ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

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  • Also, not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful.

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  • 1. Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Diversity Session 4 Understanding ADHD: Characteristics and impacts upon language learning and behaviour Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education
  • 2. What is ADHD?
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • A neurological disorder
    • Problems with inattention , and, in many cases, impulsivity and hyperactivity
  • 3. Diagnosis of ADHD
    • Persistence
    • An individual must have exhibited either symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity as listed in DSM-IV for a period of at least six months.
    • Pervasiveness
    • The symptoms must be present in two or more situations (e.g. school, home, etc.)
  • 4. Diagnosis of ADHD
    • Severity
    • The symptoms presented must be serious enough to cause clinically significant impairment in social or academic functioning.
  • 5. Subtypes of ADHD
    • American Psychiatric Association’s DSM IV
    • Two categories:
      • Inattention
      • Hyperactivity-impulsivity
    • Three subtypes:
      • Combined subtype ( most children with ADHD have the combined type )
      • Predominantly inattentive subtype
      • Predominantly hyperactive impulsive subtype
  • 6. Combined subtype
    • Don’t pay attention well to lessons or individual tasks (particularly repetitive, uninteresting ones)
    • Can’t seem to focus or stay quiet
    • Fail to start work
    • Easily frustrated and bored
    • Want to switch activities too often
    • Overly active
  • 7. Combined subtype
    • Too talkative
    • Class clown
    • Want peer attention
    • Don’t adhere to rules
    • Noisy and disruptive
    • Interrupt and call out in class without raising hand
    • Rejected by peers who find their behaviour to be annoying
  • 8. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
    • Have problems with attention but not hyperactivity or impulsivity
    • Extremely inattentive but capable of attending to things that appeal to their interests or when performing highly enjoyable activities e.g. playing video games
    • Easily distracted by external stimuli or their own thoughts
    • Underactive
  • 9. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
    • Unable to stay focused for long on a task
    • Spend inordinate amounts of time daydreaming
    • Often quiet and go unnoticed in a classroom
    • Difficulty concentrating and controlling their streams of thought
  • 10. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
    • Need close supervision to get through a task
    • ADHD children do well in one-on-one situations.
    • It takes a lot of effort for them to shift their attention from one thing to another
    • Low self-esteem
    • High risk for academic failure
  • 11. Predominantly hyperactive impulsive subtype
    • Overly active and impulsive
    • Impulsivity: inability to regulate emotions and behaviour
    • The impulsive student may drop pens and leave homework and classwork everywhere
    • No signs of inattention
  • 12. Key facts of ADHD Hyperactivity often diminishes by puberty. However, inattentiveness and impulsivity remain. 70-80% of children with ADHD have persistent difficulties into adulthood. ADHD and dyslexia co-occur in 30-50% of cases.
  • 13. Useful websites about ADHD
    • Attention Deficit Disorder Association (Articles)
    • http://www.add.org/
    • Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • http://www.chadd.org/
    • LD Online
    • http://ldonline.org/
  • 14. Activity 1 - Sharing
    • How do you react to the AD/HD students? Share with other participants in terms of:
      • your personal perception towards AD/HD students
      • problems the AD/HD students might create for the teachers
    • How many students in your class/school are AD/HD students or likely to have AD/HD?
  • 15. Activity 2
    • Think about a student in your class/school who is an AD/HD student or likely to have AD/HD. Based on the “Criteria for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, see how many symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity the student has. Are his/her problems persistent and pervasive?
  • 16. Activity 3
    • There are three main subtypes of AD/HD:
    • 1) Predominantly inattentive type
    • 2) Predominantly hyperactive /impulsive type
    • 3) Combined type
    • Based on the symptoms of Horace and Ingrid, try to identify the subtype of AD/HD each of them has.
  • 17. Activity 4
    • Read the “10 Things Teens with ADHD Want Their Teachers to Know” carefully and see how much you know about your AD/HD students.
  • 18. Activity 5
    • Watch the video “Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders” carefully and try to identify the three major characteristics of behaviours of AD/HD children.
  • 19. Activity 5
    • Watch the video “Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders” carefully and try to identify the three major characteristics of behaviours of AD/HD children.
      • Easily distracted
      • Emotional
      • Impulsive