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ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
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ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)


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  • Also, not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful.
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    • 1. Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Diversity Session 4 Understanding ADHD: Characteristics and impacts upon language learning and behaviour Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education
    • 2. What is ADHD?
      • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
      • A neurological disorder
      • Problems with inattention , and, in many cases, impulsivity and hyperactivity
    • 3. Diagnosis of ADHD
      • Persistence
      • An individual must have exhibited either symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity as listed in DSM-IV for a period of at least six months.
      • Pervasiveness
      • The symptoms must be present in two or more situations (e.g. school, home, etc.)
    • 4. Diagnosis of ADHD
      • Severity
      • The symptoms presented must be serious enough to cause clinically significant impairment in social or academic functioning.
    • 5. Subtypes of ADHD
      • American Psychiatric Association’s DSM IV
      • Two categories:
        • Inattention
        • Hyperactivity-impulsivity
      • Three subtypes:
        • Combined subtype ( most children with ADHD have the combined type )
        • Predominantly inattentive subtype
        • Predominantly hyperactive impulsive subtype
    • 6. Combined subtype
      • Don’t pay attention well to lessons or individual tasks (particularly repetitive, uninteresting ones)
      • Can’t seem to focus or stay quiet
      • Fail to start work
      • Easily frustrated and bored
      • Want to switch activities too often
      • Overly active
    • 7. Combined subtype
      • Too talkative
      • Class clown
      • Want peer attention
      • Don’t adhere to rules
      • Noisy and disruptive
      • Interrupt and call out in class without raising hand
      • Rejected by peers who find their behaviour to be annoying
    • 8. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
      • Have problems with attention but not hyperactivity or impulsivity
      • Extremely inattentive but capable of attending to things that appeal to their interests or when performing highly enjoyable activities e.g. playing video games
      • Easily distracted by external stimuli or their own thoughts
      • Underactive
    • 9. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
      • Unable to stay focused for long on a task
      • Spend inordinate amounts of time daydreaming
      • Often quiet and go unnoticed in a classroom
      • Difficulty concentrating and controlling their streams of thought
    • 10. Predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD)
      • Need close supervision to get through a task
      • ADHD children do well in one-on-one situations.
      • It takes a lot of effort for them to shift their attention from one thing to another
      • Low self-esteem
      • High risk for academic failure
    • 11. Predominantly hyperactive impulsive subtype
      • Overly active and impulsive
      • Impulsivity: inability to regulate emotions and behaviour
      • The impulsive student may drop pens and leave homework and classwork everywhere
      • No signs of inattention
    • 12. Key facts of ADHD Hyperactivity often diminishes by puberty. However, inattentiveness and impulsivity remain. 70-80% of children with ADHD have persistent difficulties into adulthood. ADHD and dyslexia co-occur in 30-50% of cases.
    • 13. Useful websites about ADHD
      • Attention Deficit Disorder Association (Articles)
      • Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
      • LD Online
    • 14. Activity 1 - Sharing
      • How do you react to the AD/HD students? Share with other participants in terms of:
        • your personal perception towards AD/HD students
        • problems the AD/HD students might create for the teachers
      • How many students in your class/school are AD/HD students or likely to have AD/HD?
    • 15. Activity 2
      • Think about a student in your class/school who is an AD/HD student or likely to have AD/HD. Based on the “Criteria for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, see how many symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity the student has. Are his/her problems persistent and pervasive?
    • 16. Activity 3
      • There are three main subtypes of AD/HD:
      • 1) Predominantly inattentive type
      • 2) Predominantly hyperactive /impulsive type
      • 3) Combined type
      • Based on the symptoms of Horace and Ingrid, try to identify the subtype of AD/HD each of them has.
    • 17. Activity 4
      • Read the “10 Things Teens with ADHD Want Their Teachers to Know” carefully and see how much you know about your AD/HD students.
    • 18. Activity 5
      • Watch the video “Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders” carefully and try to identify the three major characteristics of behaviours of AD/HD children.
    • 19. Activity 5
      • Watch the video “Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders” carefully and try to identify the three major characteristics of behaviours of AD/HD children.
        • Easily distracted
        • Emotional
        • Impulsive