Scientific study of human behavior and
mental process and how they are affected
mental state, and
is a primary social institution in our society.
It is defined as the sum total of the organized
efforts by which the people engaged in
commerce and industry provide the goods and
services needed to maintain and improve the
standard of living and quality of life to which
each of us may aspire.
Types of Business Activities
Service – exercise profession.
Manufacturing – convert raw materials
into finish products
Merchandising – buy and sell
Forms of Business Organization
• Sole proprietorship (single)
a relatively branch of psychology.
is the study of the effectiveness of
interpersonal relations in the workplace.
Some business psychologists set up training
workshop to improve executive’s
management skills. They also evaluate job
applicants and evaluate individuals being
considered for promotions.
When can business psychology be useful?
When you want more (self)-understanding
of your behavior, of strengths and weaknesses,
of future development, of optimal career choices.
When you behave in ways that are self-
over controlling or under empowering
abrasive, self-centered, disorganized,
angry or hostile, poor listener,
perfectionistic or rigid, authoritarian
too timid in certain situations, distrustful or
When you need to deal with (difficult)
colleagues or employees
working with talented people who are difficult,
dealing with people above in the power structure,
dealing with people who are self-centered or
developing effective relationships,
leading and managing team members.
Origin and Beginnings of Modern
Its origin may be found in the writings of ancients
Greek philosophers, who did much speculation
about the motivational aspects of human behavior.
The Greek developed the empirical method, an
approach that was sharpened by the empiricists of
the seventeenth century.
In Renaissance time, scientist contributes the
introducing of idea that observations could be
further objectified through measurements.
Wilhelm Wundt is considered as the father of
His approach to the study of behavior is called
Some America psychologist, one of them William James
developed different approach called functionalism.
German psychologists, the Gestaltists objected to the
idea of studying behavior by analyzing its elements
and proposed that it be studied in terms of organization
John B. Watson expressed skepticism about studying
any aspect behavior of organisms which he called
the first school of thought headed by Wilhelm Wundt, a
German, and E.B Titchener started in 1879 when experimental
psychology was gaining more incentives.
Thought of psychology as the study of conscious experience.
Stated that all complex substances could be analyzed through
their components elements.
Held that elementary mental state such as sensations, images,
and feelings from the structure of consciousness and are directly
observable through introspection by careful empirical
Sought to discover the physiological bases of various types of
conscious experience, with emphasis on the knowledge of body
The methods used are introspection and experiment.
Germany, the center of study, was the place where the first
laboratory was established.
Another group of psychologists who called themselves
functionalist paid little attention to conscious experience.
The school came into existence at the University of Chicago,
around the turn of 20th
Headed by William James, James R. Angell, and John Dewey.
The functionalists sought to study the function of behavior and
mental processes and not merely their structure.
Wide in scope and not sharply defined, functional psychology was
named in America in 1898.
Through introspection and observation, the total behavior and
experience of an individual is studied including the interest in the
functions served by the things an individual does.
Functionalists redefined psychology as the “the study of man’s
adjustments to his environment.”
Its includes instruments to aid in adjustments and ways in which
he can improve his adjustment through learning.
Is a school of thought which is concerned with the factors of
learning such as remembering and thinking.
The primary exponent of this system of idea was Aristotle.
It started with the philosophical concept that learning is the
formation of bonds or connections in the nervous system.
Man is the greatest learner because he makes the greatest
number of connections.
In modern world, the exponents are Edward Thorndike, John
Locke, and Thomas Hobbes.
They proposed that everything around can be explained by
the next important movement was a revolt against both
structuralism and functionalism.
It originated in America in 1912.
John B. Watson and E.L. Thorndike turned to the study of
Rejecting the study of conscious experience as a subject for
This school known as behaviorism defines psychology as the
science of behavior and not of consciousness.
It emphasizes conditional reflexes as the elements of
It denies the existence of instinct or of inborn tendencies, but
insists on learned behavior.
Also studies animal behavior and emphasizes he objective
method in observing responses.
It is psychology based upon stimulus – response connections.
The behaviorists believe that there can be no response
Psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler and Carl Jung were the advocators of
Freud insists on human desires and primitive impulses as the central factors of behavior.
He attributes inner conflicts of the individual to repression of desires which remain
submerged in his subconscious.
Sigmund Freud, a famous physician and psychiatrist, postulated the existence of unconscious
mental processes which influence the individual’s behavior in various indirect ways.
He attempted to find the cause and cure of personality disorders.
The Freudian or psychoanalytic theory stresses the role of motives and cravings, often hidden
and repressed in the subconscious or unconscious mind which result in abnormal behavior.
He also asserts that the sex urges in the unconscious constitute the main human drive.
This is known as the “Libido” theory.
His method of treatment, called “Psychoanalysis” emphasizes “free association” by having
the patient freely associate his thought and experiences and with the help of the psychiatrist,
analyzes the cause of his difficulty.
Between 1911-1912, he and his adherents Carl Jung and Alfred Adler gad a split in their
ideas and theories.
To Carl Jung, men and women are either extrovert or introverts and his school is sometimes
called the “analytical school”.
To Adler, the prime mover of men is his desire for superiority.
a number of psychologists led by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
and Rollo May objected to Freud’s view that human beings are
basically destructive and are constantly fighting their negative
The humanistic movement began in the 1950s.
The main theme of the approach is that people are basically good.
Not driven by unconscious desire to destroy
Rather have free will and given the proper environment, will strive
to achieve positive social goals.
The humanistic psychology stresses the creative aspect of people
and asserts that they are driven by the desire to reach their true
They further argue that each person is unique, and that
psychologists should examine this individuality instead of lumping
people into categories.
The humanists also reject the behaviorists’ view that psychologists
should only study observable stimuli and responses.
Their argue, it is their thoughts, desires, and feelings that make
in Duke University at Durham , North Carolina, William
McDougall conducted researches in the field of psychology.
He believed that objects, movements, and behavior have a definite
Its emphasis on the importance of hormones in life, purposivism
was called “hormic” psychology.
Hormic psychologists regard man not only as a unit but also as a
purposive, striving organism.
They are strongly opposed to the mechanistic or behavioristic
point of view.
Each school began as a revolt against the established order.
The established order of 1900 was itself young and had been
revolutionary not long before.
It is an old tradition in psychology to rebel against tradition.
Contemporary educational psychologists tend to make use of the
discoveries and ideas contributed by all preceding schools of
The study of human behavior includes a broad area.
Research on eye, ear or brain functions relates closely to
psychology and neurology.
Studies of attitudes, opinions and propaganda are a kin to
sociology and other social sciences.
Between these extremes, the majority of psychologists work at
understanding the abilities, emotions, motives, memories and
whole personalities of children, adolescents, and adults both
normal and abnormal.
Because psychology includes such varied material, several
specialized subdivisions have developed.
In some of these fields emphasis falls on facts, principles and
theories rather than on application.
Psychologists devote their lives to the study or application, or
both, of findings organized about a particular field or branch of
General Psychology – this is a field of psychology that
explains the underlying principle of human behavior.
the study of how and why people behave this way or that
way. In this subject, the principle of the structural and
functional mechanisms of the human body are discussed.
Comparative Psychology – is that branch of psychology
which treats of the behavior and mental processes of the
different species. This is also known as animal psychology
where activities of both man and animal are compared and
differentiated, particularly in relation to genetic and
Developmental or Genetic Psychology – concerns itself
with the study of human behavior in all its aspect of growth
The entire life of an individual which is divided into the
stages of prenatal, neonatal, infancy, childhood,
adolescence, adulthood, and senescence are scientifically
presented with its physical, mental, emotional, social and
moral developments during the period.
is the scientific study of human behavior from its post-
natal beginnings up to early adolescence
This science deals with the stage of growth and
maturation, the effects of environmental influences
upon individual patterns of development, and
psychological and social interactions between the child
and the society into which he is born and in which he is
– is the study of behavior from puberty to later life,
approximately from twelve to twenty years old.
It involves the physical and mental maturation of an
individual, as well the attainment of emotional and
is the scientific study of human behavior in old age.
is the scientific study of human behavior and the
etiology or cause of personality defects, or man’s
behavior which deviates from the average reaction,
deals with observation and experiments in a
psychology laboratory and the investigations of
different types of behavior, and aims to understand
the fundamental cause of behavior.
is a branch of study which investigates difference
and similarities existing among individuals, social
groups, and races.
is a scientific interpretation of mental phenomena
emphasizing internal drives and motives as the cause of
In contemporary psychology, this is also referred to as
personality psychology which is largely concerned with
understanding of the non – deviant individual case.
is psychology applied in medicine. It is concerned with
the treatment of mental diseases.
is the application of the principles of human behavior in
law, or any legal proceedings.
Psychological facts are employed by lawyers in their
It deals with testimony and evidence, the examination of
witnesses, the study of the individual delinquent and the
criminal and with problems of the law.
pertains to the diagnosis and treatment of
emotional and behavioral disorders that rage from
mild to very severe
In this fields, there are three kinds of specialists who
do and apply clinical work : psychiatrists,
psychoanalysts, and clinical psychologists.
deals with learning, motivations, and other subjects
in the actual educational process together with the
practical application of psychological principle to
is the study of the principles of psychology as
applied to business and deals particularly with the
behavior of consumers. Psychological methods are
employed to gain more customers and impress
Industrial and Engineering Psychology
is a field of specialization concerned with methods of
selecting, training, counseling, and supervising
personnel in business and industry.
It can also defined as the study of human nature and
reactions as related to problems of industry,
especially those affecting personnel and job
is the study of behavior of groups of individuals in
their relationship to groups.
is the systematic practice of measures for the
prevention of mental illness and the preservation of
is concerned with behaviors that relate to our legal
1. Introspection Method – a subjective method of
observation which was introduced by St.
The psychologists studies himself, records his
own feelings and experiences and later interprets
2. Observation Method - is a visual and oral
method of examining, describing, and interpreting
the reactions of individuals and groups in a
laboratory, classroom, or out-of-school situations
Several kinds of observations:
Uncontrolled or informal – this method of
observation does not follow any particular scope of
behavior to be observed.
Naturalistic Observation – an observation of
things as they naturally happened is the naturalistic
Controlled or formal observation – follows
certain rules, in gathering materials in order to draw
the best conclusion.
Psychology has made great strides in the
development of principles and methods and the
discovery of facts which find useful application in
various aspects of everyday life.
The objectives of psychology are:
To understand human behavior.
To predict human behavior by means of observation
To influence or alter the behavior of the individual or
group in desirable ways so that he can achieve the
goal he desire.
Business psychology involves
applications of psychological facts
and procedures to market research,
advertising, salesmanship, and
selection of employees. :
The aims of business psychology are:
To help the students use insight more and trial-and-error less in
attempting to discover the solutions to human problems.
To apply the knowledge of psychological facts and principles
about human nature to the different aspects of business and
industrial activities such as correspondence, selling, and
To help the students in knowing how to work efficiently and
how to get along with other workers.
To give the students an idea of the psychological methods of
obtaining data such as the observational, experimental, and
Business psychology is regarded as the most practical and effective
instrument in buying, selling, collecting, and adjusting whenever human
element is present.
Psychology is the great importance to man since
psychological problems are common to group
relations, employer-employee relationships, and
In the case of businessman, the study of psychology
is of great advantage. It will help much in
determining the consumer’s behavior, motives,
attitudes, and the like. The businessman has to keep
in mind that the success and failure of business
depends greatly on how he deals with the consumers.
The facts of psychology are themselves applied, as in
the case of courtroom testimony. Legal psychology
involves applications in crime detection, in the
alleviation of delinquency, and in courtroom
Human Behavior as a Scientific
Psychological factors in Behavior
Behavior depends upon
Ruch (1964) defines behavior as “the activities
or processes that can be observed
objectively such as the organized
patterns of responses as a whole.”
An exciting aspect working in the business world
is that a person encounters all kinds of people.
Knowing them, in time, will expand his horizons, just
as their knowing him will expand theirs. In dealing
with other people, it pays to be constantly aware of
the many causes of individual differences, and it pays
to be alert to those differences among employees,
customers, or others with whom one comes in contact
Some ways of detecting individual differences in
people are by:
Listening attentively to their remarks or
Observing their behavior.
Conducting opinion and attitude surveys, and
Using psychological tests which are designed to
measure specific individual differences such as
intelligence, motor skill, sensory acquit,
interests, or personality traits.
Heredity and Environment
varied hereditary background and
differing environmental conditions
are the underlying causes of individual differences.
E.B Hurlock (1982) stated that man’s biological characteristics
determining his capacity for growth and development.
Heredity is defines as “the transmission of characteristic traits
from parents to offspring biologically through the genes.”
The belief that heredity implies parental resemblance is false
because the genes are continuous from generation to generation.
Ruch stressed that the individual inherits not only the physical
characteristic that have remained latent for many generations but
also those that may appear in an offspring because of a
particular combination of genes.
Mechanics of Heredity
it is said to begin with fertilization of the egg cell by the sperm cell. The
fertilized egg or ovum (zygote) contains the potentiality for growth and
development that eventually result in a fully mature individual who is both
similar to and different from every other person. The continuance of human
life from generation to generation is made possible through the passing of
specialized cells from parents to their children. These cells are capable of
reproducing a new organism having specific traits and tendency to develop
in certain infinite ways rather than in other ways.
Determination of Sex
in every species in which sexual reproduction is the rule, nature intended
every man and woman to have 46 which determine countless characteristics
other than sex, and two genesomes, which determine countless
characteristics. In the female, there are a pair of X’s or matched
There are evidence that physical characteristics, such as height and weight
tendencies, eye and skin color, body structure and contours tends to have
their hereditary base since they seem to “run in families”. Yet variation in
the organization of the genes or new combinations can be expected to
follow similar courses. It is more difficult, however to demonstrate that the
mental and emotional characteristics of an individual are traceable to
inherited tendencies rather than to environmental influences.
Ordinary Cell Division
one egg cell and one sperm cell unite to begin new human being.
This fertilized egg divides by what is called ordinary cell division
into two cells. Each cells has its own nucleus with 46
chromosomes. Moreover, these cells usually stick together. The
process of cell division continues and with each new division, the
number of cells is doubled. Under the direction of the genes and in
the ideal environment of the uterus, these cells from a human
Identical and Fraternal Twins
twins are either identical or fraternal. When twins develop from the
same fertilized ovum, they are said to be identical twins, since they
present the same kind of hereditary genes. Identical twins always
re of the same sex and resemblance each other very closely,
especially in physical appearance. Fraternal twins develop
simultaneously from the fertilized ova and do not have the same
set of genes. They may be the same or different sex and may not
resemblance each other. Their one similarity is that their prenatal
development takes place in the mother at the same time.
environment refers “all the conditions outside the living
organism which influence its growth, development, and
behavior from the time it is conceived to the time it dies.”
There are two kinds of environment wherein a person’s
personality may be developed:
this is kind of environment which influences the individual
before birth, including the condition of the mother during the
development of the baby.
this is the environment after birth. After birth, life continues to
come under the influence of many varied environmental stimuli.
the child is affected directly or indirectly by the kind of home
into which he is born and reared through percept and example.
the child reared in an urban community specialty in apartment houses of an
overcrowded section, is usually denied the freedom of activity that is available
to the child living in a rural or suburban area.
he encounters situations and conditions that differ from his earlier
experiences in his home and his immediate neighborhood. He is affected by
buildings and equipment in his new surroundings, by a new little people of his
own age, and by a mother substitute in from of a teacher who begins to direct
his behavior differently from ways to which he has been accustomed.
training is closely attached to environment and includes all of the social,
educational, cultural, moral, and religious agencies with which the child
comes in contact.
Effort of the Will
by means of the will, inherited capacities are realized and intellectual
opportunities are utilized. Will is man’s capacity to direct and to restrain
thought, action and emotion
It is also frequently asserted that individual
differences may be attribute in part at least to
sex. Results of studies that have been conducted
› Boys tend to be more active and aggressive, less
neat and exacting than girls.
› Boys seem to be superior in mathematical and
scientific subjects while girls excel in the language
arts, arts, spelling and penmanship.
› Boys surpass girls in test of spatial nature, of
mechanical aptitude, and of general information
while girls excel in tests of manual dexterity, speed
› A smaller percentage of girls than boys tend to be
The Sense Organs
Everything we know about this world comes to us
through our senses. The sense tells us what is going on; it
warns us of danger and it also gives us pleasure. The best
known kinds of senses are those listed by Aristotle. They
are the visual sense ( sense of seeing), the auditory sense
(sense of hearing), the olfactory sense (sense of smell),
gustatory sense (sense of taste), and the cutaneous sense
(sense of feeling). However, modern scientists know that
the body has senses other than five. And the now-known
additional are the internal senses which are the
kinesthetics sense (sense of active movements), the static
sense (sense of balance), and other organic sense.
The Sensory Processes
Beach and Clark (1959) explained the importance of
understanding the senses and some basic knowledge of how
they operate in advertising and selling because these very
senses are the media by which the businessmen can get
through potential consumer with his message
Two general principles which he said should be
considered in any presentation of the product to the public
The more senses utilized in making the impression to the
receiver the better and;
As much as possible the presentation should be appealing
and pleasant to these which are called into play.
The Visual Sense – this sense is very high in cognitive value
because much of our knowledge of objective sensible relations
comes to us through the medium of this sense. The organ used by
the faculty is the eye.
The Auditory Sense or Organ of Hearing – this sense is of
high cognitive value too. The ear which is the organ for hearing is
divided into; the outer part which collects the sound waves, the
middle ear where the small bones, the incus, the malleus and stapes
are found, and the inner ear where the cochlea and the semicircular
canals are found.
The Cutaneous Sense – this is the most extensive of all
external senses because it embraces a number of powers which are
the sense of contacts, sense of pressure, and the sense of pain.
The Olfactory Sense – this sense is uses as its organ the
olfactory cells in the nasal chambers located in the nose. These cells
acquire impressions of odor from sensible realities.
The Gustatory Sense – the organ for this is the tongue. On the
surface of the tongue are the taste buds which are responsible for
the acquisition of gustatory impressions. The proper sensibility for
this faculty is flavor, but to be able to excite the organ of taste, the
substances placed in the mouth must be sapid or soluble
The Internal Sense Organs
The kinesthetic Sense – the kinesthetic sense is
the movement sense. There are number of bodily
movements which are independent of our sense of
The static sense – this is called the vestibular or
static sense which tells us of the body orientation in
space. This is due to the excitation of the vestibular
portion of the inner ear.
The organic sense – the feeling of nausea or
stomach cramps are example of the feelings felt in this
sensation. The organic sense gives the result of the
sensitivity of the visceral and other internal organs of
Comparison of the External and Internal Senses
The internal sense are more immaterial in their activities than
the external senses. The external sense are preventive senses and
since they present the object to the mind, they function only in the
presence of the material object. The internal sense, with exception of
the common sense, function even in the absence of the material
Sensation and Perception
Sensation and perception are mental processes that are
sometimes mistaken for each other. Sensation is defined as, “the
conscious experience that follows immediately upon the stimulation
of a sense organ or a sensory nerve.”
A factor influencing man’s behavior and his adjustment is how
he looks at places, persons, objects, things, and situations. His
interpretations about them affects greatly his business and everyday
Definition of Perception
The dictionary of education – defines perception in its most limited
sense as “awareness of external objects, conditions, relationship as a result of
Beach and Clark (1959) defines it as “the process which involves the receiving
and organizing or interpreting of stimuli, by the individual.”
Characteristics of the Perception Process
It is selective – through the sense organs, in other words, we select only
those things we are interested in. there is but a particular things that may attract,
maintain, or distract the attention of an individual.
It is Structuring or Patterning Process – a person perceives a real thing
when it comes in the correct pattern or structure of the thing. A complete pattern
of an object means that it has all the attributes of the object: (1) it must have
shape, (2) must have a color, (3) it must have smell, (4) it must have a taste.
It Contains Meaning – the particular sensations experienced by a person
are interpreted in a way that will give them meaning in terms of the person’s
It is Adoptive or subjective – he suits his perception according to his
likes, his feelings, his desires, and his beliefs.
There are several factors to be considered to understand
perception. These are the sense organs, intelligence, the
emotions and feelings, culture, trainings, social factors,
interests, attitudes and motives.
The role of the senses – how a person interprets things or
situations depends primarily upon his sense organs. Some sense are
stronger than others.
Culture – culture influences our perception both directly and
indirectly. Indirectly, because culture influences our personal needs
and motives. Directly, because a person’s habit of looking at and
interpreting things, objects, persons, and situations depends partly
on his culture.
Trainings – trainings means the education and experience
the individual gains in his life. It involves observing others/or
Social factors – a person’s social experiences exert a strong
influence on how he sees or interprets a situation, especially a
social situation. His perception of situations depends upon his
social interactions with people and society.
Emotions – a situation which appears “very bad”
during negative emotional moment often turns
out to be “not bad after all” in a calmer moment.
Intelligence – he sees things in several
Motives or Drives – our motives, needs, desires
and drives condition our perception.
Interests – different individuals perceive the
same objects in varying ways influenced by their
Attitudes – the attitude of a person is a
determining factor of perception. A favorable
attitude towards an object or thing will make him
see the object as a desirable things.
Special Types of Perception
Perception involves the interaction of many senses, but vision seems to
be the preferred sense; so perception is considered primarily from the point
of view of the visual sense.
Extra-sensory Perception – these kinds of perception are unexplainable.
The four types are:
Mental telepathy, or the transfer of thought from one person to another
without sensory cues.
Clairvoyance or the perception of objects without the use of sense.
Precognition or a foretelling of future events.
Psychokenisis or a mental operation which affects a material body.
Extra-sensory means “outside the senses” while perception means
“becoming aware of”.
“ESP” is concerned with things that happen wherein no physical cause can
False Perception or Error in perception – faulty perception are classified
into illusion and hallucination (Heper,1966).
Illusion – is a experiencing certain things which fail to corresponding with
the situation as objectively measured. What is perceived does not
correspond to physical reality.
Hallucination – is a false perception relating to anyone of the special sense
organs. They are usually confined to the mental ill. It happens to normal
individuals if they are under the influence of drugs. It happen to one who
has committed a crime.
How to Improve Accuracy in Perception
Education, Training, and Experience – learning
the job will help the person perceive a thing or
situation arising from the job. Learn the what’s,
the where’s, and the why’s about one’s job and
you will understand and interpret job situations.
Use of Cues – cues serve as hints or guide in
determining a person’s accuracy in perceiving.
The more complete the cues, the more accurate the
The Psychological Role of Perception in
Business and Everyday Life
Perception prepares businessmen, executives,
employers, and employee for action. All the actions and
reactions of business personnel and the common “tao”
are dependent upon their perception. They perceive the
situation first before they act.
One has to know also that perception are clearer and
impressions more lasting if what the businessman says
is tied up with the experiences of the buyer.
Gilmer (1966) feels that the importance of
perception in selling stems from the fact that the sales
interview involves a unique interaction between the
salesman and the customer
The Endocrine Glands
and its Effect Upon
Hormones - are specific chemical entities secreted by
specialized cells, tissues, or organs and transported in
solutions in body fluids to other cells, tissues, or organs
where they exerted specific physiological action at low
The study of the action of hormones is important to the
business psychologist because much of human behavior
cannot be understood without taking them into account.
The Pituitary Gland – the pituitary gland, often called
the “ master gland”, is located at the base of the brain and
consist of two lobes, anterior and posterior. The anterior lobes
secretes hormones controlling body growth, milk secretion,
and other metabolic functions.
The malfunction of the pituitary glands produces a
hyposecretion of the hormones of the anterior lobe; this
causes infantilism or failure of the sex organ to develop and
The Thyroid Gland – the thyroid gland is a bilobed gland, connected by
an isthumus, located over the trachea. The active principle of the thyroid
gland has been proved to be thyroglobulin, which when secreted into the
bloodstream governs the rate of the body’s metabolism as well as the
growth of the body. Underactivity of the thyroid gland is associated with
sluggishness, apathy, and low energy level, whereas an overfunctioning
of the thyroid causes the individual to be excessively active, irritable, and
excitable. Iodine is essential to correct functioning of the thyroid.
The Parathyroid Gland – the parathyroids, which are four in man, are
attached to the capsule of the thyroid glands on its posterior aspects. The
parathyroids regulate the calcium-phosphorus balance of the blood. This
is important in order to prevent undue irritation of nervous elements and
The Adrenal glands – the adrenal glands are a pair of glands situated
immediately above the kidneys. Each consists of an outer part of the
cortex and the inner portion known as medulla.
Underactivity of the adrenals is associated with the tendency to become
easily fatigued, whereas excessive adrenal activity induces a highly tense
physical state in the individual.
The Gonads – the testes and the ovaries are the glands in
which reproductive cells are formed, but embedded in them
are hormone-producing cells. These hormones control
growth, development and reproductive behavior.
The two ovaries (female gonads) are concerned with the
production of two hormones:
Theelin or Oestrin – which regulates the development of the
uterus, secondary sex characteristics, and the female sex
Lutein – which regulates the different changes in the uterus,
breasts, and the rest of the body necessary for a successful
The Thymus – in the upper chest of humans and some other
animals, just in front of the aorta, there is a two-lobed
glands, the thymus. Just recently been discovered that the
thymus produces the blood cells that makes antibodies. It
also appears to secrete a substance that enables the cells to
How the Endocrine Glands Affects One’s
The effects of endocrines on personality is particularly
apparent when something has gone wrong with their
secretions. A person may become tense and irritable
from too great a secretion of thyroxine or sluggish
from too little secretion; or a person may suffer from
general fatigue and lack of energy as a result of the
little secretion from a part of the adrenals. In case of a
goiter or a diseased thyroid gland, the unsightly, the
enlarge might bring feelings of embarrassment or
interfere with social adjustment.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.