Begin with the end in mind
What are your talents?
What is your ultimate career
What can you achieve in 2
What are your personal goals?
What Is Motivation?
– The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to
exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals,
conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual
• Effort: a measure of intensity or drive.
• Direction: toward organizational goals
• Need: personalized reason to exert effort
– Motivation works best when individual needs are
compatible with organizational goals.
Drives (aka-primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives)
– Neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or
maintain an internal equilibrium
– Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions
– Goal-directed forces that people experience.
– Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals
– Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience
Drive to BondDrive to Bond
Drive to LearnDrive to Learn
• Drive to form relationships and
• Basis of social identity
• Drive to satisfy curiosity and
resolve conflicting information
Drive to DefendDrive to Defend
• Need to protect ourselves
• Reactive (not proactive) drive
• Basis of fight or flight
Drive to AcquireDrive to Acquire
• Drive to take/keep objects and
• Basis of hierarchy and status
Challenges of Motivating Employees
– younger generation employees have different needs and
expectations to baby boomers
– people have more diverse values – results in more variety
in what motivates employees
– globalization has added to diversity
Content versus Process Theories
• Content theories
– explain why people have different needs at different
• Process theories
– describe the processes through which needs are
translated into behaviour.
Early Theories of Motivation
– Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
– McGregor’s Theories X and Y
– Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
– Mc Clelland Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
– Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-
– lower-order needs - largely satisfied externally
• Physiological - food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction
• Safety - security and protection from physical and emotional
– Assurance that physiological needs will be satisfied
– Higher-order needs - largely satisfied internally
• Social - affection, belongingness, acceptance
• Esteem - internal factors like self-respect, autonomy, and
– External factors like status, recognition, attention
• Self-actualization - achieving one’s potential as each need is
substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (cont.)
• Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can
satisfy higher order needs.
• Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
• Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that
person is on the hierarchy.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X - Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work,
avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.
– Assumed that lower-order needs dominated.
Theory Y - Assumes that workers can exercise self direction, desire
responsibility, and like to work.
– Assumed that higher-order needs dominated.
– No evidence that either set of assumptions is valid.
– No evidence that managing on the basis of Theory Y makes
employees more motivated.
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
- Hygiene factors: Extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job
- Motivators: Intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.
Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased
- The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
Mc Clelland Three-Need Theory
Need for achievement (nAch)
Need for power (nPow)
Need of affiliation (nAff)
Need for Achievement (nAch)
The drive to excel and succeed
• prefer jobs that offer personal responsibility
• want rapid and unambiguous feedback
• set moderately challenging goals
– avoid very easy or very difficult tasks
• high achievers don’t necessarily make good managers
– focus on their own accomplishments
» good managers emphasize helping others to accomplish their goals.
Need for Power (nPow)
The need to influence the behavior of others
Need of Affiliation (nAff)
The desire for interpersonal relationships
– Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and
low in the need for affiliation
– High achievers prefer and are strongly motivated in job
situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an
intermediate degree of risk.
– High achievers do not necessarily make a good manager,
especially in large organizations.
– A low need for affiliation and a high need for power are
closely related to managerial success.
– Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement
• Maslow arranged five needs in a
• Satisfaction-progression process
• People who experience self-
actualisation desire more rather
than less of this need.
• Alderfer’s model has
three sets of needs
• Adds frustration-
regression process to
Content Theories of Motivation
Need forNeed for
Need forNeed for