripp, L. 2003) Author: May Bleeker 23 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Reported benefits of the arts include “increased student creativity, lower drop- out rates, and increased social skills.” (Catterall, 1998, Luftig, 1995, quoted by Upitis, R. et.al., 2003) Research with instrumental music teachers supports these findings. “They believe that the benefits of learning to play an instrument include the development of social skills, gaining a love and enjoyment of music, developing team-work, developing a sense of achievement, confidence and self-discipline, and developing physical co-ordination.” (The Power of Music, Applications) “Comments from students, parents, teachers, and administrators indicate that they value the social benefits, such as the growth of self-esteem, which they attribute to Learning Through The Arts”. (Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, Janice Finkle, 2003) At-risk children participating in an arts programme that includes music “show significant increases in self-concept, as measured by the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale”. (Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, Project ARISE: Meeting the needs of disadvantaged students through the arts) In addition to positive correlations between music and academic achievement “changes in personal behaviours also occurred and include improvement in a) Self Motivation, b) Self Esteem, c) Responsibility, and d) Initiative…” (Martin F. Gardiner, PH.D. 2000) 5.3 Music, Emotion, Attitude & Behaviour While music has the power to influence moods, emotions and physiological responses, individual characteristics of the listener and prior experiences with music are important mediators of the effects. According to Susan Hallam (The Author: May Bleeker 24 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Power of Music), “the brain’s multiple processing of music makes it difficult to predict the particular effect of any piece of music on any individual.” She comments further that “generally, music which is slow and quiet tends to encourage relaxation and reduce anxiety while stimulating music tends to increase our arousal levels. Personal reports that music helps us to relax are supported by evidence showing that muscular tension can be reduced by listening to quiet, sedative music.” (The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends) “Scientific observations of the behaviour of young children when lively music is playing indicate that they become more active suggesting that this is a ‘natural’ response.” (The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends) However, it appears that evidence with regard to the effects of particular types of music on the mood and emotions of particular groups of people is mixed. “Exploration of gender, age or social class differences have revealed no clear patterns…Nevertheless, there is some evidence that music can affect our moods, emotions and physiological responses whether we like the music or not. In one study, favourite music of whatever type lowered feelings of tension while physiological responses were greater during exciting music regardless of whether the listeners liked it. Similar effects have been found with young children undertaking a writing task. While they enjoyed writing with exciting background music playing, their task performance was better when the music was quiet and classical.” (The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends) However, Susan Hallam also points out that music that we have not personally chosen to listen to, can have a powerful effect on our emotions and subsequent behaviour. Depending on its level of intrusiveness it may be Author: May Bleeker 25 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • merely irritating or create great distress. (The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends) “Individuals can have very strong emotional experiences to music. Music can also play an important role in helping us overcome powerful emotions. Adolescents who report a high frequency of personal problems report a higher frequency of listening to music.” (The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends) Music is also of great importance to adolescents. In a study of the importance of music to adolescents in England, responses indicated that “listening to music was preferred to other indoor activities but not to outdoor activities” and that adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age listened to music for an average of 2.45 hours per day. (North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J. and O’Neill, S.A. (2000) Furthermore, findings also suggest that music has a positive effect on children with emotional and behavioural difficulties with evidence that playing background music in their classes may improve their concentration and the standard of their school work. The effects were particularly marked for children whose problems related to constant stimulus-seeking and over- activity. An Improvement in co-operation and a reduction in aggression were also observed. (Hallam, S. & Price, J., 1998, The Power of Music) A research project investigating the possibility that specific properties of certain Mozart orchestral compositions in combination, improve the co- ordination skills of pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties, suggests that Mozartian qualities may affect the physiological parameters of blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate, slowing down body metabolism and reducing enzyme and hormone production. In the study, “an improvement in co-ordination was observed, accompanied by a corresponding drop in the the aforementioned physiological parameters and an observed improvement in behaviour.” (Savan, A. (1999), as quoted in The Power of Music) Author: May Bleeker 26 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • 5.4 Comments on Best Practice At present, programmes using music and other art forms in educational settings are still in the process of identifying what constitutes ‘best practice’. Nevertheless, based on the work that has been done so far, the following are factors that have been identified as key to the success of in-school arts education programmes, but may also be applicable to other settings: Studies found that the nature and consistency of teaching / facilitation was an important element within successful arts education programmes and speculation is that differences in outcomes could link to differences in teachers/facilitators’ level of ability to deliver the programme. Facilitator training and set minimum standards may thus be an important aspect of ensuring that arts programmes are delivered successfully. “…as the same classroom teachers work with the same set of artists over the years, the student work gets better.” (Gail Burnaford, 2003) Programmes that focus on teaching music skills (such as notational skills and actual instrument skills) may be of more long-term benefit than those that focus simply on listening to music. Larry Scripp, from Project Zero, an educational research group at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, says “it would be a mistake,…to base school programmes solely on recent research focused on the temporary effects of listening of music (e.g. the “Mozart effect”), when far more studies tell us that making music and becoming literate in music – being able to read, interpret, and write music – make a greater and more sustainable difference in enhancing learning in other subjects. (Scripp, Larry. 2002) Author: May Bleeker 27 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • The length, depth and breadth of music programmes are determining factors when it comes to bringing about beneficial results. Adopting an inclusive, longer term approach, where sustainability is the focus rather than short-term results, and where emphasis is placed on integrating music programmes with other aspects of education programmes (or curricula), at all age levels, would seem ideal. Furthermore, effective teacher / facilitator training and development in the arts would be essential. In identifying key elements of successful arts education programmes it is noted that artists are involved as teachers, coordinators, or as resources for arts specialists and non-arts teachers. It is also useful to note that one of the key elements of successful in-school arts education programmes was that the community, business, and local arts organizations are actively involved in helping students learn about the arts, within and outside the school day. A successful programme would also require that teaching and learning are regularly assessed and evaluated to determined best what works in arts education. (key elements drawn from: Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf) Dr Rene Upitis, Professor of Arts Education at Queens University, Canada suggests that there should be multiple approaches to arts education. She identified the following four reasons: • Children are different from one another and, consequently, often learn in profoundly differing ways, even within the arts • Cultural differences and regional differences require flexibility in approaches to teaching and learning in order to maximize opportunities for children and the communities in which they live • Teachers bring differing strengths and expertise to the teaching of the arts Author: May Bleeker 28 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • • Arts education must include learning about, through, and in the arts, and these different approaches to the arts require differing types of resources and expertise (Dr Rene Upitis, 2000) 5.5 Caveats The following quotations indicate the importance of adopting a judicious approach when it comes to the utilisation of music for developmental purposes, since study results are mixed. “We should not be simplistic about the positive outcomes of music education...” (Maria B. Spychiger, 1998) While many studies have shown that music-making has the power to change significant psychological conditions such as mood, concentration, stamina, state of motivation, etc, and even the improvement of important factors in mental abilities, such as those shown in studies relating to the Mozart-effect (Frances Rauscher), these provide examples of short-term effects of music or musical activity. From these kinds of results it cannot be assumed that music can change things in the long-term. She identifies 5 qualifying statements that need to be applied when considering conclusions on the positive effects that music has on children’s ability to learn. a. Short-term and long-term effects of music and musical activity need to be distinguished from each other. b. Positive (long-term) effects on the cognitive domain are not necessarily direct outcomes of music and musical activity. (Rather, it may be a result of more creative teaching methods or spill-over effects such as improved social connectivity and communication between programme participants). c. The effects in the social domain are stronger / more direct than in the cognitive domain (“music tuition is, more than other subjects, Author: May Bleeker 29 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • based in social, interaction and shared activity, and…it depends on the ability to listen to each other, including trusting, being patient, tolerant, and kind. Many of the single sociograms show that children who at the beginning of the assessment were outsiders became increasingly integrated throughout the three years.” d. It depends on the quality of the teacher. (“Good teaching has been the strongest factor in the conclusiveness of the findings of positive extra-musical outcomes from (extended) music education.”) e. The transfers are specific (“Not just any musical activity will be benefical to other…abilities and capabilities; rather, the musical activity and the topic of the extra-musical improvement have to be similar.”) (Maria B. Spychiger, 1998) In a study done by Konrad J. Burdach & Sylvia-Gioia Caesar in 1979, “They used two different music programmes in two groups and received different extra-musical outcomes for the two groups. The one focusing on creativity and social activity had effects on social factors such as aggressivity and inhibition, but not on concentration or other school subjects. The other programme, concentrating on music theory, Solfège (a way of assigning syllables to names of the musical scale, i.e. Do, Re, Mi, Fa, etc) and notation, had positive impact on achievement in general, but not on social factors.” (Maria B. Spychiger, 1998) 6 Conclusions & Recommendations From the research data related to music and children’s development it is clear that there is robust evidence concerning the links between music and the cognitive development domain, including, but not limited to, neurological development, spatial reasoning, academic gains in the areas of maths and literacy, and the therapeutic use of music with children that have developmental delays or learning difficulties. Music as a medium for learning offers clear benefits in these areas, not least in that arts education programmes result in increased student engagement. However, there is much Author: May Bleeker 30 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • to be done in the way of clarifying the mechanisms involved in bringing these effects about. A cautious approach is justified when it comes to issues of causality. Research has also yielded evidence concerning the links between music and the realm of personal development including emotion, attitude, behaviour, and social skills. While the power that music has on mood, emotions and physiological responses is widely acknowledged and accepted, evidence of the effects are somewhat mixed. Similarly, while the effects of music on children’s personal and social development is generally held to be positive with respect to enhancing self- concept and encouraging pro-social skills, research in this area appeared to be less integrated, with less long-term study data available on the internet. (To what extent this may reflect the limitations of the internet as publishing medium, rather than constrictions within the research field, is not known). The relatively lesser degree of emphasis on findings in this area may also reflect the inherent difficulties of social science research. Given the complexity of variables involved and the difficulty in isolating them in order to measure differences brought about through experimental design, as well as the fact that measurements are derived from oral or written reports of events and these may be biased, inaccurate or incomplete, social science is necessarily more subjective than physical science and offers results that are less definite and harder to replicate. Given the benefits that music holds in terms of cognitive development and academic achievement, and that music programmes may enable the disadvantaged to learn on a more equal footing with children from more affluent backgrounds, the importance of in-school or out-of-school music programmes may lie also in the fact that, in some instances, they may offer disadvantaged children their only opportunity for music instruction. Author: May Bleeker 31 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • However, while the current data provides support for music programmes contributing significantly to education, it does not necessarily follow that simply having arts programmes within a total programme will in itself guarantee benefits. According to Dr Martin Gardiner2 (Brown University, USA) positive outcomes are as likely to depend on “good design based on what is already known, good teaching, and continued research, and development of understanding of the factors involved and related theory” (Dr Martin F. Gardiner, 2000). Note: Research data on out-of-school music programmes was not readily available to this research method. 2 Dr Martin F. Gardiner, Researcher at Brown University’s Centre for the Study of Human Development. Faculty member at New England Conservatory, Senior Research Associate of the Conservatory’s research centre for Learning Through Music. Author: May Bleeker 32 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • 7 Contacts Dr Susan O’Neill Project Director: Young People and Music Participation Project (funded by the Economic and Social Research Council) [Research Associate: Professor John Sloboda – j.a.sloboda@keele.ac.uk] Keele University Department of Psychology Keele Staffordshire ST5 5BG (t) 01782-583669 (f) 01782-583387 s.a.o’neill@psy.keele.ac.uk Contacted via email: copied to John Sloboda. Susan O’Neill provided a reference but no interest indicated regarding tender. No direct reply from John Sloboda. Dr Alexandra Lamont Course Director: MSc in Music Psychology Lecturer in Psychology of Music Department of Psychology Keele University Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG Tel: (+44) 1782 583323 Fax: (+44) 1782 583387 a.m.lamont@keele.ac.uk Contacted via email: Interested in seeing tender. Not involved in research on this topic herself, but has project students who have done. Jim Clark University of Northumbria 0191 215 6420 Secretary: 0191 215 6420 Author: May Bleeker 33 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Contacted via telephone. Involved in an ongoing study with children under 5 years that has a 4 year scope. No results published as yet. Dr Susan Young School of Education and Lifelong Learning University of Exeter Heavitree Road Exeter EX1 2LU 01392 264965 Contacted via email: Responded positively and indicated interest in the tender. She is currently writing a chapter of a book on ‘musical communication’. Her focus: music in early years. Adrian North Department of Psychology University of Leicester University Road Leicester LE1 7RH (t) 0116 252 2170 (f) 0116 252 2067 [+44(0) 116 252 2170] General no’s. (t) 0116 252 2522 (f) 0116 252 2200 Contacted via telephone. Indicated interest in seeing the brief, although he is not involved with work involving children’s development. Referred writer to David Hargreaves and Alex Lamont. Professor David H Hargreaves Centre for International Research in Music Education (CIRME) University of Surrey Roehampton Southlands College Roehampton Lane London SW15 5LS Tel: +44 (0)20 8392 3755 Fax: +44 (0)20 8392 3786 Email c.freeland@roehampton.ac.uk http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/cirme/ Contacted via email: Responded positively and indicated an interest in the brief. He provided references. Dr Jane W. Davidson University of Sheffield Department of Music 38 Taptonville Road Sheffield Author: May Bleeker 34 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • S10 5BR (t) +44 (0) 114 222 0470 (f) +44 (0) 114 222 0469 j.w.davidson@sheffield.ac.uk Contacted via email: no reply Dr Susan Hallam Lifelong Education and International Development Institute of Education University of London 20 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AL Rm: 716 Tel: +44 (0)20 7612 6371 Fax: +44 (0)20 7612 6632 Email: s.hallam@ioe.ac.uk Not contacted as yet. Compiled: ‘The Power of Music’ website: www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk/directory.htm 8 References Aldridge, D., Gustroff, G., & Neugebauer, L. (1995). A pilot study of music therapy in the treatment of children with developmental delay, Complementary Therapeutic Medicine, 3(4), 197-205 (as quoted in The Power of Music, http:// www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk) Armstrong, A. & Casement, C. (1997). The child and the Machine. Toronto: Key Porter as reported by Upitis, R. 2002 Burnaford, Gail. Teacher Education and Professional Development Through Collaboration, Crossing Boundaries: The role of higher education in professional development with arts partnerships. Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 Butzlaff, R. (2000). Can music be used to teach reading? The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), 167-178 Author: May Bleeker 35 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Catterall, J. (1998). Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? Art education, 51(3), 6-11 http:www.aep-arts.org/highlights/coc- release.html Catterall, J., Chapleau, R., & Iwanaga,J. (1999a) Involvement in the arts and human development: General involvement and intensive involvement in music and theatre arts. The Imagination Project as UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California at Los Angeles. Catterall, J., Chapleau, R., & Iwanaga, J. (1999b) Involvement in the arts and human development: Extending an analysis of general association and introducing the special cases of intensive involvement in music and in theatre arts. Unpublished manuscript. The Imagination Project, Graduate school of Education and Information studies, university of California at Los Angeles. Chabris, Christopher F. Nature 400, 826 – 827, 26 August 1999. Prelude or requiem for the ‘Mozart Effect’? Chute, Eleanor. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 1998, Music and Art Lessons Do More Than Complement Three R’s. Essential Advocacy Resources for Music, http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy- resource.pdf Costa-Giomi, Eugenia. University of Texas at Austin. Effects of three years of piano instruction on children’s academic achievement, school performance and self-esteem. Psychology of Music. Vol 32, Issue 02, 04/2004. Davis, Maia (1994). Keeping a Musical Beat is Linked to Academic Skills. Los Angeles Times (feature). From: Http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential- advocacy-resource.pdf (quoted source: http://www.tcams.org/davis.htm) Author: May Bleeker 36 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Deasy, R.J. (2002). Critical Links: Learning in the arts and student academic and social development. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership. Also available on line at http//www.aep-arts.org Dickinson, D. Music and the Mind. Seattle, Wash.:New Horizons for Learning. In: James R. Ponter. Comparing School Music Programs and Science Test Scores Worldwide. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin. February 1999. From: American Music Conference website: http://www.amc-music.com Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstrub, B. & Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270:5234, 305–307. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference, Exposure to Music Is Instrumental to the Brain, University of Muenster, http:// www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference, Project ARISE: Meeting the needs of disadvantaged students through the arts, Auburn University, 1992. http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential- advocacy-resource.pdf Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. Music On the Mind, Newsweek, July 24, 2000. http://www.amc- music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. Music and Reading Skills. http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy- resource.pdf Author: May Bleeker 37 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. Music Making Beats Computers at Enhancing Early Childhood Development. http:// www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. Musical Brain – Special Brain Area Found for Reading Music Scores. NeuroReport, 1998. http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy- resource.pdf Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. Music Training Helps Underachievers. Nature, May 23, 1996. http://www.amc- music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Faita, F. & Besson, M. (1994). Electrophysiological index of musical expectancy: Is there a repetition effect on the event-related potentials associated with musical incongruities? In I. Deliege (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd international conference for music perception and cognition (433-435). Liege, Belgium. (quoted in Donald A. Hodges, IFMR). As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Flohr, J., Persellin, D., & Miller, D. (1996). Children’s electrophysical responses to music. Paper presented at the 22nd International Society for Music Education World Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands. (ERIC Document PS025654). As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Fowler, C. (1996). Strong arts, strong schools: the promising potential and shortsighted disregard of the arts in American schooling. New York: Oxford University Press. Foreman, Judy. Globe Staff. How Music Tunes Our Mental Strings. Author: May Bleeker 38 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Gardiner, Martin F., PH.D. Music, Learning, and Behaviour: A case for mental stretching. Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000. Gardiner, Martin F., PH.D. Arts Training in Education. The Teaching Exchange. Jan 1999 Greene, M. (1995). Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press Gunsberg, A. (1988). Improvised musical play: a strategy for fostering social play between developmentally delayed and non-delayed preschool children, Journal of Music Therapy, 15(4), 178-191. Hallam, Susan and Lamont, Alexandra. Learners: Their Characteristics and Development. From Mapping Music Education Research in the UK. BERA Music Education Review Group. http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/pdfs/musicreview.pdf Hallam, S. & Price, J. (1998). Can the use of background music improve the behaviour and academic performance of children with emotional and behavioural difficulties? British Journal of Special Education, 25(2), 88-91 (from The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk ) Hallam, Susan. The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk) The Power of Music, The effects of music on individuals: overall trends Harland, J., Kinder, K., Haynes, J. & Schagen, I (1998). The effects and effectiveness of arts education in schools. Slough: NFER, as reported by Hallam, S., and Lamont, A., BERA Music Education Review Group Haroutounian, Joanne. How Mozart Really makes You Smarter. Piano & Keyboard, January / February 2001. From American Music Conference. http:// www.amc-music.com quoting Hetland, L. (2000). Listening to music enhances Author: May Bleeker 39 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • spatial-temporal reasoning: Evidence for the “Mozart Effect”. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4) 105 - 148 Hamblen, K.A. (1993). Theories and research that support art instruction for instrumental outcomes. Theory into Practice, 32(4), 191-198 Hetland, L. (2000). Listening to music enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: Evidence for the “Mozart Effect”. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4) 105 – 148 Hodges, Donald. A. Institute for Music Research. University of Texas at San Antonio. Musicality from Birth to Five. From International Foundation for Music Research (IFMR). http://www.music-research.org/Publications/V01N1_musicality.html Luftig, R. (1995). The schooled mind: do the arts make a difference? Year 2. Oxford, OH: Centre for Hman development, Learning, and teaching, Miami University. Moore, B. & Caldwell, H. (1993). Drama and drawing for narrative writing in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 1000 – 110. Murfee, E. (1995). Eloquent evidence: Arts at the core of learning. Washington, DC: President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities. North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J. and O’Neill, S.A. (2000) The importance of music to adolescents, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 255-272. (from The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk Parks, M. & Rose, D. (1997). The impact of Whirlwind’s Reading comprehension through Drama Programme on 4th grade students’ reading skills and standardized test scroes. (Techical Report ~2102), Data Driven Decisions, Berkeley, CA: 3D Group Author: May Bleeker 40 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Pascual-Leone, A. Dand, N. Cohen, L. Braskil-Neto, J. Cammarota, A., & Hallett, M. (1995). Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74:3, 1037–1045. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Petsche, H. (1992). EEG and musical thinking. Paper presented at the 2d International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, February, University of California at Los Angeles. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Petsche, H., Lindner, K., Rappelsberger, P., & Gruber, G. (1988). The EEG: An adequate method to concretize brain processes elicited by music. Music Perception, 6, 133-159. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Petsche, H., Pochberger, H., & Rappelsberger, P. (1985). Music perception, EEG, and musical training. EEG-EMG 16:4, 183-90. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Petsche, H., Richter, P., von Stein, A., Etinger, S. & Filz, O. (1993). EEG coherence and musical thinking. Music Perception 11:2, 117-51. Ponter, James R. Comparing School Music Programs and Science Test Scores Worldwide. National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Bulletin. February 1999. Rauscher, Frances, Ph.D. Can music make Us More Intelligent?, Billboard, Oct 15, 1994. From: American Music Conference website: http://www.amc- music.com Rauscher, F.H., Shaw, G.L., Levine, L.J., Wright, E.L., Dennis, W.R. & Newcomb, R.L. (1997). Music training causes long term enhancement of Author: May Bleeker 41 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • preschool children’s spatial-temporal reasoning, Neurological Research, 19, 2-8. From The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk Rauscher, Frances H. Nature 400, 827 – 828, 26 August 1999. Reply: Prelude or requiem for the ‘Mozart Effect’? Savan, A. (1999). The effect of background music on learning, Psychology of Music, 27(2), 138-146 (from The Power of Music, http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk ) Schlaug, G., Jäncke, L., Huang, Y., & Steinmetz, H. (1994). In vivo morphometry of interhemispheric asymmetry and connectivity in musicians. In Deliege (ed.), Proceedings of the 3d international conference for music perception and cognition (417–418). Liege, Belgium. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Schlaug, G., Jäncke, L., Huang, Y., & Steinmetz, H. (1995). In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267:5198, 699–701. Schlaug, G., Jänke, L., Huang, Y., Staiger, J., & Steinmetz, H. (1995). Increased corpus callosum size in musicians, Neuropsychologia 33, 1047-1055. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Scripp, Larry. Critical Links, Next Steps: An Evolving Conception of Music and Learning in Public School Education. Journal for Learning Through Music/Summer 2003. http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html Spychiger, Maria B. Can Music in school Give Stimulus to Other School Subjects? Written version of a lecture given at music pedagogical symposium of the music fair in Gothengorg, Sweden, 17 Sept 1998. From: Music Forum Article, Music Council of Australia website. http://www.mca.org.au/m15217.htm. Author: May Bleeker 42 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Swanwick, Keith. Mapping Music Education Research in the UK. An Overview. BERA Music Education Review Group. Oct 2001. http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/pdfs/musicreview.pdf The College Board. Profile of SAT and Achievement Test Takers, compiled by Music Educators National Conference, 2001, 1996. The College Board, Profile of SAT and Achievement Test Takers, compiled by Music Educators National Conference, 1998, 1996. The Power of Music, Applications. http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk The Arts Education Partnership. CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE: The impact of the arts on learning (published 1999 by the Arts Education Partnership and the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities). Music Forum Article, Music Council of Australia. http://www.mca.org.au/m15231.htm Upitis, Rena; Smithrim, Katharine; Patteson, Ann; MacDonald, Jane; & Finkle, Janice. Improving Math Scores: Lessons of Engagement. Presented at the Canadian society for the Study of Education Annual Conference, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, May 2003. Upitis, Dr Rina. One Size Does Not Fit All: The Need for Multiple Approaches to Arts Education in Canada. Presented at the Arts and Educations Pre- Conference Summit, Toronto, November 10-12, 2000 Upitis, R. (2002) Intrinsic, Intellectual, and Economic benefits of the Arts. Slide presentation to the Conference for the Love of the Arts and at the Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Feb 2002. Author: May Bleeker 43 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Upitis, R. & Smithrim, K. (2001). Learning Through The Arts: National Assessment Interim Report. The Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto, Canada Upitis, Dr R and Smithrim, Dr Katharine. Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (2001). Paper Two: Baseline Student Achievement and Teacher Data from Six Canadian Sites. Symposium: The Effects of an Enriched Elementary Arts Education Program on Teacher Development, Artist Practices, and Student Achievement. Presented at the America Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, April 10 – 14, 2001 Vaughn, K. (2000). Music and Mathematics: Modest support for the oft- claimed relationship. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), 149 – 166; as reported by Upitis, Rena et. al. 2003 Vesna K. Ivanov and John G. Geake, University of Melbourne; Oxford Brookes University, The Mozart Effect and primary school children. Psychology of Music, Volume 31 Issue 04, 10/2003. SAGE Publications, http://www.sagepub.co.uk Wallick, Michael, D., A Comparison Study of the Ohio Proficiency Test Results Between Fourth-Grade String Pullout Students and Those of Matched Ability. Journal of Research in Music Education, 1998. Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. http://www.amc- music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Weber, E.W., Spychiger, M., & Patry, J. (1993). Music makes the School. Schlussbericht zu “Bessere Bildung mit mehr Musik”. Padagogisches Institut der Universitat, Freiburg/C.H. – as reported by R. Upitis (2002) Author: May Bleeker 44 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Weber, E.W., Spychiger, M. & Patry, J-L. (1993). Music Makes the School. Essen: Verlag Blaue Eule, as reported by Hallam, S., and Lamont, A., BERA Music Education Review Group Welch, N. & Greene, A. (1995). Schools, communities and the arts: A research compendium. Tempe, AZ: Morrison Institue for Public Policy, Arazona State University. Williamson, S. & Kaufman, L. (1988). Auditory evoked magnetic fields. In A. Jahn & J. Santos-Sacchi (eds.), Physiology of the ear (497-505). New York: Raven Press. As quoted in Hodges, Donald A. (International Foundation for Music Research website & Pianonet website) Wolff, K.L., The Effects of General Music Education on the Academic Achievement, Perceptual-Motor Development, Creative Thinking, and School Attendance of First-Grade Children, 1992. Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference. http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential- advocacy-resource.pdf Weber, E. W., Spychiger, M, and Patry, J-L. Musik Macht Schule. Biografie und Ergebnisse eines Schulversuchs mit erweitertemMusikuntericcht. Pedagogik in der Blauen Eule, Bd17. 1993. from Music. Play for Life. http://www.mca.org.au/mpfl/research1.htm Zulauf, M. (1993). Three year experiment in extended music teaching in Switzerland: the different effects observed in a group of French-speaking pupils. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 119, 111-21, as reported by Hallam, S., and Lamont, A., BERA Music Education Review Group Author: May Bleeker 45 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Appendix 1 Bibliography 1. Amazing Grace: The Story of One Teacher and Twenty-four Students with Guitars Patteson, A. (2001) Presented at 2nd International Conference for Research in Music Education April 3-7 2001, School of Education,University of Exeter 2. Artists in Schools: Teacher Transformation & Student Achievement Dr. Katharine Smithrim, Dr. Rena Upitis, Ann Patteson, & Margaret Meban Presented at 2nd International Conference for Research in Music Education April 3-7 2001, School of Education, University of Exeter Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html contact: Dr. Katharine Smithrim Faculty of Education Queen's University Kingston Ontario Canada K7L 3N6 (613) 533-6000 ext 77762 smithrik@educ.queensu.ca 3. Arts & Positive 'Habits of Mind' Author: May Bleeker 46 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Learning In and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications', Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, Hal Abeles, Centre for Arts Education Research Teachers College, Columbia University, July 1999, published in 'Champions of Change' www.pcah.gov http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 4. Arts Education brings School Community Success An Arts Integration Program Enriches the Curriculum and brings a school community a new level of success', from website of Americans for the Arts http://www.artsusa.org/public_awareness/pac_article.asp?id=648 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 5. Arts Integration Results In Higher Elementary Test Scores National Association of Elementary School Principles www.naesp.org/comm/p0398c.htm http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 6. Arts Involvement Has Positive Impact on Students of All Socio-Economic Levels Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in music and Theatre Arts' James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanaga UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies (found in 'Champions for Change' www.pcah.gov) http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 7. Arts Organizations and Community Outreach David Dik & Joe Picano Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 8. Babies can Un-Ravel Complex Music Beatriz Ilari, Linda Polka, Eugenia Costa-Giomi Popular version of paper 4pSC8, presented Thursday, June 6, 2002, 143rd ASA Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA http://www.acoustics.org/press/143rd/Ilari.html 9. Band members get better math, science and language grades Jeffrey Lynn Kluball; Daryl Erick Trent American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 10. Can Music in School Give Stimulus to Other School Subjects? Maria B. Spychiger Music Council of Australia http://www.mca.org.au/m15217.htm 11. Can Music Make Us More Intelligent? Frances Rauscher, Ph.D, Billboard http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 12. Children Taught with New Curriculum Combining Math and Music Score Higher on Test of Advanced Math skills and Standford 9 http://www.mindinst.org http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 13. Comparing School Music Programs and Science Test Scores Worldwide Academic Achievement and the Need for a Comprehensive Developmental Music Curriculum. NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) Bulletin, Vol.83, No. 604, Feb 1999 Author: May Bleeker 47 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 14. Critical Links, Next Steps: An Evolving Conception of Music and Learning in Public School Education Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 15. Cross-cultural alternatives for music in education Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 16. Developing Organizational Structures that support ongoing collaborative professional development Arnold Aprill Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 17. Differences in mental abilities between musicians and non-musicians Susanne Brandler & Thomas H. Rammsayer, Georg Elias Müller Institute for Psychology, Göttingen Psychology of Music, Vol 31 Iss 02, 04/2003 SAGE Publications (for Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research) www.sagepub.co.uk & www. Sempre.org.uk 18. Dr. Gordon Shaw Opens MIND Institute AMC Music News, American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 19. Effects of three years of piano instruction on children's performance and self-esteem Eugenia Costa-Giomi, University of Texas at Austin Psychology of Music, Vol 32, Iss 02, 04/2004 SAGE Publications (for Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research) www.sagepub.co.uk & ww. Sempre.org.uk 20. How Many Smarts Do you Have? ‘A daring theory says intelligence isn't one thing but many', Karen Pennar http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 21. How Mozart Really Makes You Smarter Joanne Haroutounian Piano & Keyboard, Jan/Feb 2001 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 22. How Music Tunes Our Mental Strings Judy Foreman, Globe http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 23. Implications of Learning Through Music for Public Education Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 24. Improving Math Scores: Lessons of Engagement Rena Upitis, Katharine Smithrim, Ann Patteson, Jane MacDonald, & Janice Finkle Presented at the Canadian Society for the Study of Education Annual Conference, Dalhousi University, Halifax, NS, May 2003 Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6 Author: May Bleeker 48 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html 25. Intrinsic, Intellectual, and Economic Benefits of the Arts Upitis. R (2002) Presented at the Conference for the Love of the Arts and at the Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Feb 14, 2002 Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html 26. Introducing multiple representations of music into the elementary school curriculum Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http:www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 27. Introduction: The premise of learning through music Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music, Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 28. Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in Music and Theatre Arts James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanaga UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/publications 29. Keeping a Musical Beat Is Linked to Academic Skills Feature, Los Angeles Times, 1994, Maia Davis, http://www.tcams.org/davis.htm 30. Keys to Success In The Arts and Student Achievement http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 31. Learning through music portfolios in elementary schools (2000) L Davidson, S Crouch, A Norton Journal for Learning Through Music, Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/JLTM1-pdf/5learning.pdf 32. Learning Through The Arts: Artists, Researchers, and Teachers Collaborating for Change Rita L. Irwin and Kit Grauer University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies http://www.curricstudies.educ.ubc.ca/projects/ltta.html 33. Making Music, Listening, And Learning Listening Training and Music Education', Paul Madaule, Early Childhood Coonections: Journal of Music and Movement-based Learning, Vol.4, No.2, Spring 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 34. Mapping Music Education Research in the UK 1 BERA Music Education Review Group Collection of presentations at the BERA National Event Number Five 'Mapping Music Education Research in the UK' held at University of Surrey Roehampton, 18 Sept 1999. BERA Music Education Review Group http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/pdfs/musicreview.pdf 35. Mapping Music Education Research in the UK 2 BERA Music Education Review Group http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/pdfs/musicreview.pdf Author: May Bleeker 49 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • 36. Math Skills Grow Over Time With Instrumental Music Participation Champions for Change' published by the President's Council on the Arts and Humanities www.pcah.gov http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 37. Math: The Invisible Hand Behind the Music NCTM News Bulleting, July/August 1999 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 38. Mental Stretching in Action: Research and program development at the Conservatory Lab Charter School Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http:www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 39. Music & Reading Skills http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 40. Music Advocacy's Top Ten for Everyone Essential Advocacy Resources for Music: American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 41. Music and Art Lessons Do More than Complement Three R's not quoted Eleanor Chute, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 42. Music and the Brain The Music in Our Minds', Norman M. Weinberger. Educational Leadership, Vol.56, No.3 Nov 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 43. Music Has Biological Roots in Humans The Music in Our Minds', Norman M. Weinberger. Educational Leadership, Vol.56, No.3 Nov 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 44. Music in Society The Power of Music http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk 45. Music in the Education of Young Adolescents Robert H. Woody published in Middle School Journal, Vol.29, No.5, May 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 46. Music Lessons help students more than computer training Neurological Research, Feb 28, 1997 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 47. Music Making Beats Computers at Enhancing Early Childhood Development http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 48. Music on the Mind http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 49. Music students enjoy greater college success Author: May Bleeker 50 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • References: 'The Comparative Academic Abilities of Students in Education and in Other Areas of a Multi-focus University', Peter H. Wood, ERIC Document No ED327480; 'The Case for Music in the Schools', Phi Delta Kappan, Feb 1994, American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 50. Music Training And Mental Imagery Alemean, M.R. Nieuwenstein, K.B.E. Bocker, E.H.F. de Haan, published in Neurophsychologica, vol.38 (2000), pp. 1664-1668 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 51. Music Training helps under-achievers Nature, May 23, 1996 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 52. Music, Learning & Behaviour: A Case for Mental Stretching Marin F. Gardiner, PH.D Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 53. Musicality from Birth to Five Donald A. Hodges, Institute for Music Research, University of Texas at San Antonio International Foundation for Music Research http://www.music-research.org/publications/V01N1_musicality.html 54. Notes of Nurture - Kids Who Make Music Also Build Brain Power, Research Shows John Reinan, Staff writer, The Charlotte Observer, Jan 5, 1999 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 55. One Size Does Not Fit All: The Need for Multiple Approaches to Arts Education in Canada 56. Dr Rena Upitis Presented at the Arts and Education 2000 Pre-Conference Summit, Toronto, November 10 - 12, 2000 Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6 http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html upitisr@educ.queensu.ca 57. Performing Musicians as Artist-Teachers Eric Booth Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 58. Piano and Computer Training Boost Student Math Achievement Dr Gordon Shaw, Neurological Research, March 15, 1999 (presented at American Music Conference; "UC Irvine study Shows Second-Graders in Study Scored Higher than Others on Fractions and Proportional Math") http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 59. Piano Boosts Student Math Skills Neurological Research, March 1999 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 60. Private Music Lessons Are Linked To Higher Math Test Scores Joyce M. Cheek and Lyle R. Smith, Adolescence, Vol. 34, No. 136, Winter 1999 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Author: May Bleeker 51 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • 61. Pull-out String Lessons Do Not Harm Academic Achievement According to Ohio Study A Comparison Study of the Ohio Proficiency Test Results between Fourth-grade String Pullout Students and Those of Matched Ability Michael D. Wallick, Journal of Research in Music Education, 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 62. Read With A Beat: Developing Literacy Through Music and Song Gayla R. Kolb, published in 'The Reading Teacher' vol. 50 no.1, Sept 1996, pp.76-77 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 63. Research & Assessment on the Arts and Learning: Education Policy Implications of Recent Research on the Arts and Academic and Social Development James S. Catterall Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 64. Research Findings on the Benefits of a Music Education Music. Play for Life Australian Music Association http://www.mca.org.au/mpfl/research1.htm 65. Research that matters (Work that matters: Research & Policy in Music Education) Upitis. R (2001) Presented at Sixth Colloquium for Teachers of General Music Methods, Mountain Lake, Virginia, May 18, 2001 Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html 66. Research, Music and Policy Debates Joan Schmidt, Director National School Boards Association, Montana School Boards Association Bulletin, April 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 67. Rhythm students learn fractions easier Dr Frances Rauscher Neurological Research, March 15, 1999 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 68. Rhythmic Ability as a Foundation for Learning and Evolution Timing, Concentration, and Motor Skills (TCAMS) Professional Resource Centre http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 69. Second Grade Students Combining Computers and Music Score As Well As Fourth Grade Students on Math Exam www.MINDInst.org http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 70. Singing Familiar Songs uses Spatial Intelligence Perception Special Interest Research Group Newsletter vol.13 No.1 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 71. Strategies for Low-Performing Schools and At-Risk Youth VH1 President John Sykes and VH1 Save the Music Executive Director Bob Morrison, to the National Governors Association , Feb 25, 2001 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 72. Strategies for School Change through Music and the Arts Author: May Bleeker 52 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • Lyle Davidson, Caryn Claar, & Masami Stampf Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html Substance abuse lowest in music students Houston Chornicle, Jan 11, 1998 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 73. Teacher Education and Professional Development Through Collaboration Gail Burnaford Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 74. Teaching Musicians the Art of Possibility: Observations on a Master Class by Ben Zander Patrick Keppel Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 75. Ten-Year Study shows music improves test scores Dr James Catterall, UCLA, 1997 American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 76. Texas All-State Musicians Score 196 Points Above National Average on The 2000 SAT www.tmea.org/025_Advocacy/allstate.html http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 77. The A+ Schools program: Establishing and Integrating the Arts as Four Languages of Learning Vincent Marron Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 78. The Arts' Impact on Learning Richard J. Deasy and Harriet Mayor Fulbright Education Week, Vol.20, no.19, Jan 24, 2001, pp34,38 http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug+19deasy.h20 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 79. The Brain-Music Connection 'Brain: Music of the Hemispheres', Discover, March 1994; 'Music of the Hemispheres', James Shreeve, Discover, October 1996; 'Sweet Taste in Music May Be Human Trait, Harvard Study Finds', Richard A. Knox, Boston Globe, Sept 1996 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 80. The Effects of an Enriched Elementary Arts Education Program on Teacher Development, Artist Practices, and Student Achievement Dr. Rena Upitis, Dr. Katharine Smithrim, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, April 10 - 14, 2001 http://educ.queensu.ca/~arts/conference_presentations.html upitisr@educ.queensu.ca 81. The Impact of the Arts on Learning: Champions of Change Author: May Bleeker 53 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • The Arts Education Partnership, a publication of The Arts Education Partnership & The President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities in the USA. Music Council of Australia http://www.mca.org.au/m15231.htm 82. The Mozart Effect and primary school children Vesna K. Ivanov & John G. Geake, University of Melbourne; Oxford Brookes University Psychology of Music, Vol 31 Iss 04, 10/2003 SAGE Publications (for Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research) www.sagepub.co.uk & www. Sempre.org.uk 83. The Mozart Effect: Does Involvement in the arts really translate into academic success or is the claim spurious? Music. Play for Life http://www.amc.org.au/mpfl/research1.htm http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 84. The Musical Mind: Training in music, researchers find, has a positive effect on cognitive development' Susan Black http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 85. The Power of Music Susan Hallam http://www.thepowerofmusic.co.uk 86. The Teaching Artist and the Artistry of Teaching Eric Booth Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 87. The Wrong Keyboard? Popular Science, June 1997 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 88. Verbal Memory Improved by Music Training Agnes S. Chan, Yim-Chi Ho, and Mei-Chun Chuang, 'Music Training Improves Verbal Memory', from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Printed in Nature, Vol. 396, Nov 12, 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 89. Want Sharp Students? Music Notes Might Be the Key Carrie Sturrock, Charlotte Observer, August 30, 1999 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 90. What do we want our schools to do? Eric Oddleifson, Phi Delta Kappan, Feb 1994 (Chairman of the Center for Arts in the Basic Curriculum, Washington, DC) http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 91. What Happens When Two Elementary Schools meet a Symphony Orchestra? Larry Scripp Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2000 http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 92. What Makes Music Great for Education? Based on presentation by Robert Kapilow & the Borromeo Quartet Journal for Learning Through Music / Summer 2003 Author: May Bleeker 54 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004
    • http://www.nec-musicined.org/journal-index.html 93. Why Arts Education Is Basic The Changing Workplace Is Changing Our View of Education', Business Week, October 28, 1996 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 94. Why Do Schools Flunk Biology? LynNell Hancock, Newsweek http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 95. Wisconsin District Requires Piano Lessons for K-5 Students Karen L. Abercrombie, Education Week, Oct. 14, 1998 http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf 96. World's leading academic countries value music education American Music Conference http://www.amc-music.org 97. Year-Old Babies Remember Music Heard In Womb Tim Radford, 'Babies have ear for music in womb', Guardian Unlimited/The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,519873,00.html http://www.amc-music.com/pdf/essential-advocacy-resource.pdf Author: May Bleeker 55 Research Foundation 4Children May/June 2004