• Like
The impact of bullying in adolescents on school
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

The impact of bullying in adolescents on school

  • 5,284 views
Published

 

Published in Education , Career
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,284
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
182
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Impact of Bullying in Adolescents at School A research paper presented to the Faculty of the English and Foreign Language Department in partial fulfillment of the requirement in English Communication 2 Submitted by: 1. Paulyn Gonzaga 2. Dennimar Domingo 3. Arcy Joy Ferreras 4. Nika Rochele Alcantara 5. Racel Anne Balagtas 6. Christine Shaira Sanchez Submitted to: Professor Danilo Escandor February 6, 2013
  • 2. Acknowledgement We profoundly would like to express our grateful to Adamson University (Adu) for providing us great learning experiences. Our special thanks go to our professor, Mr. Danilo Escandor, for teaching us on how to conduct this research correctly. He always there for correcting us, to give us right direction, and to provide us with his brilliant insights. We realized that without him, we would never have made this work to come to a good end. We also would like to thank the authors of different researches that give us different ideas in conducting our research paper. They allow us to explore more about their ideas when it comes to the topic that we‟re conducting. Also our parents for giving us their confidence in ours, encouragement and love, through our studies and our lives. They have made substantial sacrifices to help us attain our goals. And last but not least, especially God for giving us enough strength, wisdom and knowledge to do this research paper.
  • 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Every day thousands of teens wake up afraid to go to school. Bullying is a problem that affects millions of students, and it has everyone worried, not just the kids on its receiving end. Yet because parents, teachers, and other adults don't always see it, they may not understand how extreme bullying can get. Some bullies attack their targets physically, which can mean anything from shoving or tripping to punching or hitting, or even sexual assault. Others use psychological control or verbal insults to put themselves in charge. Bullying is a behavior that can only be easily recognized when individuals experience it. Bullying can happen to anyone at any age and anywhere whether at school, home, or even in a workplace. So far, it is difficult to define bullying since it relates to both a wide range behavior that may constitute bullying, and the characteristics of bullying behavior (Montgomery, 1994, p. 3). However, the definitions in use were adopted by Roland (1989) and Olweus (1991). Roland defines bullying as “long standing violence, physical or psychological, perpetrated by an individual or group directed against an individual who cannot defend himself or herself” (p. 21). In line with this Olweus also defines bullying as “repeated, negative actions over time, including hitting, kicking, threatening, locking in a room, saying nasty and unpleasant things, and teasing” (p. 413). Rigby, (2008) suggests that bullying is “the systematic abuse of power in interpersonal relationship” (p. 22). In other words, bullying is when a person is picked on over and over again by an individual or group with more power, either in terms of physical strength or social standing. Rigby argues that the abuse of power is not restricted only to certain managerial or
  • 4. “authority” positions, but that most individuals have “the opportunity to exercise power to control over someone”. Thus, there are apparently imbalances in physical and psychological strength between the bully and the victim (Olweus and Solberg, 1998, p. 7). Regarding the recognition of bullying, Olweus and Solberg, (1998) have suggested some typical characteristics to recognize bullying behavior. They said that “we generally speak of bullying when one or more persons repeatedly and over a period of time say or do painful and unpleasant things to someone who has problems defending himself or herself” (p.7). To address the terms “painful” and “unpleasant” experience, Olweus and Solberg refer them as direct bullying and indirect bullying. They argue that “the pain and unpleasantness may be due to direct bullying involving hitting, kicking, insults, offensive and sneering comments or threat” while indirect bullying, which is just as painful, is the experience of being socially isolated and excluded from group membership (Olweus and Solberg, 1998, p. 7). Having said this, there is a quite reasonable assumption that a psychological element is always present in most, if not all, bullying (Rigby, 2005, p. 26). Young children who are first bullied during their pre-teen years appear to be less negatively impacted in the long term than are the children who are first bullied as teens. However, people who were first bullied as teens report longer term social withdrawal and more reactively to violence than other groups. Bullying is the experience of most of the people. It can happen to anyone at any age and anywhere whether at home, school, or even in the workplace. Bullying can destroy the life of an individual because sometimes it can lead to suicide. According to some findings, the existence of bullying in schools has become a worldwide phenomenon and a problem that can create negative impacts for the general school atmosphere and for the rights of students to learn in a safe environment without fear. Bullying
  • 5. can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims. Although formal research as well as intervention programs to prevent bullying have been taking place for decades in some developed countries, the problems associated with bullying have been also discussed all over the world wherever formal schooling environments exist. Bullying can have a wide-ranging impact on teens – from victims, to those who witness bullying, to the bullies themselves – and affect each one well into adulthood. “Bullying is a form of abuse and it is a narcissistic sort of act” (Mark Dombeck, PhD, 2006). In the article of Mr. Mark Dombeck, Ph.D (2007), “The Long term Effects of Bullying”, he said that both bullying and traditional forms of abuse are selfish and/or sadistic, destructive, and often violent acts perpetrated upon victim who do not in any way, shape or form deserve to be treated in that manner. Most bullying starts out as a small tease for the bully to examine the vulnerability of their victim. Then they find the obvious or underline difference between them and their victim to initiate the labeling, this includes anything from race, religion, sexuality, to physical disabilities, skin colors and etc. 35% of kids were directly involved in bullying incidents, 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported having experienced sexual harassment, 24% race related bullying (Coloroso, 2009). In this research study, we will not discuss how to stop bullying, but rather, to explore the reasons why bullies intend to bully other people, also the different types of bullying, how to cope up with it and most importantly are the effect or impact of bullying to the students who are being bullied by the bullies. This research paper tends to help other researchers who will conduct further investigation about bullying.
  • 6. CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION Most people however have not been able to know what bullying or what it means to bully. Bullying is not a simple as one terrorizing or tormenting others. That is not something that a person can easily see and prevent the harm of others. Each person can easily find a way to harass another by separating what makes them different from each other and use that difference between each other to make it the advantage of the bully. People bully because they think they are better than others because they find some people having low self-esteem. Bullying happens when someone hurts or scares another person on purpose and the person that‟s being a bully has a hard time or can‟t defend themselves. When younger kids bully is normally named calling, teasing or making fun of them by the way they look, speak or even how smart they are. Older age bullying is a topic that needs to be talked about because it has the kind of level who‟s going to be more violent and is a lot more severe than younger age bullying. And sometimes it ends up in a fight. This is crummy because the children who are being bullied do not deserve what they are getting. Nobody deserves to be harassed and manipulated or to be bullied for no reason or any reason because it‟s quite unfair, illegal and injustice for the one who being bullied. Most people think bullying only happens in schools among kids. Bullying can happen within adults as well as it happens between children in other places besides school. The most common place bullying can occur is at school. At school, children will bully each other for many different reasons even if they are popular. It is hard to tell if kids are being bullied but whether
  • 7. you believe it or not they are being bullied even if they don‟t show me or make it obvious to tell because the bully will just hurt them some more. As well as the general bullying described, there can be some way specific types that all children should be aware of. Bullying isn‟t always so obvious, it can happen inside and outside of school and these days there are more ways to upset people than before. Some types of bullying are: Physical Bullying. According to bullyingstatistics.com, “Physical bullying is a serious problem, affecting not only the bully and the victim, but also the other students who witness the bullying. Parents, teachers, and other concerned adults and young people should be aware of what physical bullying is and some of the ways to handle it.” Physical bullying is the most obvious type of bullying that cause a lot of damage to their victims, physically. Bullies use force and body strength to overpower their victims. Most of this type occurs in and around the schools. Physical bullying includes kicking, punching, hitting, and other physical attacks. Bullying can start at any age. It is a form of aggressive behavior that involves an imbalance of power manifested by the use of force. It is often a warning sign that children and teens are heading for trouble and are at risk for serious violence. Teens, particularly the boys who bully are likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent behavior like vandalism, shoplifting, truancy and drug use into adulthood. Bullies have a strong need to dominate others and usually have little empathy for their targets. Male bullies are often physically bigger and stronger than their peers. Bullies tend to get in
  • 8. trouble more often, and do more poorly in school than teens who do not bully others. They are also more likely to fight, drink and smoke than their peers. Cyber Bullying. Bullying also can happen to people online this is called cyber bullying. It is when a child or a teen bully on the internet using a computer or mobile phones. Things like sending text messages or e-mail, posting sick pictures or messages about the others in blogs or on websites, using another person‟s name to spread rumors or lies about someone else, in other words, bullying happens everywhere. Every day we hear about bullying, whether it is in the news, at school, or from our friends. What has developed as a common thing among people of all ages was having serious effects and caused tragedy for many people. Students go to school and sometimes don‟t realize the harm they are causing to other people when they make jokes about others‟ disabilities, culture or physical appearances. As technology advances, so do other aspects of life, such as bullying. Now, bullying has spread into cyberspace and can attack individuals through the internet. Personally, I believe bullying will only continue to expand along with technology and find ways to harm people by any means necessary. Although it is evident bullying never be fully controlled, it can moderated and reduced by enforcing strict regulations against the school. Emotional Bullying. "The saying, if sticks and stones will break my bones, but words will never hurt me was ever true, it sure isn't true today" (Gaul, 2012). Bullying in and out of schools is getting out of control. In today's world, bullying is nothing out of the ordinary. Bullying is a worldwide epidemic, like a virus or cancer it picks and gnaws
  • 9. into the bone of our youth. It leaves its victims tattered to the very soul. Students who are bullied have lasting fears that their torment will continue to harass them. Various reports and studies have established that approximately 15% of students are initiators of bullying behavior (Olweus, 2011). However in our schools we have never been able to see much harassment through physical or mental forms. Emotional Bullying is any act including confinement, isolation, verbal assault, humiliation, intimidation, infantilization, or any other treatment which may diminish the sense of identity, dignity, and self-worth. (Tracy, 2012) Emotional abuse is also known as psychological abuse or as "chronic verbal aggression" by researchers. People who suffer from emotional abuse tend to have very low self-esteem, show personality changes (such as becoming withdrawn) and may even become depressed, anxious or suicidal. Verbal Bullying. These are one of the more difficult types of bullies to identify since their attacks tend to only occur when adults are not present. Even though verbal bullying creates no physical damage, this type of abuse can have lasting psychological impacts on victims. Verbal bullies intimidate and harm their victims using words. This type of bullying may go unnoticed and unreported for long periods of time. Occurs when some uses language to gain power or his/her peers. Make use of relentless insults and teasing to bully his/her peers.
  • 10. Most people may think of physical bullying as the most damaging type of bullying to a person; however, verbal bullying can be just as harmful as physical bullying, if not worse. According to Fraser-Thrill, verbal bullying is when someone uses language to gain power over his or her peers. The bully may use insults or teasing to get his or her point across. (2005) From time to time we are all likely to say something which is nasty and abusive to our friends or our relatives. Usually when we realize that what we have said is hurtful, we feel sorry for the hurt we have caused and apologize. Verbal abusers are not likely to apologize, not because they don't realize that they have been hurtful, but because that is their aim. Verbal bullying is a type of bullying done by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses are their voice. Bullying has many untold factors as to why people do it. Many students have had some occasional bullying in any given school term. There are many reasons possibilities as to why people bully. Most of the time it's because the victim is differences why some might be bullied. Below are some of the differences why someone might be bullied: Someone’s appearance. (e.g. hair color or style, height). A person might be bullied due to their physical appearance ,such as a clear distinctive mark on their face, for example a birthmark or scars
  • 11. Also the way people dress can make them stand out from others, this can create a situation where the person dressing differently might be bullied. Many people who experience this way have their self-esteem slowly dwindled away as so does their ability to argue back as they will often accept the remarks made about them. Some people may out themselves off from the world as they see themselves as outcasts or unwanted by people they known , when in fact it is the opposite and they just need a little bit more love plus time to rebuild their lives. (Clarke Alex and physical, c.2001) There are many differences as we are all different in some shape or form, this makes us unique and give no one the right to bully us for it. We are all different t the end of the day.(Mccabe,Randi E.,Antony,Martin M.,Summrfelat, Laura J., Liss , Andrea and swinson,Richard P.,2003) Someone's race. Race often referent as „‟Racism”. The victim is a different race or color to another person ; they may have a different religion or culture to the bully. No one can choose the color they are born, it‟s the way they are and the way they are meant to be. Neither should anyone feel any less of a human jut because they are a different color, neither does this give the right to bully someone. Someone's religion. Religion bullying is when a victim is bullied due to a religion they follow. For an example of someone is a Christian and someone else isn‟t the Christian may be bullied because of this.
  • 12. Someone's nationality. National bullying a person because they are of a different nationality. In some cases it goes unnoticed bit in others it is frowned upon with huge vigor. In some countries like the UK for example, national bullying is becoming a more common thing as more and more people from such countries as Slovakia and Romania are moving to the UK for a better life. But people would find it very hard but also slightly unwelcoming as they will not be able to cope with pressure put on upon them. Victims of nationality bullying are believed to be more likely to fail in their education as they will be under too much stress to be able to cope with the pressure of exam and such like. Someone's sexual orientation. Bullying someone due to their sexual orientations often referred to as “HOMOPHOBIC BULLIYING” or “HOMOPHOBIA” this is when a victim is bullied due to them being different , odd, or strange because they are Bi, gay, lesbian, or transgender. Just because some aren‟t normal or straight does not give anyone the right to bully. Someone being jealous. Someone may often turn to bullying if they are jealous of someone being more clever or bright than themselves. It can also be due to jealousy of the possessions people own or the person's family background or social class. Sexual Bullying. Sometimes schools and other places use one term or the other legal reasons. For instance, a school document may use the term “Bullying” to describe what‟s against school policy, while a law might use the term “Harassment” to define what‟s against the law-same behavior might be against school policy and also against the law.
  • 13. With sexual bullying, the focus is on thins like a person‟s appearance, body parts or sexual orientation. Includes spreading gossip or rumors of a sexual nature. Maybe verbal (like making rude comments to or about someone), may we technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages or videos). Sometimes harassment and bullying can even get physical. Sexual bullying doesn‟t just happen to girls. Boys can harass girls, but girls also can harass guys, guys can harass other guys, and girls may harass other girls. Isn‟t limited to people of the same age, either. Adults sometimes sexually harass young people (and occasionally, teens may harass adults, though that‟s pretty rare). Most of the time, when sexual harassment happens to teens, it‟s being done by people in the same age group. Sexual harassment and sexual bullying are very similar – they both involve unwelcome or unwanted sexual comments, attention, or physical contact. For the person who is being targeted, though, it doesn‟t make much difference if something is called bullying or harassment. This kind of behavior is upsetting no matter what it‟s called. Like anyone who‟s being bullied, people who are sexually bullied or harassed can feel a great deal of emotional stress if the situation continues without relief. Both males and females are capable of carrying out a vicious attack such as bullying on others. Some bullied only do it to uphold their reputation and look hard. Another reason would be either set of a bully trying to maintain their superficial superiority. Many bullies only bully others out of jealousy and many of the people who have been bullied go on to do great things with their life, like some famous people is who have bullied.
  • 14. Both bullies and victims feel more negative about school and persistent bullying may lead to stress and depression in the year to march 2006 child line reported that bullying featured in many calls from children talking about suicide. Bullying can lead to anxiety low self-esteem, hopelessness, and isolation. Many callers to Childline say they are self harming. There are effects on school work too. Children miss lessons or are too scared to attend school. They lose concentration when they do attend. Some of the effects last long after bullying until they are adults. HMI in one study found adults who said that being a person who is present when another bullied has an effect on the bystanders too. They feel compromised helpless and guilty. (Childline) Children can be both bullies and victims and those adopting both roles are often the ones with the most significant behavioral problems (Wolke, 2000). child line discovered that 15% of primary children surveyed and 12 % of secondary pupils had both bullied and been bullied in the past year. For the victims of bullying effects can be severe, large surveys of children and adults all seem to suggest a number of serious effects of bullying . These include. Bullying has a serious effect on school retention and further education students who are bullied tend to leave school earlier and many early school leavers mention bullying as the main reasons they left. Almost half of the victims say that bullying affected their plans for further education. Bullying has serious emotional consequences. In a large survey carried out in Australia, almost half of the young people surveyed said they had thought about committing suicide as a result of bullying, and 20 % have actually attempted suicide, some more than once. This compares with 0.07% of the non-bullied group who contemplated suicide and 0.03 % who
  • 15. attempted it student who are bullied are also three times more likely to be at risk of suffering depression. People who are bullied are likely to have lower levels of self-esteem. Results of the survey mentioned above show that one of the major effects of bullying is lower self-esteem. Over 40% of children who have been bullied reported low self-esteem, compared with only 6 % in the non-bullied group. The large majority of both boys and girls said they felt worse about themselves after they had been bullied. People who are bullied appear to have more difficulty making friends. One of the worst effects of bullying is that victims of bullying find it harder to make friends. This is possibly because they are different and peer pressure stops other children standing up for them. Because it is so important for teenagers to feel they belong to a group they will not risk being isolated because they stand up for the victims People who are bullied as children are more likely to experience continued bullying in adulthood one of the saddest effects of bullying as a child is that it quite often sets up a pattern for life. Almost 40% of people bullied as a child report later bullying in further education or at work. On the other hand, almost two thirds of young people do not experience further bullying after they leave school. Increased levels of absenteeism. Students who are bullied are more likely to stay away from school than those who feel safe in. This has obvious effects on their educational achievements, on their ability to make friends, and on self-esteem. Decreased ability to devise coping strategies both bullies and their victims have fewer ways to cope with conflict and to solve problems than those not involved in bullying. The effects
  • 16. of bullying may mean these young people never learn to cope as adults and they cannot form long. Term relationships. In addition, bullies are much more likely to adopt aggressive solutions to resolve conflict. Academic performance. A recent Meta analysis of 33 studies concluded that students who are bullied are more likely to earn lower grades and scores on standardized achievement tests. This association is very rebutted across grade levels and samples. The few studies that have exanimate the casual effects time indicate that peer victimization increases the risk of lower achievement. Recent analysis further suggests that bullying can account for up to an average 1.5 letter gradual decrease in one academic subject (e.g., math) across the three years of middle school. The connection between harassment and low academic achievement has also been observed in school level data as reported in California healthy student research project (chsrp) Brief NO.1 CHKS data shows that schools with high academic performance index (API) scores had significant lower rates of harassment than schools with low API scores even after adjusting for socioeconomic and other school characteristics. Depending on the grade level examined, the number of students reporting rates of harassment was 22-23 percentage points higher at schools in the bottom API quintile than it was at schools in the top API quintile statistical modeling and other research on the mechanisms that explain this connection indicate that bullying experiences are related to psychological or behavioral difficulties which in turn negatively impacts students sense of safety and connectedness, attendance and academic achievements. Studies have shown that emotional distress, somatic problems, depressive symptoms, and poor academic engagement are in fact, part of the explanation for the connection between experiencing harassment and academic difficulties. In one study, emotional problems associated with being bullied compromised academic performance as early as elementary school
  • 17. consistent with the research summarized above, students who have been harassed compared to their peers who have not reported lower rates of school safety and connectedness and higher rates of truancy. They are more likely to experience a wide range of psychological behavioral and emotional problems, such as incapacitating sadness or hopelessness, that are barriers to learning (CHKS factsheets 4 TO 10) Emotional well being. A physical, social and emotional well-being of its victim. It also hurts the children who bully, as well as those who watch it happen. In fact, bullying creates a climate of fear callousness and disrespect for everyone involved. Bullying begins in the preschool years, peaks in early adolescence, and continues, but with less frequency. Over the past two decades, what we know about bullying who is involved, where, when, and why it occurs, and situation that allows it to spread has increased tremendously. This knowledge has helped researchers develop new and useful strategies that both children and adults can use to intervene effectively and better yet prevent bullying before it ever occurs. Into the high school years. But bullying does not have to a part of growing up. Social well has shown that bullying can have had a long lasting effect on children well into adulthood causing serious implications of their social developments. The effects are damaging to both the aggressor and the victim leading to a never ending chain of bullying. Although, some may think bullying is natural and even typical, many believe it is dangerous and can cause serious health problems for children in their developmental stages. Putting a stop to bullying is essential as and minimizes violence and crime. It is important to know that bully needs help also, as he/she may be a victim as well. Furthermore, when a child is exposed to a household where the parent displays very minimal maternal responses to the child and has signs of depressions, chances weak attachment skills. This may prompt the child to lack social skills
  • 18. which can later affect the way he/she interacts with their peers in a school setting. Onyshiw and Hayduk (2001) have suggested that children who are exposed to such households will become sadder, withdrawn, and anxious and depressed causing them to display more physical and verbal aggression. This may very well be the beginning of a bully in the making for this reason it is a necessary that the child seek intervention at an early stage, so that aggression among other peers can be prevented. If children and adults are not made aware of different methods of prevention bullying or intervention of bullying chances are that many of these children will grow up to commit crimes and become violent criminals who have aggressive. Much of the reason that children become bullies or are victims of bullies is due to repetition, unequal power relationships and intentionally. It is the intention behind the act, rather than the act itself which is important. It is possible that the bully‟s behavior may lead to crime, criminal violence, and other types of aggressive to early intervention? In research conducted by culling ford and Morrison (1995), young offenders who were incarcerated, were interviewed and used in this study to have them identify situations in their childhood that contributed to their violent behaviors. Some of the most interesting responses were about teachers who failed to see the sign of a child was susceptive to being bullied some of these young offenders said things like they embarrass you. Some teachers used to make me spell words on the board they knew I couldn‟t spell o didn‟t like that (Culling ford and Morrison, 1195). Many of these prisoners felt that the teachers discriminated against them proper social skills. This gave many of the bullies on opportunity to prey of these vulnerable victims.
  • 19. CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSION In conclusion, bullying has quickly become a major issue in today‟s workplace. There are many ways or things to do to stop bullying many programs help to address the same protective and risk factors that bullying programs do. The best way to address bullying is to stop it before it starts. Bullying can threaten students‟ physical and emotional safety at school and can negatively impact their ability to learn. Prevention of bullying though education and awareness is possible and that all of us can play a role. We need to understand the issue of bullying more deeply. We need to learn about what the world‟s best research is telling us. We need to be aware of practical approaches, policies, programs and resources that are effective. Being bullied is not a fun experience for anyone. By learning some of the facts surrounding bullying, hopefully you will be better prepared to handle a situation that you might be faced with. Just because you are not the victim of a bully doesn't mean that you are not involved. If you see someone else bullying or someone being bullied you now have the tools to help make some positive changes. No matter what end of the bullying in the student, we need to make sure that all of us are doing our part to prevent and stop this. Bullying is a serious matter, whether we like it or not. If you do not think that you can handle the situation on your own, there is no harm in asking for help. You can find help in a variety of places, even within your own family. Some Ways that we can recommend to prevent Bullying • Engage Parents and Youth It is important for everyone in the community to work together to send a unified message against
  • 20. bullying. Launch an awareness campaign to make the objectives known to the school, parents, and community members. Establish a school safety committee or task force to plan, implement, and evaluate your school's bullying prevention program. • Create Policies and Rules Create a mission statement, code of conduct, school-wide rules, and a bullying reporting system. These establish a climate in which bullying is not acceptable. Disseminate and communicate widely. • Build a Safe Environment Establish a school culture of acceptance, tolerance and respect. Use staff meetings, assemblies, class and parent meetings, newsletters to families, the school website, and the student handbook to establish a positive climate at school. Reinforce positive social interactions and inclusiveness. • Educate Students and School Staff The build is bullying prevention material into the curriculum and school activities. Train teachers and staff on the school‟s rules and policies. Give them the skills to intervene consistently and appropriately. Think carefully before you insult somebody, for who they really are, at least they‟re open about it. Bullying behavior seems all over the world and almost in all sections of society. A bully tries to attract the attention of others in a negative manner. That‟s why bullying is a serious matter and should be dealt with. Our words have power so that we need to use them wisely. No one deserves to feel worthless, so we need to prevent, or rather, stop bullying.
  • 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Altmann, J. 1980. Baboon Mothers and Infants, University of Chicago Press Boehm, C. 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge: Harvard University Press Clarke, Alex and Psychol, C. (2001) Managing the psychological aspects of altered appearance: the development of an information resource for people with disfiguring conditions. Patient Education and Counseling, 43(3), pp.307-311. Cosmides, L & Tooby, J. 1990, Evolutionary Psychology A Primer Fraser-Thrill, R. (2005). Verbal bullying definition what is verbal bullying Lovegroove, Emily and Rumsey, Nichola. (2005) Ignoring It Doesn‟t Make It Stop: Adolescents, Appearance, and Bullying.Cleft Palate-Craniofacia Journal, 42(1), pp.32- 44. McCabe, Randi E., Antony, Martin M., Summerfeldt, Laura J., Liss, Andrea & Swinson, Richard P. (2003) Preliminary examination of the relationship between anxiety disorders in adults and self-reported history of teasing or bullying experiences.Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 32(4), pp.187-194. Milgram, S. 1974, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, Harper Nishida, T. 1996. The Death of Ntologi, The Unparalleled Leader of M Group. Pan African News, Vol. 3, No. 1
  • 22. Olweus, D. 1991. “Bully/victims problems among school children: Basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention program”, (pp. 85-128) in K. Rubin and D. Pepler (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Olweus, D. 1994. “Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35: I171-1190. Rigby, K. and P.T. Slee. 1991. “Bullying among Australian school children: Reported behavior and attitudes toward victims.” The Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (5): 615- 627. Seyfarth, R. 1976, Social relationships among adult female baboons. Animal behavior 24, 917-938 Sharp, S. 1995. How much does bullying hurt? The effects of bullying on the personal well being and educational progress of secondary age students. Educational and child psychology, Vol 12 (Z), 81-88 Web sites http://helpguide.org/mental/domestic_violence_abuse_types_signs_causes_effects.htm http://kalimunro.com/wp/articles-info/sexual-emotional-abuse/emotional-abuse-the-most- common-form-of-abuse http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/physical-bullying.html http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/emotional-psychological-abuse/emotional-abuse- definitions-signs-symptoms-examples/ http://www.hiddenhurt.co.uk/verbal_abuse.html http://www.hisdaily.wordpress.com http://www.mentalhelp.net
  • 23. http://www.mespa.net/the_impact_of_bullying_on_student_and_school.html http://www.munin.vit.com http://www.netplaces.com/dealing-with-bullies/what-is-bullying/history-of-bullying.html http://www.stampoutbullying.co.uk/reasons/ http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/effects/index.html http://www.tweenparenting.about.com/od/physicalemotionalgrowth/tp/Types-of-Bullyin.html http://www.wikianswers.com/bullying
  • 24. Table of Contents