10:00 – 12:00
CHAPTER OUTLINE: MOTIVATION
•The Motivation Process
II.Process Theories of Motivation
•Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs
•Motivating Organization members
I.The Importance of Motivating Organization Members
II.Strategies for motivating
What ways can you motivate your
group to work harder?
Motivation Skill: the ability to create
organizational situations in which individuals
performing organizational activities are
simultaneously satisfying personal needs and
helping the organization attain its goals
What is Motivation Skill?
I. The Motivation Process
Motivation is the inner state that causes an
individual to behave in a way that ensures the
accomplishment of some goal.
A. Defining Motivation
The better a manager understands organization
members’ behavior, the more able that manager will
be to influence subordinates’ behavior to make it
more consistent with the accomplishment of
organizational objectives, because productivity is a
result of the behavior of organization members,
motivating organization members is the key to
reaching organizational goals.
Two Basic Types of Motivation:
a. Process Theories – are explanations of
motivation that emphasize how individuals are
motivated. They focus, essentially, on the steps that
occur when an individual is motivated.
b. Content Theories – are explanations of
motivation that emphasize people’s internal
characteristics. They focus on understanding what
needs people have and how these needs can be
B. Process Theories of Motivation
It begins with an individual feeling a NEED,
and then it is transformed into behavior directed
at supporting or allowing the performance of
goal behavior to reduce the felt need.
1. Needs-Goal Theory
It is the most fundamental of all the
The goal-supportive behavior and goal
behavior itself continue until the felt need has
been significantly reduced.
Managers have to understand the personal
needs of their employees. When managers offer
rewards that are not relevant to their employees’
personal needs, the employees will not be motivated.
The Role of Individual Needs
2. Vroom Expectancy Theory
It encompasses some complexities that are
not supported by the needs-goal theory.
It is based on the premise that felt needs
cause human behavior.
Motivation strength - an individual’s degree
of desire to perform a behavior.
d. Some will leave the situation rather than changing it.
It looks at an individual’s perceived fairness of an
employment situation and finds that perceived inequities
can lead to changes in behavior.
If individuals believe that they are treated unfairly in
comparison with other coworkers, they will react in one of
the following ways to try to right the inequity:
b. Some will change their work outputs to better match
the rewards that they are receiving.
a. Some will try to change the compensation they receive
for their work by asking a raise or by taking legal action.
c. Some will try to change their own perception of the
4. Porter-Lawler Theory
It provides a more complete description of the
motivation process than either needs-goal theory or
Vroom expectancy theory.
Accepts the premises that felt needs cause human
behavior and that effort expended to accomplish a task is
determined by the perceived value of rewards that will
result from finishing the task and the probability that
those reward will materialize.
The perceived fairness of rewards influences the
amount of satisfaction produced by those rewards.
Characteristics of motivation process:
Perceived value of a reward is determined by both
INTRINSIC (comes directly from performing the task) and
EXTRINSIC (extraneous to the task) rewards.
The extent to which an individual effectively
accomplishes a task is determined primarily by two
variables: (1) the individual’s perception of what is
required to perform the task and the individual’s ability to
perform the task.
II. Content Theories of Motivation: Human
II. Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs
A. Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs
B. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
7. From a lack of self-awareness to awareness and
control over self
C. Argyris’s Maturity-Immaturity Continuum
1. From a state of passivity to increasing activity
2. From a state of dependence on others to relative
3. From being capable of behaving only in a few ways
to being capable of behaving in many different ways
4. From having erratic, casual, shallow, and quickly
dropped interests to having deeper, more lasting interests
5. From having a short time perspective to having a much
6. From being in a subordinate position to aspiring to
occupy an equal or superordinate position
•Need for achievement (nAch)
•Need for power (nPower)
•Need for affiliation (nAff)
D. McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Motivating Organization members
People are motivated to perform behavior that
satisfies their personal needs. Therefore from a
managerial view point, motivation is the process of
furnishing organization members with the opportunity to
satisfy their need by performing productive behavior
within the organization.
Successful managers minimize appropriate
behavior among subordinate.
A. The Importance
B. Strategies for motivating
Each strategy is aimed at satisfying subordinates.
A. Theory X – Theory Y
– Theory X involves negative assumption about people that
McGregor believes manager often use as the basic for dealing
their subordinate. Theory Y represents positive assumptions
about people that McGregor believes managers should strive to
– managers can use to motivate organization members
involves designing jobs that organization member perform.
B. Job Design
– increasing the number of operation an individual performs in order
to enhance the individual satisfaction in work.
Earlier Job Design Strategies
– A movement has long existed in American Business the
idea behind this movement is to make worker move
productive by enabling them to be more efficient.
– Moving workers from job to job rather than requiring them to
perform only one simple and specialized job over the long
– Frederick Herzberg conclude from his research that the degrees of
satisfaction and dissatisfaction feel as a result of performing a job are
two different variables determined by two different sets of items.
A. HYGIENE OR MAINTENANCE FACTORS
– The items that influence the degree of job and satisfaction
B. MOTIVATING FACTORS OR MOTIVATORS
– those that influence the degree of job satisfaction
– The process of incorporating motivators in job situation
– the main purpose of these scheduling innovations is not to reduce
the total number of work hours, but rather to give workers greater
Flexibility in scheduling their work hours. It also allows workers to
complete their jobs within the worksheet.
– focuses on encouraging appropriate behavior by controlling the
consequences of that behavior.
C. Behavior Modification
– modification theory asserts that if managers want to modify
subordinates behavior, they must ensure that appropriate
consequences occur as a result of that behavior.
– is a reward that consists of the elimination of an undesirable
consequence of behavior.
2 Types of Consequences Behavior
1. Positive reinforcement
– is a reward that consists of a desirable consequences behavior.
2. Negative reinforcement
– is the presentation of an undesirable behavior consequence or
the removal of a desirable behavior consequence that decrease
the likelihood that the behavior will continue.
– behavior modification programs have been applied both
successfully and unsuccessfully in a number of organizations.
Applying Behavior Modification
4. Always giving out rewards and punishment that are earned to
emphasize that management is serious about its behavior
Other ingredients of successful behavior modification programs are
1. Giving different levels of rewards to different workers according
to the quality of their performance.
2. Telling workers what they are doing wrong.
3. Punishing workers privately in orders not to embarrass in front
D. Likert’s Management Systems
Likerts concluded that management styles in organizations can be
categorized into the following systems:
– is another strategy that managers can use to motivate
organization member is based on the work of Rensis Likert.
System 4 – this style of management is characterized by
complete trust and confidence in subordinate.
System 1 – this style of management is characterized by a
lack of confidence or trust in subordinates.
System 2 – this style of management is characterized by a
condescending master – to – servant style confidence and trust is
System 3 – this style of management is characterized by
substantial though not complete, confidence in subordinate.
– A firm can also keep its employees committed and motivated
by nonmonetary means.
Styles, Systems, and Productivity
– Conversely managers who initiate a system four management
style will probably face some decline in production initially but
will see an increase in production over the long term.
E. Monetary Incentives
– A number of firms make a wide range of money-based
compensation programs available to their employees as a form
F. Nonmonetary Incentives
Perhaps the most basic motivation strategy for managers
is to communicate well with organization members.
Effective manager subordinate communication can satisfy
such basic human needs as recognition, a sense of
belonging, and security.
C. Managerial Communication