Fundamentals of planning (Principles of Management)


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Fundamentals of planning (Principles of Management)

  1. 1. Δ General Characteristics of Planning a. Defining Planning b. Purposes of Planning c. Planning: Advantages and Potential Disadvantage Δ Steps in the Planning Process Δ The Planning Subsystem Δ Planning and the Chief Executive Δ The Planner a. Qualifications of Planners b. Duties of Planners c. Evaluation of Planners
  2. 2.  It is a process of determining how the organization can get where it wants to go, and what it will do to accomplish its objectives.  It is a systematic development of action programs aimed at reaching agreed-upon business objectives by the process of analyzing, evaluating, and selecting among the opportunities which are foreseen.  It involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the task must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed. Time Frame
  3. 3.  PROTECTIVE PURPOSE: - To minimize risk by reducing the uncertainties surrounding business conditions and clarifying the consequence of related management actions.  AFFIRMATIVE PURPOSE: - To increase the degree of organizational success.  Other purposes: - To establish a coordinated effort within the organization. - To help its organization reach its objectives. - To facilitate the accomplishment of enterprise and objectives.
  4. 4. Advantages  It helps manager to be future-oriented.  It enhances decision coordination.  It emphasizes organizational objectives.  It helps managers identify and deal with organizational problems before they cause havoc in a business. Disadvantage  An overemphasized planning program can take up too much managerial time.
  5. 5. - A clear statement of organizational objectives is necessary before planning can begin. 2. List alternative ways of reaching objectives 1. State organizational objectives - A manager should list as many available alternatives as possible for reaching those objectives. 3. Develop premises on which to base each alternative - A manager should list all of the premises for each alternative. - The feasibility of using any one alternative to reach organizational objectives is determined by the premises, or assumptions, on which the alternative is based.
  6. 6. 4. Choose the best alternative for reaching objectives - Determine which alternative would best accomplish organizational objectives. - An evaluation of alternatives must include an evaluation of the premises on which the alternatives are based. - DECISION MAKING 5. Develop plans to pursue the chosen alternative - A manager begins to develop strategic (long-range) and tactical (short-range) plans. 6. Put the plans into action - Once plans that furnish the organization have been developed, they must be implemented.
  7. 7. State organizational objectives List alternative ways of reaching objectives Develop premises upon which each alternative is based Choose best alternative for reaching objectives Develop plans to pursue chosen alternative Put the plans into action
  8. 8.  Implementation - It is the key to a successful planning process.  Subsystem - It is a system created as part of the overall management system. - It helps managers organize the overall system and enhance its success. PURPOSE: - To increase the effectiveness of the overall management system by helping managers identify, guide, and direct planning activities within the overall system.
  9. 9. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Overall Management System Subsystem
  10. 10. INPUT A portion of the organization’s: 1. Man 2. Money 3.Materials 4. Machines PROCESS (Planning Process) 1. State organizational objectives 2. List alternative ways of reaching objectives 3. Develop premises upon which each alternative is based 4. Choose best alternative for reaching objectives 5. Develop plans to pursue chosen alternative 6. Put the plans into action OUTPUT Organizational plans
  11. 11. Roles of the Chief Executives  As ORGANIZATIONAL FIGUREHEADS, they must represent their organizations in a variety of social, legal, and ceremonial situations.  As LEADERS, they must ensure that organization members are properly guided toward achieving organizational goals.  As LIAISONS, they must establish themselves as links between their organizations and factors outside their organizations.
  12. 12.  As MONITORS, they must assess organizational progress.  As DISTURBANCE HANDLERS,they must settle disputes between organization members.  As RESOURCE ALLOCATORS, they must determine where resources should be placed to benefit their organizations best.
  13. 13. Final Responsibility 1. In what direction should the organization be going? 2. In what direction is the organization going now? 3. Should something be done to change this direction? 4. Is the organization continuing in an appropriate direction?
  14. 14.  This individual combines all other inputs and influences the subsystem process so that its output is effective organizational plans.  He/she is responsible not only for developing plans but also for advising management on what actions should be taken to implement those plans.
  15. 15. 1. They should have considerable practical experience within their organization. - They should have been executives in one or more of the organization’s major departments. 2. They should be capable of replacing any narrow view of the organization they may have acquired while holding other organizational positions with an understanding of the organization as a whole. - They must know how all parts of the organization function and interrelate. - They must possess an abundance of the conceptual skills.
  16. 16. 3. They should have some knowledge of and interest in the social, political, technical, and economic trends that could affect the future of the organization. - They must be skillful in defining those trends and possess the expertise to determine how the organization should react to the trends to maximize its success. 4. They be able to work well with others. - The ability to communicate clearly, both orally and in writing.
  17. 17. 1. Perform supervisory responsibilities 2. Formulate goals, policies, programs, procedures, and work schedules 3. Assign duties and examines work for exactness, neatness, and conformance to laws, policies, and procedures 4. Provide project management, participate in work groups and attend public meetings 5. Apply principles, practices, laws and regulations 6. Interpret and analyze legal documents and determines impact of legislation
  18. 18. 7. Develop planning concepts and prepare plans, strategies and policies 8. Work and state/local/municipal agencies in planning issues and projects 9. Conduct surveys and field studies, compile data and develop reports for comprehensive, area and project plans 10. Lead development and updates 11. Develop and implement citizen participation groups 12. Provide regional transportation planning coordination 13. Provide employee training and development
  19. 19. 14. Address errors and complaints 15. Perform related duties as to specific assignments 16. Provide service to customers by answering questions, providing information, making referrals, and assuring appropriate follow-through and/or resolution 17. Communicate with managers, supervisors, co-workers, citizens, and others
  20. 20.  Planners should be evaluated according to the contribution they make toward helping the organization achieve its objectives.  The primary considerations in the evaluation are the quality and appropriateness of the planning system and the plans that the planner develops for the organization.
  21. 21. Objective Indicators 1. Organizational plan is in writing. 2. Plan is the result of all elements of the management team working together. 3. Plan defines present and possible future business of the organization. 4. Plan specifically mentions organizational objectives. 5. Plan identifies future opportunities and suggests how to take advantage of them. 6. Plan emphasizes both internal and external environments. 7. Plan describes the attainment of objectives in operational terms whenever possible. 8. Plan includes both long- and short-term recommendations.