Employee Motivation (Business Psychology)

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Employee Motivation (Business Psychology)

  1. 1. Employee Motivation
  2. 2. Begin with the end in mind What are your talents? What is your ultimate career goal? What can you achieve in 2 years? What are your personal goals?
  3. 3. What Is Motivation? Motivation – The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. • Effort: a measure of intensity or drive. • Direction: toward organizational goals • Need: personalized reason to exert effort – Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
  4. 4. Drives (aka-primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) – Neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium – Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions Needs – Goal-directed forces that people experience. – Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals – Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience
  5. 5. Four-Drive Theory Drive to BondDrive to Bond Drive to LearnDrive to Learn • Drive to form relationships and social commitments • Basis of social identity • Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information Drive to DefendDrive to Defend • Need to protect ourselves • Reactive (not proactive) drive • Basis of fight or flight Drive to AcquireDrive to Acquire • Drive to take/keep objects and experiences • Basis of hierarchy and status
  6. 6. Challenges of Motivating Employees Changing workforce – younger generation employees have different needs and expectations to baby boomers – people have more diverse values – results in more variety in what motivates employees Cultural values – globalization has added to diversity
  7. 7. Content versus Process Theories • Content theories – explain why people have different needs at different times. • Process theories – describe the processes through which needs are translated into behaviour.
  8. 8. Early Theories of Motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – McGregor’s Theories X and Y – Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Mc Clelland Theory
  9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher- order needs. – lower-order needs - largely satisfied externally • Physiological - food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction • Safety - security and protection from physical and emotional harm – Assurance that physiological needs will be satisfied – Higher-order needs - largely satisfied internally
  10. 10. • Social - affection, belongingness, acceptance • Esteem - internal factors like self-respect, autonomy, and achievement – External factors like status, recognition, attention • Self-actualization - achieving one’s potential as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (cont.) • Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. • Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. • Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.
  12. 12. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X - Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. – Assumed that lower-order needs dominated. Theory Y - Assumes that workers can exercise self direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. – Assumed that higher-order needs dominated. – No evidence that either set of assumptions is valid. – No evidence that managing on the basis of Theory Y makes employees more motivated.
  13. 13. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory  Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction are created by different factors. - Hygiene factors: Extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. - Motivators: Intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.  Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. - The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
  14. 14. Mc Clelland Three-Need Theory Need for achievement (nAch) Need for power (nPow) Need of affiliation (nAff)
  15. 15. Need for Achievement (nAch) The drive to excel and succeed High achievers: • prefer jobs that offer personal responsibility • want rapid and unambiguous feedback • set moderately challenging goals – avoid very easy or very difficult tasks • high achievers don’t necessarily make good managers – focus on their own accomplishments » good managers emphasize helping others to accomplish their goals.
  16. 16. Need for Power (nPow) The need to influence the behavior of others Need of Affiliation (nAff) The desire for interpersonal relationships – Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation
  17. 17. Three-Need Theory Conclusion – High achievers prefer and are strongly motivated in job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. – High achievers do not necessarily make a good manager, especially in large organizations. – A low need for affiliation and a high need for power are closely related to managerial success. – Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need.
  18. 18. Hierarchy Theory Needs hierarchy theory Self- actualisation EsteemEsteem BelongingnessBelongingness SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological • Maslow arranged five needs in a hierarchy. • Satisfaction-progression process • People who experience self- actualisation desire more rather than less of this need.
  19. 19. ERG Theory ERG theory Growth RelatednessRelatedness ExistenceExistence • Alderfer’s model has three sets of needs • Adds frustration- regression process to Maslow’s model Needs hierarchy theory Self- actualisation EsteemEsteem BelongingnessBelongingness SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological
  20. 20. Content Theories of Motivation Motivator−hygiene theory Motivators HygienesHygienes Need for achievement Need forNeed for powerpower Need forNeed for affiliationaffiliation McClelland’s learned needs ERG theory Growth RelatednessRelatedness ExistenceExistence Needs hierarchy theory Self- actualisation EsteemEsteem BelongingnessBelongingness SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological
  21. 21. Effective Goal Setting SpecificSpecific RelevantRelevant ChallengingChallenging TaskTask efforteffort TaskTask performanceperformance ParticipationParticipation CommitmentCommitment

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