Assessment: Process of gathering information and drawing conclusions about the traits, skills, abilities, emotional functioning, and psychological problems of the individual, generally for use in developing a diagnosis Four primary means of assessment:
Involve assessment of verbal and nonverbal behavior, as well as process (how the client communicates) and content (what the client talks about).
Standardization: common procedures are followed
Formal standardized interview : a checklist of questions, with scales for rating answers, is given to each client. Examples:
Composite International Diagnostic Interview
Mental Status Exam
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV TR
Errors: The structure and process of the interview, the ability of the client to accurately and subjectively provide information about himself, and the interviewer’s ability to accurately and subjectively record information may introduce errors.
Functions: to obtain an estimate of the person’s current level of cognitive functioning, to assess intellectual deterioration present in psychotic disorders, and to examine the person’s behavior during the testing event.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (also available in forms appropriate for children 6 to 16 (WISC) and 4 to 6 (WPPSI)) and the Standford Binet Scales are the most commonly used today.
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) used to evaluate the intelligence and achievement of children 2.5 to 12.5
Used with both general and special populations, as well as with exceptional children
Less culturally dependent than other intelligence tests
IQ tests measure cultural and social factors rather than intelligence.
The Bell Curve (Hernstein & Murray, 1994) argued that IQ scores are determined by heredity, and that “social and status differences between intellectually different classes are therefore difficult to overcome,” (in Sue, Sue & Sue 2003, 83).
The ability of IQ tests to predict future achievement or behaviors has been questioned.
Researchers disagree about what future achievements or behaviors IQ scores predict.
Intelligence may be too multifaceted to be measured thoroughly and accurately by intelligence tests.