AGING AND TRAUMA Key Points

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  • 1. AGING AND TRAUMA Key Points Increased longevity results in increased neurological disorders ‘ Normal’ age-related changes in brain structure Neurodegenerative diseases – abnormal changes with age Basic knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease – neuropathology, genes Basic understanding of Parkinson’s disease Role of genetic versus environmental factors Stroke – infarct and haemorrhage Traumatic injuries to brain and spinal cord, primary - secondary events Knowledge of reactions to axonal injury Glial cell changes Differences between CNS and PNS injury Reading Crossman and Neary. pgs 13-17, 21, 27, 54-56, 127, 158 Kiernan (7th Ed), pgs 31-35, 38, 59-62, 103-104 Nolte (4th Ed), pgs 35, 89-94, 490-492 Fitzgerald, pgs 47-48, 53-55, 102-105, 215-217, 225, 234-235
  • 2. AUSTRALIA
  • 3.
    • Changes associated with ‘normal’ aging
    • Brain shrinkage, regression of processes/synapses
    • Inclusions
    • Changes in levels of neurotransmitters and their receptor s
    • Degenerative diseases – abnormal aging
    • Cortical plaques containing irregular cell processes and beta-amyloid, activated glial cells.
    • Cellular changes in Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampal neurons
    • Altered blood vessels
  • 4.  
  • 5. Older adults actually use different regions of the brain and more of the brain than younger adults to perform the same memory and information processing tasks. Overall, Reuter-Lorenz believes that older adults benefit from bi-hemispheric processing. Using two hemispheres instead of one, and more of the brain overall, may allow seniors to compensate for some of the mental declines that come with age.
  • 6. Exercise and trophic factor production in the adult brain
  • 7.  
  • 8. Alzheimer’s Disease Amyloid plaques, tangles Early versus late-onset Alzheimer’s disease APP, apoE, presenilins, tau Changes in neurochemistry (acetylcholine), receptor levels
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Parkinson’s disease and dopamine cell loss Neurodegenerative diseases
  • 12.  
  • 13. Early diagnosis and neuroprotection, or cell replacement? Parkinson’s Disease **
  • 14. Huntington’s Normal
  • 15. Multiple sclerosis
  • 16. Traumatic and vascular accidents
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. The mammalian nervous system brain spinal cord CNS PNS
  • 21.  
  • 22. Spinal Cord Injury
  • 23.