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Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
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Chapter 13
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Chapter 13

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  • 1. Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities
  • 2. Assessing Your Disease Risks <ul><li>Risk factors you can’t control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism Resistance </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. &nbsp;
  • 4. Assessing Your Disease Risks <ul><li>Risk factors you can control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoinoculate yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit from one part of body to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal-borne pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interspecies transmission </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. &nbsp;
  • 7. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Physical and chemical defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linings of the body </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>The immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunoglobulins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humoral immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Autoimmune diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune deficiency syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rises in temperature can be harmful if extreme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures can destroy some disease causing organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates more white blood cell production </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to either direct or referred pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often accompanied by inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination and T- and B-cell memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural immunity </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. The Immune Response Figure 13.1
  • 12. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, by Vaccine and Age Group Figure 13.2
  • 13. Living with Allergies <ul><li>Allergy-induced respiratory problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen or allergen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitive reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of histamines </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Steps of an Allergic Response Figure 13.3
  • 15. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-celled organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis (TB) </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Examples of 4 Major Types of Pathogens Figure 13.4
  • 17. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious mononucleosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis: 3 types (HAV, HBV, HCV) </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul>
  • 18. Is It an Allergy, a Cold, or the Flu? Figure 13.5
  • 19. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Other pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prions </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Emerging and Resurgent Diseases <ul><li>Tiny microbes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mad Cow Disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis-BSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avian Bird Flu (H5N1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli 0157:H7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. ABC News: Infectious Disease <ul><li>Discussion Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an epidemic and pandemic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What animals, other than birds, have been identified as having the “Bird flu?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What strategies have the Thailand Ministry of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control designed to monitor the spread of the Bird Flu in Thailand? </li></ul></ul>Play Video | Infectious Disease
  • 22. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called STDs, once called venereal diseases (VD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 known types of STIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S, 19 million new cases reported every year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral and social stigma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual attitude toward sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignorance about infections/symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>How STIs are transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-genital contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-genital contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth to mouth contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with fluids from body sores </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Signs or Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infection Figure 13.6
  • 25. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.8 million infected annually in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 10 % college students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many display no symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary damage can lead to sterility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most common STIs in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDC estimates over 700,000 cases per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early treatment: antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications with non-treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a number of infections of the uterus/fallopian tubes/ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can result from untreated infections </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by a bacterial organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirochete known as Treponema pallidum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages: primary, secondary, latent, late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Herpes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex type 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex type 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially serious in pregnant women – possible to transfer infection to baby during birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In women with herpes, greater risk for cervical cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing herpes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme caution in casual sexual affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek medical help </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Genital warts (Human Papilloma Virus - HPV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 different types of HPV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infect over 6.2 million Americans each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-blown genital warts or flat warts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health risks from genital warts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysplasia – change in cells that may lead to a precancerous condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine to prevent HPV </li></ul>
  • 30. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Candidiasis (moniliasis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast-like fungus caused by Candida albicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: severe itching, burning, swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginitis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by a protozoan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of American men and women carry this organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many remain symptom-free </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Pubic lice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Crabs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs nest in clothing, furniture and linens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General urinary tract infections (UTIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be caused by invading organisms in the genital area </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global health problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1981, over 65 million people in the world have become infected with HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39.5 million living with HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A shifting epidemic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly found indicator of virus: drop in CD4s, the master immune cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved reporting/accuracy </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>How HIV is transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in high risk behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injecting drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-to-infant transmission (perinatal) </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Women and AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women represented 27% of newly reported AIDS cases in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special concerns for women with HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-10 times more likely than men to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underrepresented in clinical trials for treatment and prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers to decision-making </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Sources of HIV Infection in Men and Women in the United States Figure 13.7
  • 36. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Symptoms of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation time varies greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For HIV positive adults with no medical treatment, AIDS will develop in 8-10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic infections </li></ul></ul>
  • 37. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Testing for HIV antibodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood test known as ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western blot – follows 2 positive ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These tests detect antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even with antibodies, not all develop AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cure does NOT exist </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>New hope and treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New drugs slow progression of virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication currently very expensive and cause many side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protease inhibitors/reverse transcriptase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing HIV infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No vaccine currently available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce risk by responsible choices and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstinence or safe sexual practices </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Noninfectious Diseases <ul><li>More than just major ailments such as cancer and heart disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most other chronic conditions can be prevented or symptoms alleviated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally not transmitted by pathogen or personal contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle and personal habits often underlying causes </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of lining of bronchial tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced air flow from the lungs/heavy mucous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute bronchitis: symptoms improve in a few weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic bronchitis: last for at leas 3 months, serious form </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual destruction of alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more difficult to exhale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim struggles to take in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest cavity expands over time (barrel-chest) </li></ul></ul>
  • 43. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term chronic inflammatory disorder that blocks airflow to the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollutants, particulates, smoke, allergens and stress can trigger an asthma attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic (allergic asthma) or intrinsic (nonallergic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief: relaxation techniques, medications </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects more than 18 million Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic episodes of breathing cessation for 10 seconds or longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes restless sleep, high blood pressure, irregular heart beats, heart attack, stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common treatments: reduce alcohol use, losing weight, change sleeping position, medicinal interventions </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension headaches: muscular contraction headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: relaxation, hot water, massage, pain medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migraine headaches: severe debilitating symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: ergot drugs, other medications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster headaches: more rare forms; “killer” or “suicidal” pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: oxygen therapy, drugs, surgery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 46. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Seizure disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million people in the U.S. suffer some form of seizure-related disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About half are of unknown origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promising treatments today </li></ul></ul>
  • 47. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic, slow neurological condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1.5 million Americans suffer from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shaking palsy”, rigid or stiff muscles, poor balance, slurred speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive and incurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New drug therapies to control symptoms / new surgical procedures show promise </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Multiple Sclerosis (MS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects over 500,000 Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degenerative disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve malfunctions from break down by myelin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically appears between 15 and 50 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: Inconclusive theories </li></ul></ul>
  • 49. Digestion-Related Disorders <ul><li>Lactose intolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ability to produce digestive enzyme lactase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colitis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulcerative colitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe stomach cramps, weight loss, nausea, sweating, fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: Increase fiber intake, anti-inflammatory drugs, other medications </li></ul></ul>
  • 50. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes 1 in 5 Americans/ over 46 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis (OA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic joint pain, headaches, dizziness, numbness, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Array of symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to diagnose </li></ul></ul>
  • 51. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or Lupus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack kidneys, brain, heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of all victims are female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low back pain (LBP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of Americans will experience LBP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of all back problems in lumbar region (lower) </li></ul></ul>
  • 52. Other Maladies <ul><li>Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling tired all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No viral cause found, possible psychosocial roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of work injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs to employers in workers’ compensation and absenteeism </li></ul></ul>

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