Chapter 13: Students with  Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs <ul><li>Misconceptions about ASD students (p...
Misconceptions about ASD (pp. 165-166)  <ul><li>ASD is a kind of mental illness.  No known psychiatric illness  </li></ul>...
Different Types of Autism (p. 166) <ul><li>There are 5 different types of Autism listed under the title, Pervasive Develop...
Who Has It? <ul><li>More common in boys than girls, 3:1 or 4:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,000 kids in Ontario public schools...
Characteristics of Autism (p. 167) <ul><li>Social Interaction-  aloofness and distancing oneself from others ( like to be ...
 
Characteristics <ul><li>: </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate laughing or giggling </li></ul><ul><li>No real fear of danger </...
Red flags for parents (p. 168) <ul><li>Does not babble at 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hears but does not respond to name </li></ul...
Treatment  (p.170) <ul><li>No cure  or accepted treatment for ASDs  </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment approaches fall into 4 pri...
Issues in the Field (pp. 173-174) <ul><li>Parent advocates for programs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of programs – who should pa...
Classroom strategies (pp. 174-176) <ul><li>Placement already in place  - Most students will have a program implemented by ...
Classroom strategies (pp. 174-176) <ul><li>Structure group work deliberately  – clear instructions for every member  </li>...
Suggestions For Teachers <ul><li>Be consistent and be sure students know the consequences of their own actions. </li></ul>...
Chapter 12: Students with  Autism Spectrum Disorders  (ASD) <ul><li>Misconceptions about students with  Neurological Disab...
Misconceptions about  Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs  (pp. 179-180)  <ul><li>Conditions like epilepsy ...
Misconceptions about  Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs  (pp. 179-180)  <ul><li>1) Students with special ...
Cerebral palsy (p. 180) <ul><li>injury to the brain either before, during and after birth </li></ul><ul><li>motor disorder...
Spina bifida (p. 181) <ul><li>any sudden  injury  that causes temporary permanent  brain damage after birth </li></ul><ul>...
Acquired brain injury (ABI)(pp. 181-2) <ul><li>a sudden injury that causes temporary or permanent  injury to the brain aft...
Seizure disorders (Epilepsy) (pp. 182-3) <ul><li>symptom of a brain disorder that leads to  seizures </li></ul><ul><li>los...
Tourette syndrome(p. 183-4)  (p <ul><li>is a low-incident need, there is no test for “tourettes”  </li></ul><ul><li>neurol...
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)(p. 157) <ul><ul><li>Even small amounts of alcohol  can result in FAS, damaging the fetus </li...
Multiple Disabilities (pp. 184-5) <ul><li>Has  one or more special needs , e.g. 1/3 of students with hearing loss have oth...
Chronic Health Needs (p. 185) <ul><li>e.g. cystic fibrosis, scoliosis, MD, diabetics, cancer, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Chroni...
Issues in the Field (pp. 185-187) <ul><li>Teachers are concerned with  how to react in emergency situations.  </li></ul><u...
Classroom Implications (p. 187) <ul><li>Awareness and caution  – but don’t be fearful & ignorant. </li></ul><ul><li>Attent...
Classroom strategies (pp. 188) <ul><li>Teachers must  model (to class)  on how to “be helpful without taking over” and rea...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 13: Students with Neurological Disabilities and ...

801 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
801
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 13: Students with Neurological Disabilities and ...

  1. 1. Chapter 13: Students with Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs <ul><li>Misconceptions about ASD students (pp. 165-166) </li></ul><ul><li>Different Types of Autism (p. 166) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of ASD (p. 167) </li></ul><ul><li>Red flags for parents (p. 168) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment (p.170) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues in the Field (pp. 173-174) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom strategies (pp. 174-176) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Misconceptions about ASD (pp. 165-166) <ul><li>ASD is a kind of mental illness. No known psychiatric illness </li></ul><ul><li>ASDs are untreatable. Early intensive intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupied, career parents are most at risk for causing ASD – no evidence </li></ul><ul><li>ASDs are result of social disconnected urban culture – no connection </li></ul><ul><li>ASDs can be caused by vaccination – 1998 journal retracted in 2004 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different Types of Autism (p. 166) <ul><li>There are 5 different types of Autism listed under the title, Pervasive Development Disorder. Included are: </li></ul><ul><li>Autistic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive Development Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Rett’s Disorder (girls only) </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Disintegrative Disorder </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who Has It? <ul><li>More common in boys than girls, 3:1 or 4:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,000 kids in Ontario public schools have autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 5 per 10,000 births are born with “classic” autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s syndrome is over 90 per 10,000 births. </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s is not easily recognizable and may be confused or misdiagnosed with other neurological disorders such as Attention Deficit Disorder, No medical tests available for diagnosis (ex. Blood Test) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Autism (p. 167) <ul><li>Social Interaction- aloofness and distancing oneself from others ( like to be alone ), lack eye-contact nor body language, little shared play or making friend. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication - speech delay, diminished or absent , may use gestures, and attach words to unusual meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour - “bizarre”, obsessed with a theme or object, repeated actions , delays in responding, imitative learning is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to Sensory Stimuli -responses to sights, sound can be dramatic/upset or none . </li></ul><ul><li>Transition/Responses to Change- difficulty coping with changes in environment/routines, e.g. recess, EA </li></ul>
  6. 7. Characteristics <ul><li>: </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate laughing or giggling </li></ul><ul><li>No real fear of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent insensitivity to pain </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects physical contact </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained unusual or repetitive play </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Displays lack of interest in people or play </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty expressing needs and may use gestures instead </li></ul><ul><li>Displays inappropriate attachments to objects </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Echoes words or phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate response or no response to sound </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive spinning of objects or self </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty interacting appropriately with others </li></ul><ul><li>*these characteristics may be displayed in various combinations and in varying degrees of severity depending on the child </li></ul>
  7. 8. Red flags for parents (p. 168) <ul><li>Does not babble at 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hears but does not respond to name </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids eye contact and cuddling </li></ul><ul><li>Begins language then stops </li></ul><ul><li>Does not point to things or seek attention </li></ul>
  8. 9. Treatment (p.170) <ul><li>No cure or accepted treatment for ASDs </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment approaches fall into 4 principle categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical (vitamin supplements, medications, food allergies) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurosensory (overstimulation and patterning, sensory integration techniques, facilitated communication, and auditory training) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho-dynamic (holding and body contact therapy, psychotherapy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural (intensive behaviour intervention, behavioural modification ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Issues in the Field (pp. 173-174) <ul><li>Parent advocates for programs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of programs – who should pay? </li></ul><ul><li>Media – Rain Man </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you let your students pick their own groups we’ll always be picked last. Defeats purpose of having groups, doesn’t it” Asperger student, age 19 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Classroom strategies (pp. 174-176) <ul><li>Placement already in place - Most students will have a program implemented by and EA or teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition - Due to variability among students, often a trial and error process </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching essential skills - must be simple in order to process, need more time to process </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the ordinary -Teachers must be aware of adverse behaviours (sometimes obvious) and alternatives must be taught, NOT punished </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a safe haven – provide a quiet place if needed (with adult), tell other students </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for changes in routine – provide assistance </li></ul>
  11. 12. Classroom strategies (pp. 174-176) <ul><li>Structure group work deliberately – clear instructions for every member </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a seating plan – classroom location and who </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to the Internet – ideal tool, individual </li></ul><ul><li>Be a positive role model – coach the class </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on special interests – ASD student teach others about ASD </li></ul><ul><li>Create a caring community </li></ul>
  12. 13. Suggestions For Teachers <ul><li>Be consistent and be sure students know the consequences of their own actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Display ground rules in a visual spot. </li></ul><ul><li>Only give the child attention/praise for positive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary routines and provide transition time with warnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Continually search for objects, activities, etc. that the child enjoys as these can help motivate and reward the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the student into normal sociable time during class, so they can learn from their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Have highly structured and consistent education plans tailored to the individual student. </li></ul><ul><li>Add visual stimuli and textures to the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unexpected loud noises. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid humor/irony (ex. It’s raining cats and dogs) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat instructions multiple times. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove distractions. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) <ul><li>Misconceptions about students with Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs (pp. 179-180) </li></ul><ul><li>The Needs (pp. 180-185) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues in the Field (pp. 185-187) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom implications (p. 187) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom strategies (pp. 188) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Misconceptions about Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs (pp. 179-180) <ul><li>Conditions like epilepsy and Tourettes indicate mental illness. No more or less disposed to mental illness than anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>People with spin bifida are incontinent. Bowel and bladder problems in severe cases but not with milder cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis is found only in elderly adults, no, with all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Medical science is reducing the incidence of physical disabilities and chronic conditions. Number increases as technology is increasing the survival rates. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Misconceptions about Neurological Disabilities and Chronic Health Needs (pp. 179-180) <ul><li>1) Students with special health conditions are automatic candidates for special education. (false) Students with chronic needs may miss a great deal of schooling and may benefit from remedial work. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with Tourette syndrome swear and “talk dirty”, called coprolalia . Only 1/3 manifests the trait. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical condition of cerebral palsy students cannot be improved. Intervention and therapy can make a positive change </li></ul><ul><li>Neurologically disabilities implies diminishing intellectual capacity. This connection is not absolute. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cerebral palsy (p. 180) <ul><li>injury to the brain either before, during and after birth </li></ul><ul><li>motor disorder, difficulty maintaining posture (floppy muscle tone, involuntary movements) </li></ul><ul><li>slow, poorly coordinated voluntary movement , stiff, tense muscles, some degree of involuntary movement </li></ul><ul><li>not progressive but not curable </li></ul><ul><li>intellectual and development delays such as speech and language problems, visual auditory difficulties, and seizures </li></ul><ul><li>requires special equipment and E.A. may present a range of problems in the classroom </li></ul>
  17. 18. Spina bifida (p. 181) <ul><li>any sudden injury that causes temporary permanent brain damage after birth </li></ul><ul><li>occurs in spinal column when one or more vertebrae do not close during pre-natal development </li></ul><ul><li>often accompanied by hydrocephalus, enlargement of the head caused by pressure from cerebral spinal fluid </li></ul><ul><li>doesn’t really affect progress in school, however, problems include difficulty paying attention, processing judgment, problem solving, sudden outburst of anger </li></ul><ul><li>higher than average chance of L.D. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Acquired brain injury (ABI)(pp. 181-2) <ul><li>a sudden injury that causes temporary or permanent injury to the brain after birth, e.g. car accidents, near drawning, violence, sports related injuries </li></ul><ul><li>serious effect on cognitive, behavioural/emotional and physical well being </li></ul><ul><li>Physical difficulty in fine and gross motor skills, speech , hearing and vision, difficulty with attention, processing, judgment, problem solving, memory, </li></ul><ul><li>behavioural and emotion problems , </li></ul><ul><li>usually need specialized help in a school setting </li></ul><ul><li>a team approach involving parents, school and medical personal, is suggested </li></ul>
  19. 20. Seizure disorders (Epilepsy) (pp. 182-3) <ul><li>symptom of a brain disorder that leads to seizures </li></ul><ul><li>losses of consciousness, often convulse , may fall or stop breathing </li></ul><ul><li>may lose bladder control, bight tongue </li></ul><ul><li>teacher’s post seizure responses should be positive </li></ul><ul><li>teacher’s reassurance and emotional support is crucial </li></ul>
  20. 21. Tourette syndrome(p. 183-4) (p <ul><li>is a low-incident need, there is no test for “tourettes” </li></ul><ul><li>neurological disorder that usually manifests itself in childhood (motor/vocal tics), small percentages use obscenities or curses </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour-hyperactivity, obsession, indiscriminate rage </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms can disappear for long periods or all together </li></ul><ul><li>Due to advocacy it has become well known/researched </li></ul><ul><li>Other indicators: Difficulty starting or finishing work </li></ul><ul><li>Problems comprehending verbal instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion over space time direction </li></ul>
  21. 22. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)(p. 157) <ul><ul><li>Even small amounts of alcohol can result in FAS, damaging the fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAS is lifelong and can be physical, behavioural and intellectual, from minor to major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAS individuals have a higher epilepsy rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAS is more common in homeless population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases of FAS cases are on the rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the 1970’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAS is 100% preventable. Don’t Drink While Pregnant! </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Multiple Disabilities (pp. 184-5) <ul><li>Has one or more special needs , e.g. 1/3 of students with hearing loss have other special needs </li></ul><ul><li>not always intellectually slow , some have oral language </li></ul><ul><li>tendency to place students with multiple disabilities is self-contained classes, sometimes integrated into regular classes with an EA </li></ul><ul><li>they need extra communication and support </li></ul>
  23. 24. Chronic Health Needs (p. 185) <ul><li>e.g. cystic fibrosis, scoliosis, MD, diabetics, cancer, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic health care not automatic special education. </li></ul><ul><li>may mean that both special program and services </li></ul><ul><li>Important for teachers to have an understanding of both daily and emergency procedures (i.e. Epi-pens) </li></ul><ul><li>school is a crucial element in the normalization </li></ul><ul><li>if a health needs can be met in a regular school </li></ul><ul><li>special attention is required (e.g. missed time due to frequent medical appointments) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Issues in the Field (pp. 185-187) <ul><li>Teachers are concerned with how to react in emergency situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Families often experience emotional havoc (see movie). </li></ul><ul><li>They require extra time, money, energy and love, thus become draining on the teacher and parents and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility usually happens by default in a case of severely disabled students, especially on the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>EA sometimes becomes the sole teacher and even sole companion. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Classroom Implications (p. 187) <ul><li>Awareness and caution – but don’t be fearful & ignorant. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to behaviour (class culture) as well as instruction and curriculum for the regular class </li></ul><ul><li>Involves medication with sedating side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Students often miss instructional time due to illness/ therapy. Teacher must stay on top of this with extra help . </li></ul><ul><li>Personal needs are intensified in cases of chronic health needs </li></ul><ul><li>Affect progress through natural stages of development (e.g. Cerebral palsy) </li></ul><ul><li>North American culture obsessed with body image - these students cannot hide their disabilities </li></ul>
  26. 27. Classroom strategies (pp. 188) <ul><li>Teachers must model (to class) on how to “be helpful without taking over” and react with empathy not pity. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must treat students the same as everyone else while making allowances for everyday needs </li></ul><ul><li>Use technology to assist students learning </li></ul><ul><li>Itinerant teachers are available for students at home, in the hospital or in other institutions </li></ul><ul><li>On occasion teachers help to discovery disabilities that go unnoticed (i.e. seizures, Tourettes) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and cooperation are essential between teachers, parents and EAs </li></ul>

×