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~ Attention Deficit - Lindsey Pospisil.ppt
 

~ Attention Deficit - Lindsey Pospisil.ppt

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    ~ Attention Deficit - Lindsey Pospisil.ppt ~ Attention Deficit - Lindsey Pospisil.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ADD/ADHD By:Lindsey Pospisil
    • Definition
      • AD/HD is a behavioral and neurological disorder
      • According to the DSM-IV there are three separate types:
        • 1. AD/HD as a combined type including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
        • 2. AD/HD with just inattention
        • 3. AD/HD with hyperactivity and impulsivity
              • (American Psychiatric Association {APA}, 2000)
    • Symptoms
      • The three main symptoms are:
        • 1. Inattention
        • 2. Impulsivity
        • 3. Hyperactivity
      • Other common symptoms are:
        • Distractibility
        • Memory
        • Emotional reactivity
        • Self-discipline
        • Hyperfocusing
    • History
      • The first person to label AD/HD was Heinrich Hoffman in 1845
      • Symptoms of AD/HD have been seen since the 1800’s
        • These symptoms are commonly seen in children after they have suffered from neurological damage
      • 1937 the first stimulant drug Dexedrine was found for hyperactive children, but was ignored till the 1960’s
        • In the 1950’s drug therapy was the most commonly used treatment for hyperactive children
      • In the 1970’s they slowly became aware of the neurological background involved with AD/HD
      • During the 90’s AD/HD became one of the most common disorders
    • Causes
      • Environmental:
        • Lead
        • Prenatal care: smoking and alcohol
      • Genetics:
        • Common among close family members
        • Not sure which exact gene causes AD/HD
      • Frontal Lobe:
        • the frontal lobe plays a role in one’s personality
        • Main functions include planning, concentrating, impulses, motivation
        • The frontal lobe integrates messages it receives from the temporal and parietal areas
    • Causes
      • Neurotransmitters
        • Dopamine
          • main neurotransmitter
          • Low levels can cause attention problems and distractibility
        • Nor epinephrine, Epinephrine, Acetylcholine, Serotonin
          • These all have an influence on awareness, memory functions, and concentration
    • Treatments
      • Stimulant medication
        • Most effective treatment
        • Dosages can be increased or decreased to fit specific needs
          • Dexedrine
          • Adderall
          • Concerta
          • Focalin
          • Metadate
          • Ritalin
          • Cylert
    • Treatments
      • When AD/HD is seen along with Depression and Anxiety, antidepressants can be given to help behaviors for both disorders.
      • Behavior treatment is usually recommended for those diagnosed with AD/HD along with stimulant medication
    • Conclusion
      • The exact cause is yet unknown for AD/HD
      • There are many parts of the brain and body that have an influence inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, but future research is in progress on trying to pinpoint the exact area in the brain that causes AD/HD.
    • References
      • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (4 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
      • Purves, D., Augustine, G. J., Fitzpatrick, D., Hall, W. C., LaMantia, A. S., McNamara, J. O., Williams, S. M. (2004). Neuroscience (4 th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc.
      • Quinn, Patricia (Ed.). (2001). ADD and the College Student . Washington, DC: Magination Press.
      • Strock, Margaret. (1996). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Institute of Mental Health. No. 3572. Retrieved November 27, 2005, from, http://www/nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd/cfm.