• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK
 

IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK

on

  • 599 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
599
Views on SlideShare
599
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK Document Transcript

    • (IST) Citizen PlatformAn interactive citizen Platform for Istanbul aroundartistic and cultural production and tracking ofurban lifeRelatore: Francesco ZURLOCorelatore: Daniela TERRILEby Deniz ORCUNIn collaboration with:Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts (IKSV)Politecnico di MilanoFacolta di DesignCorso di Laurea Specialistica Nel DisegnoIndustrialeAA. 2010-2011 1
    • Thank you... I wrote my thesis “on the road” between Brussels, Milan and most of all Istanbul. I have met numerous people on the way who offered their help, interests and avail- ibility but among those especially I would like to thank my professor Francesco Zurlo for his help and openness and Daniela Terrile for her sincere support and infi- nite energy. I can’t thank enough my dear friends, Daniel Metcalfe, for his precious inputs and his wisdom and with Rona to let me in their beautiful family, my dear Deniz for her inspiration and for always making me feel at home whenever i am near her. And finally my two families the Mukaddes, Alp Orcun and Levent, Esen, Asli Ricakci whose presence i feel wherever i go, and their endless support always with me. I can’t thank you enough... 32
    • Index: 1 Abstract: An Iteractive Citizen Platform For Istanbul 9 Introduzione in Italiano 10 2 Locality vs. Globalization in Istanbul? 17 Absence of cultural policy as a “state policy” 18 Mapping as a soft form of Activism in Istanbul 21 New roles in the cultural life of Istanbul 28 3 PARTICIPATIVE WAY OF WORKING 35 Definition of Public Participation Models in European Politics: 40 The Code of Good Practice 4 MAPPING AS EMPOWERMENT OF THE CITIZENS 47 Smart Communities Through Network Weaving 51 5 Digital Mapping Tools and City Guides Comparitive Study 57 Best Practices 57 6 The Project: (IST) by IKSV Citizen Platform 75 Concept Statement 75 Strategic Action 85 How does the Interface work? 88 Object System 96 Conclusions 98 References 100 Bibliography 101 54
    • 1. An interactive citizen Platform for Istanbul 76
    • Istanbul is becoming increasingly colorful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities and increas- ingly gaining attention of foreign spectators. While world famous pop stars fill stadiums, activities like opera, ballet and theatre continue throughout the year. During seasonal festivals, world famous orchestras, chorale ensembles, concerts and jazz legends can be found often playing to a full house. Adding to this picture, the opening of 20 new museums in the past ten years in Istanbul we can say that is celebrating a very bright moment in it’s modern history from the point of view of cultural production. Unfortunately this is only one side of the story concerning the cultural production in this metropolis, that has tripled it’s popula- tion in the last 25 years. The more alternative art scene is still production of Istanbul and become a struggling in the absence of favorable tool for communicating and knowledge policy making and politic and social exchange within the society and with barriers. In addition to this the city the policy makers. culture is under great transformation as I have conducted my research together the new administration has put into ac- with the Istanbul Foundation For Culture tion a number of invasive urban renova- and Arts taking them as a model institu- tion projects. tion to orchestrate this complex service The city is changing fast and as positive solution. as this change may look at the moment This research is structured throughout we have no way of knowing how it will three main discussions; the idea of turn out in the near future because of “localism” in a city like Istanbul that is in this disproportionate growth. the middle of fast globalizing tenden- In my thesis I will be searching for a cies yet so attached to it’s past, the role service design solution that is an ap- of institutions in an “open” world, and propriate model of cultural platform that digital mapping as an act of empower- can host an ongoing activity of tracking ment of the citizens. and documenting of artistic and cultural 98
    • Introduzione in Italiano ultimi 25 anni ha triplicato la sua popo- Questa ricerca è strutturata attraverso fonte selettiva di informazioni per ri- lazione. tre principali discussioni: durre la quantità di input ai quali sonoUna piattaforma interattiva La scena artistica più alternativa è an- - l’idea di “localismo” in una città come esposti quotidianamente. cora alle prese con l’assenza di decisio- Istanbul che seppur sia ancora così Il servizio, ospitata dal IKSV, la ONGper la città di Istanbul che ni politiche favorevoli e con ostacoli di radicata al suo passato, si trova oggi leader del settore in Istanbul che utiliz-veicola (visualizza, comuni- natura politica e sociale. Oltre a questo nel mezzo di dinamiche e tendenze che zando la sua rete esistente gia estesaca) la produzione artistica e la cultura della città è in fase di grande volgono ad una rapida globalizzazione; e il know-how acquisita nel campo diculturale della stessa e (ne) trasformazione, così come la nuova -il ruolo delle istituzioni in un mondo “ap- arte da quasi 40 anni di esperienza dimonitora la vita urbana (quo- amministrazione che ha messo in atto erto” e la mappatura digitale come atto organizzazione e promozione di mani-tidiana) dei suoi cittadini. una serie di progetti di rinnovamento di responsabilizzazione dei cittadini. festazioni culturali e collaborazioni con urbano invasivo. istituti esteri.Istanbul sta divenendo sempre più una La città sta cambiando velocemente! Descrizione della proposta di Il database (IST), come punto dicittà colorata, in materia di attività Ma così come positivo può sembrare progetto: partenza, comunica gli eventi che pas-sociali, culturali e commerciali, e sem- ora questo cambiamento, in questo (IST) City Platform by IKSV sano attraverso un accurato filtro dellapre più si sta guadagnando l’attenzione momento non abbiamo modo di sapere fondazione in carica definiti in rispostedegli spettatori stranieri. come andrà a finire in un prossimo fu- La mia proposta di progetto è una alla interazione con I loro utenti. QuestoMentre le pop star di fama mondiale turo a causa di questa crescita spropor- piattaforma che promuove la parteci- è solo un primo livello per garantire lariempiono gli stadi, le attività quali zionata (del suo tessuto urbano). pazione immersive delle persone nella qualità del servizio.l’opera, la danza e il teatro proseguono Nella mia tesi ricercherò una soluzione promozione della produzione e mani- Oltre alla selezione di raccomandazioniper tutto l’arco dell’anno. Durante i progettuale di servizio che possa es- festazione artistica di Istanbul, usando di IKSV, un sistema di valutazione è pre-festival stagionali poi, orchestre di fama sere un appropriato modello di piatta- la mappatura come strumento primario. visto (fornito agli utenti) per gli utenti emondiale, ensemble corali, concerti e forma culturale, che possa ospitare una Si basa sulla fondazione di una mappa contribuirà a migliorare ed aggiustareleggende del jazz si trovano ovunque continua attività di monitoraggio e doc- interattiva delle manifestazioni culturali costantemente il processo di selezionedisseminati per la metropoli e fanno il umentazione della produzione artistica di Istanbul e sostenendo i membri della IKSV.tutto esaurito. e culturale di Istanbul e diventare così comunità nel contribuire ad un’azione Gli utenti al primo piano sono forniti daIn aggiunta a questo quadro, vi è uno strumento per la comunicazione di scambio di conoscenze attraverso la un’interfaccia di guida alle manifestazi-l’apertura di 20 nuovi musei negli ultimi e lo scambio di conoscenze all’interno mappatura e la selezione degli eventi in oni culturali della cita, forniti di un faciledieci anni. Possiamo dire infatti che, dal della società e con i responsabili politici. primo piano. set di filtri personalizzati per aiutarli apunto di vista della sua produzione cul- Ho condotto la mia ricerca insieme alla Istanbul, proporzionalmente alla sua raggiungere, in modo più veloce e pre-turale, Istanbul sta vivendo un momento Istanbul Foundation For Culture and enorme estensione territoriale, ospita ciso possibile, gli eventi ai quali potreb-molto brillante della sua storia moderna. Arts, prendendola come modello di un gran numero di eventi ogni anno. bero essere interessati a partecipare.Purtroppo questa è solo una parte della istituto esempio per orchestrare as- Considerando l’infinita varietà di sog- Basata su questa semplice interfacciastoria relativa alla produzione culturale sieme questa soluzione di servizio così getti/temi e di tipologie di eventi, gli di “event map” é la “City Platform” dovein questa metropoli; metropoli che negli complessa. utenti spesso hanno bisogno di una gli uttenti attraverso un’interfaccia di 11 10
    • mappatura aggiungeranno contenuti, e come un aiuto a creare punti di inizio naliera, permettendo di contribuire e dipercorsi fatti e esplorazioni esperienzati. e discussioni.. La piattaforma fonde in aggiungere diversi livelli di informazionePiattaforma utilizza uno strumento di un’unico spazio i tre database principali, per facilitare la selezione e la fruizionemappatura aperta (libera-partecipata). - IBB Istanbul municipality map (IBB): dei contenuti della mappa stessa. LoQuesto strumento permetterà di con- È un’applicazione (di servizio) aperta, scambio di punti di vista e conoscenzefigurare (particolareggiare e personaliz- per la mappatura specifica di Istan- specifici su Istanbul attraverso la car-zare) speciali percorsi tematici preparati bul, costruita dal Comune di Istanbul tografia aiutera a rendere piu visibili edalli utenti e la loro condivisione. Esso in occasione del Istanbul European tracciabili I trasformazioni nel tempo inpermetterà agli utenti o ai gruppi di Capital of Culture 2010. Utilizzo di tale questa citta.utenti, individualmente o collettiva- strumento funzionera anche come unmente, di creare percorsi che cambiano patto di partnership con la municipalitála prospettiva delle iniziative o sem- e li coinvolgera in modo piú diretto nellaplicemente di offrire nuovi punti di vista piattaforma.della (e sulla) città. - Becoming Istanbul Visual Encyclo-I risultati di questa attività saranno pedia (Garanti Pub.): É un progetto didisponibili per tutti, per vedere, consul- ricerca sulle dinamiche della cittá ditare, utilizzare e intervenire sugli stessi, Istanbul oltre I mainstream idee proto-come fossero parte di un Inventario tipate, che ha avuto come risultato una(della vita della città) di Istanbul; inven- mostra e vari libri.tario utile per i decisori e i ricercatori - l’inventario IKSV della cultura die come pratica guida di Istanbul per i Istanbul (IKSV): Un’iniziativa di IKSV cheresidenti e i turisti. Ogni mappa (IST) rendera pubblico il contenuto del suoè una nuova (fresca) prospettiva sulle archivio dei quaranta anni di esperienzaesperienze quotidiane che generano la relative alla produzione e promozionevita della città. della cultura ed arte.Regolarmente IKSV chiedera di lasciareu contributo nel database, a membri In una città come Istanbul infatti, cosìdella comunitá che sono personaggi grande e frammentata, con un com-noti al pubblic o che si stanno specializ- plicato sistema di trasporto, e dove lazando su argomenti connessi a Istanbul. programmazione è astratta e il tempoo semplicemente conoscitori di Istanbul. così relativo, un’interfaccia cartograficaQuesti percorsi tracciati e raccontati da di questo tipo, al livello pragmatico, tipoquesti ‘guest mapper’ verranno pubbli- offre l’aiuto necessario per superare lacati regolarmente per creare un ritmo difficoltà della programmazione gior 13 12
    • 2. Locality vs. Globalization in Istanbul? 1514
    • The functions of the behind it’s industrialist character, will cities are constantly shift more and more towards initiatives related to creativity, like in majority transformed according to of other big cities around the world. their location in the world Cultural heritage services and cultural and these functions add industries are the foundations of this physical, cultural, social new economy. new meanings to the cities. Sometimes the districts can When it comes to talk about turn into different forms in a city on the crossroads of order to adapt themselves the fast globalist tendencies to the new functions insisted like Istanbul, which still by the city. strongly possesses values Globalization is not necessarily the from its past, conflicts and messenger of the disappearance of local differences. Actually it would confusion would surely be not be wrong to state more just the an inevitable experience, opposite1. By underlining the place and happening in this city. what’s local and different, globalization The question is; can we take advantage helps to reconstruct these meanings of this climate to actually create once again in another sense . The dialogue between the citizens and global and the local; the old and the value local culture as well as the new; the living and the rotten; the contemporary tendencies? changing and the stable are all two Problems in this area include: dialectic inevitable, the best thing to do is to try to solve the ‘moment’ and the > Istanbul has increased it’s population ‘place’ we are living in, the city Istanbul. from 2 millions in 1960’s to an estimate 17 million in 2010. During this drastic Istanbul, in the future strategies of expansion people and most of all the central and local administrations is new citizens of Istanbul immigrated envisioned as a city of finance, services, to Istanbul from less developed cities and as a congress and culture tourism and villages in Turkey were left to live capital. It is for-seen that the monetary with the minimum essential for survival capital of this city, that is leaving 1716
    • and culture was not a primary concern to promote tourism in Istanbul, the was funded culture in Turkey was break the ice with it’s neighbors andduring the development of the cities effort to engage locals is not enough. being transformed with a series of to look at them more closely. Howevernew suburbs. > Trend of perceiving places as efforts that can ultimately be defined it hasn’t been easy to delete the deep> Today, Istanbul is becoming rapidly products (typical municipality approach as “turkification”, modernization or influence of an 80year period of culturaland increasingly rich in terms of in Istanbul) under the concept of westernization. The most important purification and sterility.its social, cultural, and commercial “branding” is damaging severely the sign of this transformation was the The effort is still vivid to think in deepactivities. This leads to new districts natural fabric of the city. The idea that acceptance of the Latin alphabet in and formulating common questionsof culture, changing the present design is relevant to the public space 1928 which set an invisible barrier based on available data, and to form alandscape of Istanbul creating new only in this process of concealing local between the present and a very long platform of future actions that can haveconflicts, putting gentrification in the dynamics with marketable slogans is a past. Secondly, the new Republic an influence on policy making.agenda. product of this approach. entered an intense process of To this picture we can add the state of friendship with the newly formed young> Although urban life and its actors > Despite the liveliness of the scene and policy making in arts and culture. In the states of the Balkans in the west, thehave become supremely pluralized, the collaborations of different levels there Western countries, the state supports Soviet Union in the north and the Middlestereotypes, discriminating discourses isn’t any strong networks of cultural arts and culture either directly or from East countries.and cliché thought patterns referred operators. a distance, developing the necessaryto when speaking about Istanbul has The Second World War however tools of facilitation and incentives, > Turkey is amongst the countries fornot disappeared. Those who speak changed everything and the American and does not play a direct role in the highest tourism income in the world,about Istanbul both inside and outside era had begun. Turkey had chosen to ‘artistic practice’. It stops at drawing a but culture in this geography still needsTurkey can’t help but use a serious of be on the side of this ne global power. general policy frame. The situation in to be promoted first to be graspedstereotyped concepts, for instance, This caused a long lasting lack of trust Turkey however is almost the opposite. locally, to sustainably be communicatedIstanbul is still “the place where the between turkey and it’s neighbors State funding for the arts and culture globally and to be able to get aEast and West meets,” or “a model of leaving the country isolated from it’s is constantly reduced but the state still distance from stereotyped images.cultural and religious dialogue.” Still, geography. In the same period of doesn’t hold back from interfering inTourists wander in the city thinking they early 1950’s, the first weak signs of the practice to a certain extent. We can sayhave come to an Eastern oriental city. Absence of cultural policy as a formation of an art market, the artists’ that the absence of policy in this fieldStill those who visualize Eastern images “state policy” 2 finding an independent and different works as a “policy by default”.for popular culture generalize and form of expression and privatization of It is worth mentioning one specificconstantly reproduce the domes and culture took place in the country. Before outlining the main moment in history that marked theminarets of Istanbul. Then, the world changed fast, and a characteristics of the project I would hostile divide between officers and> The fascination with tourist-related lot, within a short period of time with artists, the military coup in 1980. After like to give a short history of the“supermarket type of localism”. (Manzini, the Berlin wall coming down and the this separation state and municipal relationship between culture and police2005) Soviet Union dissolving. After these owned museums remained focused on making in Turkey. developments Turkey has started to the artistic patrimony and artifacts of> Although there are numerous attempts In the early 1920’s when the republic 19 18
    • the past, while means for encouraging finding a chance for documentation. Mapping as a soft form of forms of human behavior. Locality isartistic exploration and development Activism in Istanbul not exactly defined as “community”went underground. but as an experience, or practices of communities, in the urban sphere.Only after 2000 a new approach Locality is an act, an event that Rudiger Korff5 takes this a little furtheremerged. Wealthy families, industrial combines spatial network with political by saying “ a locality must be seen as aconcerns and financial institutions and social values. The joint phenomena response to, and attempt to cope with,took up the role of Maecenas to the of globalization and networking have the metropolitan environment and thearts making their private collections given rise once again to the local globalization process in particular. It isthe cores of newly built, prestigious dimension and it’s representation.3 not a geographic but a social category.museums and opening art galleries, Pelin Tan4 in her essay argues howsometimes in conjunction with concert In the soft forms of activism in the concept of locality doesn’t refervenues or their own publishing houses / the context of projects that create any more to a homogeneous culturalbookstores most of which on Istanbul’s collectivities on the micro level, as geography. Nor does “local” simply referrevitalized grand boulevard Istiklal discussed by Toni Negri, Constantin to a place especially within the contextCaddesi. Petcou, Doina Petrescu and Anna of an urban sphere, local becomes Querrien6, the “soft” implies that theAs great as this seems on the surface Fig.1 an act In itself, which takes place in a political can exist outside of the bio-it masked some problematic issues. Istanbul Map Project context defined by the politics of space, by the Spanish artist political diagram the latter being “theThese new museums of Istanbul Anna Sala economic transformation, media, and space in which the organization oftend to operate as much in a modeof competition as of thoughtfulcooperation. Few, if any, chose to holdon to a specific focus, subject, matter,or tone but instead try to outdo oneanother through extravagance. Theyalmost always chose to spend greatsums to realize big exhibitions of artistslong gone instead of supporting newand upcoming ones.As a result, young artists seekalternative ways of interacting, workingand exhibitions but such attempts areusually fragile and dissolve due to thevolatility of the creative process without 21 20
    • Fig.2 Emotional Map Parisorganized life (social, political) in all Christian Noldits dimensions is controlled, capturedand exploited.” In this context art andculture practices may play an importantrole not by affirming notions of socialhealing or representing social function,but by collaborating with neighborhoodinitiatives to open up spaces for newrealities. Yet another important role canbe given to mapping.An intervention into the process ofurban transformation that is an exampleof critic practice is the Istanbul MapProject (see Fig.1) by the Spanishartist Anna Sala, who works on criticalcartographies about the privatizationof urban space. Sala’s Map present’sthe situation of neighborhoods inseveral urban parts of Istanbul. Itshows clearly the urban projects ofthe Greater Municipality of Istanbulthat aim to evict residents from theirneighborhoods to transform entiredistricts. The maps reveal current urbanconditions and warning of the futureproblems threatening the generalpopulation. Creating an environment,a platform for practices from differentfields that allow artists and residentsfocusing on specific issues to intervenein the ongoing process of urbantransformation or urban privatizationis an effective way not only to expandartistic practices, but also to act with 23 22
    • Fig.3collective responsibility. screens or our GPS. With Google Earth, Emotional Map Paris Google Maps, Mappy and the other Christian NoldCartography and power are closely geo-portals, the whole world is offeredrelated: Who controls the map controls on our computer screens in just a fewthe territory, and this is true at several clicks, free from any constraints withlevels. The person who consults it, regard to scale and paper. Still, theinsofar as he knows how to interpret it, concept of urban living in general andgains the ability to identify his position public space in particular has beenin space. The person who creates (and still is) determined for the mostit – who is situated one step above – part by official maps, statistics andproposes (or imposes) his vision of the administrative limits, without takingterritory, as he perceives it or as he into account other visions of the city,projects it. The person who possesses particularly those of everyone who livesit, finally, decides how to distribute it there on a daily basis.and consequently decides to grantor deny others the power he has For more than three years, a group ofconcerning the territory7. In fact, a map people in Brussels has been workingis hardly a harmless tool: figurative as on the project Towards a Subjectivewell as projective, simulation of space Collective Cartography (see Fig. 2). Thisas much as a space for simulation – it is an effort to see mapmaking – mapsis found at the very source of military themselves, as well as the process forstrategies, mercantile capitalism, drafting them and the data associatedterritorial divisions, and in the particular with them – as a common good, incase of towns, by and large it has terms of access to them (universal,determined what is to be drawn and rather than restricted), regulationmeasured, and consequently, at the end (permissive, rather than restrictive), andof the day, what is to be built or at least ownership (public rather than private).planned. Cartography, formerly reserved This desire to defend the right of thestrictly to a minority, is now opening community to consult, create, publishup to a broad range of users. With our and exchange maps, as well as to havegreater mobility, as neo-nomads in a access to cartographic data, is bothglobal world, we use them and find poetic and political. Poetic becausethem everywhere in public transport, it responds to the inevitable sharetour guides, streets, shopping malls and, of subjectivity in an approach to thestill more particularly, on our computer territory and considers that multiple 25 24
    • cartographic visions are as many collective projects.possible metaphors of the world we live Another very interesting use ofin. mapping is explored by Christian Nold8Political, because it gives users , Emotional Cartography (see Fig.3),the power to think individually or that explores the relation of body andcollectively about the territory and the city through Bio Mapping projects,perhaps to influence its future. In the investigating the implications ofpast, urban action could take place creating technologies that can record,without or even counter to many users visualize and share with each other ourof the city, or occasionally with them, in intimate body-states in reaction to oura sort of concession won over from the urban experiences. And toauthorities or generously consented explore the political, social and culturalby them, but things should be very implications of visualizing intimatedifferent today. In fact, the way people biometric data andfeel about and perceive a city– and emotional experiences usinga map can be used to represent technology.this – should be the keystone of thedemocratic decision making process To conclude these series of reflectionsconcerning the territory in general and on mapping as an act of activismpublic space in particular. I would like to give an example where collective mapping is directlyGiven these observations and connected to projecting and proposingobjectives, the Towards project focuses future scenarios about public spaces.on creating two different tools that are (Fig. 4)nevertheless complementary: an Atlasof Brussels on one hand that includes The European district in Brusselsthe various maps of the city (imaginary, has seen over twenty years of majoranecdotal, emotional, etc.) and, on the upheavals and restructuring projects. Atother, a cartographic software project the same time it has witnessed a new– Tresor – that will make it possible to generation of people and buildings:create maps, consult them, compare estate speculators, satellite offices,them, adjust the parameters that define shops trying to adapt to the newthem, complete them, publish them or situation.use them as part of personal or Fig.4 CityMine9, together with the artist and Map-it European Quarter 27 26
    • esearcher Thomas Laureyssens10 and New roles in the cultural life of and artistic assets of Turkey, by using an institution that organizes fivethe committees of neighborhoods, Istanbul11 arts to create an international platform international festivals.propose a collaborative mapping of communication. The International Istanbul Jazz Festivalexercise of a public space in the district. From a single “Istanbul Festival” to five was initiated in 1994, the same year The past 20 years have marked theThey invite the community to ask major international festivals that the International Istanbul Festival opening of over twenty museumsthemselves the following questions: changed its name to the International meeting the international standards. The first International IstanbulWhen the institutional planning Istanbul Music Festival. Thus, Istanbul What these museums have in common Festival, organized in 1973 on the 50thredraws the city with the bulldozer, Foundation for Culture and Arts became is that they are all initiated and funded Anniversary of the foundation of thewhat happens with the inhabitants of an institution that organizes five by leading industrialists, finance leaders Turkish Republic, covered a period ofthe neighborhood? How do they find international festivals. of Turkey. We can take a look also at the one and a half months and focusedagain their home, and (re)inspire their major events in the city, the biennale, mainly on classical music. Soon after, On the occasion of its 30th anniversary,imagination? Is it possible to create and fashion and design weeks, we it included other artistic fields in its the Istanbul Foundation for Culturenew meeting places and connections would see the same thing. Among program such as film screenings, and Arts initiated a social responsibilitybetween neighborhoods? these industrialist the Eczacibasi Family theatre productions, jazz and ballet project and founded the IstanbulA low-tech tool to plan, analyze and can be considered to be the first to performances, and art exhibitions held Friends of Culture and Arts Tulipreconstruct past and future projects by invest in arts supporting the founding of in historic venues. As public interest membership program with the intentioncreating open and flexible visualization the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and grew, groups of events organized in of protecting cultural heritage andof a process in space and time. The first Arts (IKSV). different artistic disciplines gradually fostering the development of arts.MAP-it European Quarter workshop was evolved into distinct festivals. Continuing today under the name ofheld at the CityMine(d) Urban Platform Tulip membership, the program gathers Presented as a separate section under Eczacibasi Family and IKSV12event in November 2010. It resulted art enthusiasts under one roof, and the name “International Istanbul Filmin a good overview of the problems provides its members a variety of days” in 1983, the film week transformedand opportunities of the quarter and Istanbul Foundation for Culture privileges during İKSV-organized events into the International Istanbul Filmbrought up some inspiring ideas. and Arts (İKSV) is a non-profit, non- including the Istanbul Festivals. Festival in 1989; 1987 marked theI believe that engaging and acting governmental organization founded beginning of the International Istanbul The same year, İKSV made a decisionwithin localities (both social and urban), in 1973 by seventeen businessmen Biennial, and in 1989 the International to organize innovative, smaller eventsconceiving the artistic object in terms and art enthusiasts who gathered Istanbul Theatre Festival was initiated. in addition to the Istanbul Festivals.of a critical instrument in a process- under the leadership of Dr. Nejat F. Beginning with Filmekimi (a week of film The International Istanbul Jazz Festivalbased engagement in public space, and Eczacıbaşı, with the aim of organizing screenings in October) in 2002, The was initiated in 1994, the same yearcreating specific representation in order an international arts festival in Istanbul. Foundation continued to add brand that the International Istanbul Festivalto find ways to disseminate action and The Foundation’s initial goal was to new events to its portfolio. in 2003. In changed its name to the Internationalknowledge are the only ways to create offer the finest examples of art from 2006, İKSV assumed the organization Istanbul Music Festival. Thus, Istanbulpossibilities of counter-culture. around the world, while at the same of the bi-annual Leyla Gencer Voice Foundation for Culture and Arts became time promoting the national, cultural 29 28
    • Competition, from its 4th edition onward.The Foundation has been committedto bringing together different culturesand contributing to the creation of aplatform for multicultural dialogue. Inthis respect, İKSV organizes a series ofinternational festivals in major Europeancities. This journey began in 2004 with“Şimdi Now” in Berlin and continuedwith “Şimdi Stuttgart” in 2005, “TurkeyNow” in Amsterdam and Rotterdam in2007 and 2008, Russia in 2008, andVienna, Austria in 2009. The “CulturalSeason of Turkey in France” activitiesheld between 1 July 2009 and 31 March2010 were also organized by İKSV, incollaboration with Cultures France.İKSV has been organizing the Pavilionof Turkey at the Venice Biennale since2007.2009 marked a turning point in İKSV’shistory as the headquarters moved fromits home on the historic İstiklal Street inBeyoğlu to another historical building,Deniz Palace, in Şişhane. Togetherwith its new building, İKSV realized along time plan, and launched its ownperformance venue, Salon, in which itdoes not only organize, but also hostcultural and artistic events. 31 30
    • 3. Participative way of working 3332
    • It is undisputable that wikily”14 is characterized by greater we are living in an era of openness, transparency, decentralized participative approaches to decision-making, and collective action. collaborative working made (The term working wikily is based on the easier through the rise of word wiki, a Web site that allows groups the Internet and low cost of people to collectively create and edit technology, the spread of the Web site and information on it. The knowledge and education, best-known use of a wiki is Wikipedia.) the ethic of participation. What once seemed a marginal activity became mainstream after President Barack Obama’s election campaign We see and use everyday hi tech combined grassroots organizing with versions of elementary community online tools to mobilize more than 13 dynamics realized through the likes of million supporters and raise nearly $750 Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, EBay million for his 2008 election15. Indeed, blogging and pod casting. They are for anyone serious about social impact, characterized by the common interest it’s quickly becoming difficult to imagine of their users to contribute in the working not wikily. creation of content and passionate Networks, collections of people amateurs who are looking for a platform connected to each other through to express themselves. relations, aren’t new. We are all parts of On the other side of the spectrum are networks; our families, schools, social the organizations, institutionalized circles, workplaces. There is a wealth models. Traditional organizational of knowledge from social science approach aims to create professional research and from decades of on-the- clusters of special people, in specific ground experience about what helps places and the innovation down the performance of groups and larger the pipeline o the users. While new human systems. But it is only now that organizations, utilizing new technology, people are realizing that there is an that thrive on this spirit of mass alternative. participation move towards a new What’s different now is that a wave model that is between open and of new technologies allow people to closed13. more easily visualize, communicate This approach described as “working 3534
    • with, and act on existing personal and centralized infrastructure. Perhaps the STRUCTURE TYPE EXAMPLES professional networks, and to create most vivid example of this new reality strong connections with new ones. are the emergence of “smart mobs”.CENTRALIZED > Nonprofit Many local direct These tools make it possible to connect Large groups of people linked by cell- service providers with any number of people (irrespective phones, text messages, e-mails or other organizations without explicit network of geographic distance), to access a channels who get together suddenly structure greater diversity of perspectives, to in a public space to perform some accelerate the sharing of information, collective action. and to drastically reduce the costs > Connecting people and ideas is Membership Membership Clubs organizations with of participation and coordination.That getting faster and faster. network component makes them well suited to facilitating > Networks are open and transparent: progress on complex social and The new social tools are making the environmental challenges that require sharing of information routine and people and organizations to coordinate Nonprofits with Church making more resources and information axplicit network their efforts across traditional available for more people and allow strategy and boundaries and sectors. structure people to freely build together. They As important as these new technologies often borrow from, link to or build on are, the most important change goes one another. Coalition or alliance Save Darfur beyond the tools themselves. The real > Our ability to search expertise transformation that is taking place is expanded: The wikies provide today is the fundamental shift in the public forums for scientists, activists way that people think, form groups, and academics and general public to share do their work, in part because of the ideas about the best ways to effectively widespread accessibility of the tools solve pressing problems.< DECENTRALIZED Networks of networks WiserEarth and the networks they can help to create. > Effectiveness in mobilizing: While in Ad hoc Networks Flash mobs institutions longevity is an advantage, As we are moving through this new era Facebook networks can disassemble as fast of new, networked facts of life how is as they assemble to reform in new the world beginning to look: constellations to answer different > Efforts can be decentralized: In a specific problems. networked model, new technologies In his book, “We Think: Why mass allow people to self organize easily creativity is the next big thing”, Charles and quickly without the burden of 37 36
    • ORGANIZATION-CENTRIC NETWORK-CENTRIC IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WAYS Leadbeater explains why starting from organizing efforts. But new approachesMODEL MODEL WE WORK AND CONNECT now the way we organize ourselves in are now allowing community organizers future will not just be an extension of to view their work through a network the industrial era.16 A growing band of lens, and to better understand> Centralized > Decentralized > People and groups use new tecnologies to self organize organizations in future will resurrect the ties and complex connections without centralized planning ancient ideas and meld them with between individuals in order to foster and infrastructure. new technology. Adaptive and self- healthier communities. Organizers> Connecting ideas and > The pace of conection is > Ideas can spread and groupspeople takes time. fast can form more quickly than organizing communities rely on more are deliberately acting as “network ever before as the new tools than good communications between weavers”—a term coined by network allow people to connect with others instantaneously and neighbors and peers to make sure expert June Holley17 to describe the act virally. everything works. An overall order of deliberately connecting others in an> Coordination and > Coordination and > Barriers to collaborative emerges from a mass of localized effort to strengthen ties. Weavers linkcollaboration are difficult collaboration are easier effort are low enough that people can now do “big things decisions only if there are some simple previously disconnected individuals and for love” or find partners in norms and goals to provide a skeleton groups, surface untapped opportunities narrow passions. structure. Given a platform, some for community members to produce> Closed and proprietary > Open and transparent > Sharing is routine, resources and knowledge are available rules and the tools any passionate better outcomes, and encourage to many, and multiple efforts user can become content create. But new relationships and collaborations. and ideas can build on one another. the questions to be asked at this In some ways, it’s what community> Our ability to tap expertise > Our ability to tap expertise > When we look for knowledge, point are on how to keep the balance organizers have always done—only theand share knowledge is and share knowledge is leadership and expertise, we between open and closed, networked new approaches emphasize a lack ofconstrained expanded will increasingly be able to access it in places that were and controlled systems. For example hierarchy or traditional power structures, once beyond our reach can we really survive on volunteers or focusing instead on connectivity and> Effectiveness is equated > Effectiveness is equated > Groups do not need to how do we nee determine the level of social capital.with longevity with mobilization last; they can come together and disassemble as need to involvement of institutions in different > Accessing Diverse Perspectives: achieve goals; people are not cases? necessarily looking for long Social media tools and the term membership. There are many different reasons why accompanying network mind-set are> Organizations are the > Organizations are one way > Organizations will continiue, people use a network approach to expanding our ability to access newprimary way to organize to organize effort but they are no longer the onlyeffort way to get things done; work achieve social change. Some of which perspectives by tapping into the ideas can be done without reference are: and expertise of many individuals to traditional institutions. through crowdsourcing, rather than > Weaving Community: Building relying only on an elite few. community and strengthening social capital have long been at the core > Building and Sharing Knowledge: of neighborhood revitalization and The network mind-set and tools are 39 38
    • changing the way individuals and Definition of Public Participationorganizations develop and share Models in European Politics: Theknowledge and best practices. Code of Good Practice18Nonprofits that use a federated oraffiliate model have long known the One of the major concerns of modernbenefits of sharing best practices democracies is the alienation of citizensacross their networks. Now people from the political processes. In thisnot part of the same organizational context, as in many others, civil societystructure are learning to do the same constitutes an important element of thethrough communities of practice and democratic process. It provides citizensother collective mechanisms. with an alternative way, alongside> Mobilizing People | Network The Code of Good Practice underlines accountability from both the NGOs and those of political parties and lobbies, ofapproaches are useful for motivating a series of common principles to act public authorities, with transparency at channeling different views and securingpeople to act and that way mobilizing as foundation for the members to build all stages. a variety of interests in the decision-collective action. The new social tools upon. making process. > Independence: NGOs must beare easy to use, lower the cost of In an effort to regulate and spread Civil > Participation: NGOs collect and recognized as free and independentcoordination, and help catalyze public Participation and with the he principal channel views of their members, user bodies in respect to their aims,action on a large scale because activity objective of the Code of Good Practice groups and concerned citizens. This decisions and activities. They have thecan be viral and doesn’t have to be for Civil Participation is to contribute to input provides crucial value to the right to act independently and advocaterouted through a central authority. the creation of an enabling environment political decision-making process, positions different from the authoritiesOne of the best-known examples of for NGOs in Council of Europe member enhancing the quality, understanding with whom they may otherwisethis is the Iranian election protests State by defining at European level a set and longer-term applicability of the cooperate.in 2009 and other so-called “Twitter of general principles, guidelines, tools policy initiative. A pre-condition forRevolutions.” And defines a series of cross-cutting and mechanisms for civil participation this principle is that the processes for tools and mechanisms for civil> Coordinating Resources and Action participation are open and accessible, in the political decision-making process. participation| Social media tools and network based on agreed parameters for The intent is that the Code of Goodapproaches are making it easier for > E-participation: E-tools offer great Practice will be implemented at local, participation.activists to coordinate their resources potential for improving democratic regional and national level. The Code > Trust: An open and democratic societyand action. practice and participation of an of Good Practice is based on actual is based on honest interaction between organized civil society. They can experiences from NGOs across Europe actors and sectors. largely contribute to the transparency, sharing their good practices and valid > Accountability and transparency: accountability and responsiveness methods for engaging with public Acting in the public interest requires of institutions, as well as to the authorities. openness, responsibility, clarity and promotion of citizens’ engagement 41 40
    • and to increasing empowerment and advisory bodies (permanent or ad-hoc);the accessibility and inclusiveness of or NGO alliances/coalitions which poolthe democratic process. In order to resources and develop joint positions.fully all participants of the decision > Framework documents on cooperationmaking should integrate benefit from between NGOs and public authorities:their potential, e-tools, including the In many European countries frameworkauthorities at all levels and organized agreements have been developedcivil society. to outline undertakings, roles and> Capacity-building for participation: responsibilities and procedures forIt is essential to develop the capacity cooperation. These documents lay outand skills of local, regional and a clear basis for the relationship andnational NGOs so that they may be thereby facilitate ongoing dialogue andactively involved in policy formulation, mutual understanding between NGOsproject development and service and public authorities. They includeprovision. Capacity-building can also bilateral agreements with parliamentinclude training seminars to improve or government, strategy documentsthe understanding of the reciprocal for cooperation and official programsroles of NGOs and public authorities for cooperation, adopted by publicin this engagement, as well as authorities.exchange programs to facilitate the The Role of designers: A role that aunderstanding of each other’s realities. service designer takes over in this field> Structures for cooperation between is to understand the phenomenon ofNGOs and public authorities: In order social innovation at the grassroots levelto facilitate the relationship between in various contexts, identify its relationpublic authorities and NGOs, a to policy and to design conditions thatnumber of countries have developed empowers people to use their creativitycoordinating bodies. These include: to ideate, implement and disseminategovernment bodies such as a contact the solutions for their needs. As Manziniperson for civil society in each ministry claims, transition towards sustainabilityor a central coordination body as a is a social learning process thatsingle interlocutor; joint structures requires active involvement of socialsuch as multi-stakeholder committees, constituents.19work groups, expert councils and other 43 42
    • 4. Mapping as Empowerment of the Citizens 4544
    • Mapping Matters: From maps as world abandoned the discipline of truth to maps as critic geography. This discipline was no longer considered relevant on many campuses as the field was perceived The city is a complex construction of to be either redundant in respect to the lived experience mediated through technological advancements associated representation. The understanding of with satellite imaging, or so complicit in the contemporary city as an object the politics of modern urban planning of study has renewed the interest as to be lost. in questions of representation in And then, just as the discipline of the last few decades. Collectively, geography seemed destined to enter the design disciplines have found the dustbin of the history of academic themselves over the past two decades history along with other seemingly engaged in a renewal of interest in irrelevant fields, geography started maps and mapping, as one modality to get interesting again. As part of a of representation with which urban broader turn in the humanities and experience and urban identity is formed. a reawakening of scholarship in the Over the last decades the disciplines design disciplines, many fields found a aspiring to represent urban form new interest in spatial studies and the have moved from positions of relative representation of power structures. distance to one another, toward a As geography was seemingly loosing it’s convergence of sensibilities with existence as an academic discipline and respect to maps and mapping. The lost as a profession, the representation map, the tool that once defined the of spatial, economic, and social orders geographic knowledge, had by the became relevant in a range of other 1960’s and 70’s began to stand for the disciplines. While many geographers failings of the modernist social project, had been producing solid academic the brutality of urban planning, and the achievements, a few geographers beginning of environmental crisis. In the began to cure a seemingly more wake of these critiques associated with remote branch of the discipline. Among the politics of ‘68 and the economics of them, the cultural geographer Denis ‘73, maps and mapping fell into a period Cosgrove was particularly effective of dis reputation, during which time in renewing the discipline’s relevance universities across the English language 4746
    • and role. Cosgrove’s research interests In stark contrast to the increasingly educated in the role of images of their context was deemed to be irrelevant;evolved from a focus on the meanings scientific paradigm of modernist maps cities as key to the new global economy the world existed independent of theof landscape in human and cultural that proposed to be scientific, value- and particularly to the economy of observer and maps served only togeography, especially in Western free, and neutral arbiters of spatial destination tourism. The combination map the world. The cartographer wasEurope since the fifteenth century, to conditions, Cosgrove argued that maps of these conditions means that cities separate from the user and optimala broader concern with the role of were culturally relative constructions started to look for ways to differentiate maps could be produced to meetspatial images and representations that were political. themselves from their peers and are different needs.in the making and communicating of By shifting geography’s attention much more drawn to using architectural The aims of the cartographer wereknowledge. His work included how toward the construction of values projects, arts installations and cultural normative; to reduce error in thevisual images have been used in history attendant to the simple act of making tourism as economic income. representation and to increase mapto shape geographical imaginations a map, Cosgrove was able to renew Central to these projects is the broader effectiveness through good design.and in connection between geography the relevance of the field for architects, dissemination of images of the city Research thus sought to improve mapas a formal discipline, imaginative urbanists, land space architects, and as objects of cultural value to a broad designs by carefully controlled scientificexpressions of geographical planners. international audience. experimentation that focused on issuesknowledge and experience in the Contemporary design culture has been such as how to represent location, The latter part of the twentieth centuryvisual arts (including cartography). greatly influenced by the regaining direction and distance; how to select saw also, US scholar Arthur RobinsonWithin his cultural research, Cosgrove of geography. Maps and mapping information; how best to symbolize and his collaborators who tried to re-differentiated between dominant have found themselves central to the these data; how to combine these cast cartography, focusing in particularcultures and alternative cultures. The debates of the day. Maps and mapping symbols together; and what kind of on systematically detailing map designdominant culture has the most influence have come to be understood as unique map to publish. The research agenda principles with the map user in mind.in shaping a landscape. Most of what forms of representation through which of cartography was to reduce signal His aim was to create a science ofyou see, he claimed, is likely to be a designers derive particular disciplinary distortion in the communication of data cartography that would produce whatproduct of the dominant culture in and professional expertise and render to users. Art and beauty had no place in he named “map effectiveness” – thata region. However, one is also likely their work both more political and more this functional cartographic universe. is, maps that capture and portrayto see evidence of alternative, or relevant. The active representations of relevant information in a way that the Out of this context in the late 1960s andsubcultures in the landscape. Within the the city are itself both the product and map-reader can analyze and interpret. 1970s emerged a series of attemptscategory of alternative culture Cosgrove act of design. The work of mapping Robinson suggested that an new to develop and position cartographicdifferentiated between residual cultures has increasingly entered the public approach to mapping grounded in communication models as the dominant(historic cultures that have disappeared sphere as artists, community groups, experimental psychology might be the theoretical framework to academicor are in the process of fading away), city planners, and art critics come to best way for cartography to gain it’s research. Communication modelsemergent cultures (those that are just read there representations as a lens intellectual respectability. Robinson encouraged researchers to look beyondnow appearing), and excluded cultures onto the a new world. Simultaneously, adopted a view of the mind as an a functional analysis of map design,(those that are actively or passively mayors and media have come to be information-processing device. Social exploring filters that might hinder theexcluded by the dominant culture). 49 48
    • encoding and decoding of spatial Signals of change cartographic practice have also particularly those of everyone whoinformation. For researchers such as encouraged this changed emphasis. lives there on a daily basis and thatGrant Head or Hansgeorg Schlichtmann Associated with this shift has been the the city is first and foremost a ’lived-in’ Today, particularly given the various newthe map artifact became the focus of drift towards distrust of rigid knowledge space. This service design project aims means of production and distribution,study, with an emphasis on the semiotic claims. Instead of a belief in absolute to employ an online mapping tool in it is certainly the case that maps arepower of the map as opposed to its space, or a socially constructed world, order to add a subjective and dynamic enjoying an even faster renaissancefunctional capacity; while Christopher an alternative way of understanding layer of information about the city from in terms of their popularity. NewBoard showed how the map could be mapping has emphasized relativity. the point of view of the citizens, to a mapping technologies have gainedconceived as a conceptual, as well as cultural and artistic events calendar/ Today, through a wave of new the attention of industry, governmenta functional, model of the world. As database. In doing so the purpose is to technologies, cartography, formerly and to some extent the general publicmodels of cartographic communication build a city guiding service that evolves reserved strictly to a minority, is keen to capitalize on the growing power,multiplied so attention also increasingly around the temporary or permanent opened up to a broad range of richness and flexibility of maps asfocused on the map-reader, with cultural events calendar of the city. users, allowing people to more easily organizational tools, modes of analysisresearch seeking to understand how visualize, communicate with, and act and, above all, interesting visual imagesmaps worked, in the sense of how on existing personal and professional Smart Communities Through with communicational power. It is alsoreaders interpreted and employed networks, and to enable new Network Mapping the case that maps have become thethe knowledge maps communicate. connections reducing drastically costs center of attention for a diverse rangeResearchers tried to understand how of participation and coordination. But of scholars from across the humanitiespeople came to know the world around “Network weavers” is a term coined important as these new technologies and social sciences interested inthem and how they made choices and by network expert June Holley20 to are it’s how these wiki like social tools maps, in and how maps can informdecisions based on that knowledge. describe the act of deliberately are creating a new, networked mindset, other visual and representationalHere the map user is conceived as connecting others in an effort to merging existing knowledge about modes of knowing and expressions.an apolitical recipient of knowledge strengthen ties. A Network Weaver is community building and collaboration A growing number of researchers inand the cartographer as a technician someone who is aware of the networks with new tools and approaches to allow computer science and engineeringstriving to deliver spatially precise, around them and explicitly works to them to do old things in new ways are considering aspects of automationvalue-free representations that were make them healthier, more inclusive and to try things that weren’t possible of design, algorithmic efficiency,the product of carefully controlled and connected. Network Weavers do before. visualization technology and humanlaboratory-based experiments that this by connecting people strategically interaction in map production and Indeed, the concept of urban living ingradually and incrementally improved where there’s potential for mutual consumption. The map-reader becomes general and public space in particularcartographic knowledge. Little work benefit, helping people identify their as important as the mapmaker. has so far been determined for theaddressed either what should be passions, and serving as a catalyst for Technological change that reduced the most part by official maps, statisticsmapped or how mapping was employed self-organizing groups. significance of barriers to accessing and administrative limits, without takingsocially because this was beyond the data, and the democratization of into account other visions of the city, As Manzni argues in “Small, local, open,philosophical remit for valid research. 51 50
    • connected” emerging features, and the good implication, and the mostcases of socio-technical innovation on interesting one for us here, is that withwhich they are based, are characterized the networks it becomes possible toby four keywords: small, local, open and operate on a local and small scale inconnected. He adds “in the globalised a very effective way. Moreover, these HUBnetwork society, the local and the networking and flexible systemssmall are, at the same time, open and indicate the one and only possibilityconnected”. to operate in the complex and fast changing environment generated by theBuilding on what E. F. Schumacher double transition towards a knowledgewrote his very famous book Small is and sustainability based society. Scattered HUBbeautiful in . At that time, because thedegree of connectivity was (relatively) Before you can improve your networklow, the small was really small and you need to know where you arethe local really local (that is, isolated). currently. Serving as x-rays of yourTherefore, Schumacher’s option in terms network system are the network maps.of the small and local scale could be A network map shows the nodesproposed only as a cultural and ethical and links in the network. Nodes canchoice. Today, it is no longer like that: be people, groups or organizations.with a higher degree of connectivity, Links can show relationships, flows, orwhen the small can be a node of the transactions.networks and the local can be open A network map is an excellent tool forto the global flow of people and visually tracking your ties and designing Mult HUB/Small Core / Peripheryinformation, the small is no longer small strategies to create new connections. world network networksand a local is no longer local, at least in A network map is an excellent tool fortraditional terms. visually tracking your ties and designingThis change in the nature of the strategies to create new connections.“small” has enormous implications, for Network maps are also excellent ‘talkingbetter and for worse. Al-Kaida, for documents’ – visual representationsinstance, is a bad implication: it is in that support conversations aboutfact a constellation of small groups possibilities.of terrorists that, being connected,became as powerful as a big army.On the other hand, the (potentially) 53 52
    • 5. Digital Mapping Tools and City Guides Comperative Case Studies 5554
    • Best Practices shape my project by defining the guidelines, technologies and type of interaction created with the users. I will During the research phase, trying to describe these seventeen case studies PARTICIPATIVE grasp the state of the art in the field of under five topics going in to details of INTERACTIVE RELATIONAL CITY GUIDE city guiding and collaborative mapping, only of the most significant ones. MAPPING GLOBAL I looked into some of the best practices in city guiding services as well as PDA ICT collaborative networks whose subject Case Studies Whai Whai is the city and those that approach this subject through a variety of different Insider’s City Guides: Insiders’ City Beiroutes Guides perspectives beyond the physical. I • Whai Whai City guide have then searched for some of these • Beiroutes Time Out approaches that have translated into Le Cool Author’s guides mapping activities and finally the > Whai Whai/ Play the storyline participative mapping activities. throughout the city. (http://www. Zero In order to select the cases that satisfy whaiwhai.com/)Creative Everyone our definition of participative city guiding, cases were reviewed using the Spotted by locals Community Based Description: Whai Whai city guides let following criteria: visitors explore the city through a game Beyoglu-in a. The use of participation in data scenario, while trying to solve enigmas building in both digital and physical and follow routes telling original tales Akbank Art Map spheres. related to the city. The WHAIWHAITophane Art Walks b. Weather it enable instant connections, narratives are about unusual details Specialized City relations between users. about places. The aim is to reveal Pist Guides intriguing aspects about places, even c. Level of interaction with the user. Open Green Maps if it’s a city you think you already know d. The use of ICT. well. Ushahidi e. The effort to satisfy the users’ unmet Service Promoter: LOG 607 (http://www. Use-it Maps social needs. log607.com/en/) is an interaction design Crowd Sourced f. Their scales from local to global. company based in Treviso. Target Map Maps The selected case studies I will Innovative Idea: The aim is to reveal Four square Real Time Guide describe in this chapter have helped intriguing aspects about places that 57 56
    • may not be noticeable. The initial idea Authors’ Guidesis that “any city is interesting because it •Time Out •Le Cooltells the unique stories that belong onlyto that place.”How does the interaction take place? >Time Out (http://www.timeout.com)The service starts when the user sends Description: Time Out is an internationala text message to a number indicated multimedia publisher of culturalinside the WHAI WHAI Guide Book. The experiences for urban adventurers. Ituser is then asked to express how long publishes magazines, guidebooks orhe wants the adventure to last and and organizes events. It has grownweather to go at a leisurely pace or run worldwide over 40 years of time anda race against time. And so he becomes today is present in almost all of thethe hero of the plot that is proposed to major cities in the world.him. Whether the user needs in-depth Service Promoter: Time Outinformation about a place that sparksinterest Whai Whai answers his text Starting Point: Around the world, localmessages. teams are connected through Time Out to what their city has to offer. TheirKey innovation: The use of simple listings are generated in-house andmobile technologies combined with a reviews are completely independent.graphically intriguing printed material Readers and publishers worldwidegiving autonomy to the visitors while have embraced this approach. Many ofbeing assisted. The service provider is their products are created with a localinvisible yet present. partner keen to bring the Time OutPDA: Yes, they have an i-phone voice to their city.application. Key innovation: Time out works in partnership with publishers around the planet to bring Time Out to their markets and the result is a worldwide network of magazines, websites, apps and guides all committed to independence, intelligence and editorial integrity. 59 58
    • Time Out is experienced in adapting > Le Cool (http://london.lecool.com/ Despite the very narrow selectionthe brand for success in different london/en/page/about%20us) people know what to expect of eventsmarket, be it through traditional that can be found in Le Cool. Description: LE COOL is a freeprint media, digital innovation, the weekly magazine distributed digitally PDA: They don’t have any applicationscreation and curating of events, or to subscribers every Thursday that on personal digital assets yet.even branded spaces, such as the features a selection of most rareTime Out Tokyo Café & Diner. The cultural events and leisure activities,result is a truly international brand revealing a restricted number ofthat people trust. Social events, is an selected events. Le Cool filters out,increasingly important element of the among other things, the less distributedbusiness offering, capitalizing on the art, film, music, and club nights, astrust consumers place with the brand. well as a careful selection of bars,While all events aim to deepen the restaurants and other fine places. Theirrelationship between Time Out and new 2.0-oriented website offers readersits customers, many are created to ways of sharing recommendations andgenerate additional revenues for our organizing their own weekly agenda.business and its partners. Service Promoter: Le Cool PublishingTime Out, building on the knowhow Starting Point: To Guide People tothey have accumulated over the years unique experiences, at home or whenis currently publishing books and travelling, rather than the mainstream.magazines on a variety of subjects andspecializations. Key Innovation: Their distributed knowledge collection system whereWeak Points: As good as it’s reputation they have hundreds of editors aroundmay be on communicating mainstream the world who contribute in smallevents and attractions, Time Out bits. Reducing drastically the costs bydoesn’t cover the more grass root sending an e-mail format. The choice toinitiatives, alternative events and distribute only to subscribers createsattractions. a sense of discretion as opposed toPDI: Yes, I phone applications. popular events. The creation of a character for the magazine that is traceable from their visual and their language they use that marks their taste in arts and the selection of events. 61 60
    • Community Based City Guides PDI: Yes, they have an i-phone > Creative Everyone.com (www. is curated and edited by the design• ZERO application. creativeeveryone.com) community. It is simple to use and• Spotted by locals has seemingly created a kind of• Creative Everyone micro social network for the design Service Promoter: Daniel Howells, from community London-based graphic agency Kulor,> Zero City Guide (http://www.zero.eu/) PDA: NO together with Mister, a communication Description: The Zero is an event and design agency from Glasgowlifestyle magazine published weekly Description: Creative Everyone is aor monthly and during major cultural hub site for creative events all over theand free time events, free of charge, world.in various cities in Italy and abroad. Itfeatures events divided for themes. Starting Point: The site launched initiallyRecently they have transformed into a with a handful of key cities includingsocial database where users are invited Glasgow, London, New York, Manchesterto send posts with activities. And they and LA with the aim of encouragingalso launched a collection of city guides. creative groups and arts organizations to post their upcoming events forService Promoter: Edizioni Zero (http:// free on the site, aiming to grow theirwww.edizionizero.com) audiences.Starting point: It is published as a How does the interaction take place?brief free press magazine and diffused The interface allows its members tothrough event places. It became a browse events by theme, disciplinephenomenon also for the graphics. and location and when you’ve found anHow does the interaction take place? event you’re interested in you can seeThe magazine is distributed free of who else is attending. It also enablescharge in public spaces, museums, bars, the users to become contributors byrestaurants, etc. The website offers the “reporting” events or locations that areZero’s selection of events together with interesting. They are evaluated first bysuggestions from the followers. the subscribed editors before beingKey innovation: Local information added to the database.communicated efficiently. It offers an Key Innovation: It’s most interestingasy, blog-like interface for users to point and perhaps the reason why itcontribute. has become so useful is the fact it 63 62
    • > Spotted by Locals (www. Specialized Guides Key Innovation: The use of social mediacreativeeveryone.com) • Beyoglu-in tool Facebook in an effective way and • Tophane Art Walks the choice to specialize in one area. • Ak Bank Art MapService Promoter: Spotted by Locals PDA: Yes, they have an i-phonewas started by Sanne & Bart van Poll, application. >Beyoglu-in (http://beyogluin.com/)two married Amsterdam locals andtravel lovers. The service is carried on ina wide network of local bloggers from Service Promoter: Bora Sezer. (A selfaround Europe. Sanne & Bart meet all initiated entrepreneur)Spotters (city bloggers) in person, intheir city. Description: It is a web site that is a guide specific to Istanbul’s BeyogluDescription: Spotted by Locals is a area, which is the most famous locationseries of blogs, PDF city guides and for Culture and Night Life in the cityiPhone apps with up-to-date tips from33 countries in Europe by handpicked with a rather complicated structure.local bloggers who report from different This completely digital based servicecities. is compatible with Facebook and supported by a Facebook application.Starting Point: The starting point is toexperience cities the local way while Starting Point: The district in question istravelling, to learn about the culture arguably the real city center surroundedand habits of the inhabitants from the by schools, shops, entertainmentinhabitants themselves. businesses and where most of theHow does the interaction take place? cultural production in the city happensThe interface is made up of 33 different along a street of three km and in ablogs for each city and a main page capillary way around it. The initial ideawith the latest news and links to all was to specialize on this area andcomplementary services. For each city organizing the chaos of informationthere are interactive maps. here.Key Innovation: The way the network How does the interaction take place?manages to bring together real locals The system doesn’t require subscriptionfrom various cities and carries on in a but it integrates into the Facebookvery independent format for each city. profile making sharing of informationPDA: YES and promotion of events instant. 65 64
    • > Tophane Art Walk (http://www. Crowd Sourced Open Mapsgreenmap.org) • Open Green Maps • Ushahidi • Target MapService Promoter: Art Galleries in the • Use-it Mapshistoric neighborhood of Tophane.Description: Tophane Art Walk is a > Open Green Maps (http://www.bi-monthly local art map that aims to greenmap.org)inform and update the contemporary artaudience of Istanbul on the latest news Service Promoter: Not clear whether itof galleries, initiatives, museums and is a non-profit or for-profit organizationart institutions located in the Tophanedistrict. Additionally, a number of Description: A service that providescollective events also take place within locally made maps to highlight thethe “Tophane Art Walk” project initiated community’s natural, cultural andby galleries in the district. sustainable resources developed by open-source code. OGMS is anStarting Point: When the first galleries interactive mapmaking tool that helpsstarted to open in the Tophane district people worldwide to quickly share theirthat takes place between the relatively own selection of sustainability sites,new modern museum and the cultural pathways and resources online. Mergingdistrict Beyoglu, they felt the need to local knowledge and iconography withpromote this area and let people get to Google Map and open source Drupalknow the neighborhood while visiting technology, the resulting interactivethe galleries. maps can be explored.How does the interaction take place? Starting Point: Wendy E. Brawer ofIt is a simple bi-monthly map guide Modern World Design who charted NYCavailable at a printable format on the Green Apple Map in 1992 conceivedweb. GMS. Stemming from experience inKey Innovation: Art institutions charting New York City’s environment,connecting through a mapping activity. the original Green Map concept wasPDA: NO focused on charting beneficial ‘green’ sites along with challenging ‘toxic hot spots’ in cities and towns. 67 66
    • How does the interaction take place? > Ushahidi (http://www.ushahidi.com) from cell phones, news and the web.The interface is made up of 33 different Aggregate that information into a singleblogs for each city and a main page platform and visualize it on a map. Track Service Promoter: A non-profit techwith the latest news and links to all your reports on the map and over time. company that specializes in developingcomplementary services. For each city The data can be followed by time and free and open source software forthere are interactive maps. then see when things happened and information collection, visualization and where, as it’s also tied to the map.Key Innovation: The first sustainable interactive mapping.map service that utilizes collective Key Innovation: Clever services on Description: The Ushahidi platform is aknowledge GMS provides a toolkit to cheap mobile phones make a powerful tool to easily crowd source informationthose who are willing to participate combination. Ushahidi, now, serves as a using multiple channels, including SMS,in the project. This toolkit enables prototype and a lesson for what can be email, Twitter and the web.the participants to create a map and done by combining crisis informationenables instant publishing. Eliminates Starting Point: “Ushahidi”, which means from citizen generated reports, mediacostly design and production while “testimony” in Swahili, was a website and NGOs and mashing that data upencouraging essential community that was initially developed to map with geographical mapping tools.participation. reports of violence in Kenya after the PDA: A key component of Ushahidi is post-election fallout at the beginning ofPDA: NO the ability to use mobile phones as a 2008. Since then, the name “Ushahidi” primary means of both sending crisis has come to represent the people incidents and receiving updates. The behind the “Ushahidi Platform”. Its Internet can be difficult to access or roots are in the collaboration of Kenyan completely unavailable in some parts of citizen journalists during a time of the world, so the platform was created crisis. The original website was used to with the mobile phone as a foundational map incidents of violence and peace element. efforts throughout the country based on reports submitted via the web and mobile phones. This website had 45,000 users in Kenya, and was the catalyst for us realizing there was a need for a platform based on it, which could be used by others around the world. How does the interaction take place? The database collects information 69 68
    • > Four Square (http://www.greenmap. the foursquare platform by utilizing aorg) wide set of tools to obtain, engage, and retain customers and audiences. Key Innovation: Foursquare has anService Promoter: Dennis Crowley API that allows developers to buildand Naveen Selvadurai two interaction their ideas on the foursquare platform.engineers who built Foursquare on their Developers have already used the APIfree time. to build new check-in functionality,Description: Foursquare is a location- online guiding services, and interestingbased mobile platform that guides real- data visualizations.world experiences by allowing users, PDA: YESusing smart phones or SMS texting, tobookmark information about venuesthat they want to visit and surfacingrelevant suggestions about nearbyvenues.Starting Point: The background forFoursquare comes from a servicethat Dennis Crowley, one of the twofounders, started a long time ago,called Dodgeball. It was a service thatallowed you to ping your friends tolet them know where you are, via textmessaging.How does the interaction take place?By “checking in” via a smartphone appor SMS, users share their location withfriends while collecting points andvirtual badges. Foursquare allows usersto bookmark information about venuesthat they want to visit and surfacingrelevant suggestions about nearbyvenues. Merchants and brands leverage 71 70
    • 6. The Project: (IST) by IKSV Citizen Platform 7372
    • My project is a platform that promotes inclusive and city immersive participation in promoting artistic production “blog” and it’s viewing in Istanbul using mapping as the primary medium. The database is based on an interactive mapping tool that on the firs level communicates the cultural events that are taking place in Istanbul supporting members of the community to contribute in a knowledge exchange actionbasic through mapping and input on featured events.infrastructure Istanbul, proportional to it’s enormous database’s basic service database is size, hosts a huge number of events built on an interactive events guiding events every year. Through an endless variety map that communicates on a map map of subjects and types of events the events that pass through an accurate users often need a selective source of filter of the foundation in charge, information to reduce the amount of shaped by the users’ preferences. inputs they are exposed to everyday. “Recommended by IKSV”, represents The service is hosted by IKSV (Istanbul a first level of guarantee of the quality of the featured events. In addition to Foundation For Culture and Arts), the IKSV’s selection of recommendations, a leading NGO in the sector. IKSV has a know how built during 40 years of rating system is provided for the users organizing important cultural events and it will help improve and adjust in Istanbul throughout many political constantly IKSV’s selection process. and social turmoil and has managed to The users are provided with an easy to build a successful network of local and use set of personalized filters to help foreign institutions. reach most quickly exactly the events The (IST) Culture platform and they might be interested in attending. 75 74
    • This interface is the starting point of The platform employs an open digital the interaction with different levels of mapping interface. Amongst a wide service provided. The users that are variety of open mapping services I have using the website for practical daily evaluated three options: open layer > emotions planning will be offered to immerse in a Open platform is designed to be explored, customized and en- deeper interaction with the database. a. Google Maps: It is a web mapping hanced by people living, observ- Built on this first level is a second service application and technology ing or visiting Istanbul to share insights, ratings and images or level the, “city platform” The platform that powers many map-based services suggest routes, compare and share employs an open mapping tool which is and maps embedded on third-party information about cultural events designed to enable the users or groups websites via the Google Maps API. For and attractions and share the of users to individually or collectively it’s being global, its compatibility and stories of the people who created them. create routes that are perspective- flexibility it is the single most used changing initiatives or simply new views mapping database online. Nevertheless, events map of the city. Ongoing and upcoming events it has some limitations. mapped. For the user the search- The results of this activity will be • Google Maps satellite images are not ing of the events is made easier by available for everyone to see, consult, a series of search filters. in real time; they are several months or use and that act as an Istanbul City years old. Life Inventory for decision-makers and • The distortion caused by satellite researchers; and as practical Istanbul transport map Guides for residents and tourists. Every imaging (as opposed to air A comprehensive map with basic photography) causes incompatibility (IST) map is a fresh perspective on daily transport infrastructure. with cartographic maps. experiences that make the city life. • Google holds the right to cancel license to users as he finds appropriate. The platform creates a place for three • Turkey has previously had license major databases to merge and get disagreements with Google, caused by Istanbul Map visualized on a map. political problems that led to restricted 1. IBB Istanbul Map (IBB) : connection to Google services. There 2. Becoming Istanbul Visual is no guarantee that this won’t repeat Encyclopedia (Garanti Pub.) : again considering the Internet policy that Turkey holds. 3. IKSV inventory of culture Istanbul (IKSV) 7776
    • b. IBB Maps: Is a mapping service already exists and works perfectly > Questions answered assure the users of the quality of eventsapplication specific to Istanbul, built and contribute in its improvement listed. An Istanbul Cultural Events The choice to create a mappingby the Istanbul Municipality in the rather than putting effort in creating Guiding Service for IKSV has to: interface has started most of alloccasion of 2010 Istanbul European a new one. The advantage would be from the reflection that Improved • Provide IKSV with a direct touch pointCapital of Culture. It is made through air to have a graphic background for the connectivity starts with a map, knowing with the citizens.photography eliminating the problems map that best meets the needs of the the complex human system you are • Reflect the Foundations character:caused by distortion in satellite images. specific service. This option can still embedded in. Maps provide a revealing Trustworthy / serious / progressive /It offers street maps, a route planner be considered for a future idea for snapshot of an ecosystem at a rooted, reflecting a tradition.for traveling by foot, car, or public improvement and it would create a particular point in time. These maps cantransport and an urban business locator. challenge on mapmaking that can be • Involve IKSV’s existing network. help answer many key questions in theIt’s limitation is that it is specific for met also in an open way with users and • Provide Istanbul with a tool for community building process.Istanbul and doesn’t cover anywhere experts. documentation of the urban life where • Are the right connections in place? Areoutside Istanbul’s official borders. As The digital mapping platform is made new initiatives of collaborations could any key connections missing?tis might be enough for our service it easy through a set of user-friendly start or new forms of public demandis less adaptable to a future scenario • Who are playing leadership roles in the can be created, greater consciousness tools. In a city like Istanbul, so bigof different cities around the world community? Who is not, but should be? of the government policies on the and fragmented, with a complicatedadopting the service. Nevertheless: transportation system, where • Who are the experts in process, territory and possibility of propositions• It allows to create a partnership programing is abstract and timing is planning and practice? of new policy.relationship with the municipality relative, a mapping interface offers • Who are the mentors that others seek • Be flexible in order to keep up withmaking them part of the system and to help overcome the difficulty of out for advice? the fast changing Istanbul, adapt toa mode direct channel for them to daily planning, allowing the adding of extraordinary rhythms and can adapt • Who are the innovators? Are ideastrack the content related to the city different information layers for easy to seasonal / temporary / spontaneous shared and acted upon?thus making it a more practical tool for filtering and enabling contribution. events (festivals, biennials). • Are collaborative alliances formingpolicy making for them. In order to take part in the community: between local businesses?• It has already a rich collection of • Users create their own maps > Business Problem • Which businesses will provide aactivities and sites that are related to • Upload your own images, PDF files or better return on investment, both for IKSV organizes events that receiveIstanbul mapped in the database. excel sheets. themselves and the community they are funds from many sponsors of their • Profit from the shared knowledge & embedded in? network and is constantly supported byc. A Custom Made (IST) Map: Although combine other people’s Reports or Eczacibasi. But the foundation does notit is a possibility it means additional Maps to create new ones. have a big cash flow. They necessitate > Backgroundcosts of creation and expertise to projects that will create cash flow. • Share them with the community andmaintain. As we are talking about open IKSV’s name is the first guarantee of embed them on your blog/website them IKSV also lacks a direct communicationsource today it is only fair to use what quality. This and a flagging system will to yourself. 79 78
    • channel with its spectator. Their events categories. city cultural life through an interface activity sets. This service is designed toare their only direct interface. But their First category of incentives is related to that is built to give elaborated review facilitate the daily planning by offeringwebsite lacks intriguing insight to their visibility and reputation. These include: and recommendations. For IKSV, it is clusters of events according to:activities except for certain festival certainly an initiative that will bring • A ranking system of most popular • Geographic positioningperiods. wider public attention. mapmakers. • Related subjects/movements/artistsThe question at this point is how IKSV On a second level the platform offers • Possibility of publishing of selected • Thematic routescan be the catalyst of a community to become than an events/city guide, maps chosen by the community andinteraction and mobilize people around (IST) offers to become a platform • Target groups IKSV.cultural events? that combines local knowledge and • Facebook application that shares the academic knowledge employingIKSV will have the right to distribute The service has three main information content created by a user on his profile. adaptable and accessible tools throughand sell this system with its specific levels: Generally, in the digital context, content a user-friendly interface to translate intoguidelines to other non-profit cultural created under a real personal profile, 1. Basic service infrastructure of theorganizations of different countries. This narration of the city life. Which means rather than a made-up cyber profile city: A comprehensive map with basicway it will be creating cash flow. it is built to transmit different points of tends to be better cured as the users transport infrastructure is provided. views, becoming a tool for empathy. The> Incentives are conscious that their input will be tool will enable a knowledge exchange 2. The events guide “Recommended byThe interaction of mapmakers is associated with their own personality. that may result in spontaneous new IKSV”: Ongoing and upcoming eventsencouraged in different levels. Firstly Second category of incentives is that of networks and collaborations outside of mapped.the “Citizen Map” is put into action by a material nature. These include: the database. 3. Open Culture Platform/ Citizen Mapsfirst edition of invited mapmakers from • Competitions can be launched by IKSV The database finally help create aknown artists to writers. The public will around current or popular subjects documentation of the city daily life andwitness the creation of a specific map + Events guide “Recommended by where the winners will be rewarded it’s communication with curious locals,with a subject and will be asked to use IKSV” with IKSV memberships or invitations to alienated locals, visitors and institutions.it. After this they will contribute with events of their choice.their insights starting a capillary action This feature is managed by IKSV andof mapmaking. • Discounts in certain venues of the > Overview uses an Internet based application network.First and foremost motivation for doing Between the events that we attend called PaPaan to systematically gathera mapping activity is probably that of randomly during our daily lives we updated information from venues andpractical need. It is followed by a need > Goal can create different sets through cultural operators or artists themselvesto express oneself. At this point the different criteria and according to our through a series of filters. A simple Citizen Platform can helpservice encourages the users with a daily rhythm it is possible to say that achieve two kinds of goals. For the user, the searching of theseries of incentives. everyone follows a different pattern First of all it will become a practical tool events is made easier by a series ofWe can sum up these incentives in two a different way of combining their to follow and be up to date with the search filters: 81 80
    • If registered: • Encourages comparison of the cultural Map’s Maker’s profile is introduced to regular basis. Or it is possible to launch attractions and local assets. the community. new maps for specific locations andThe service is accessible to everyonealthough it offers a more personalized • Invites the public to explore a world Mapmakers are engaged in wide range decide to leave it open for collaborationassistance in case registered. of cultural events and local assets and of activities integrating their research or closed. In case it is open for then enrich them by adding insights, an unique perspectives, and the needs collaboration the mapmaker has the• The personal preferences of the users connections, and multimedia elements. of the local community. During the chance to invite personally peopleare saved on a personal profile and are Mapmaking process they can rely on to contribute or evaluate those whopossible to share with other users and • Encourages the public to suggest sites the advice of the others who have express their desire and enable thosethrough an application are visualized on directly to any Green Map shared their own experiences in the he finds appropriate.their face book profiles as well. • Allows users to find and filter all the guides and resources that are offered• Allows compatibility with digital cultural operators of different types on to each mapmaker. Each Mapmakercalendars and address books. an Istanbul map. > Benefits can make printed, digital or open maps • The meaning of “local” loses it’s sense• Allows the user to report new venues • Eliminates costly design and inviting other mapmakers’ contributions. in a city like Istanbul. With it’s longor events or comment on the existing production while encouraging essential There are open maps created by defaultones. community participation. distances and poor connections and for each location (district groups) in rapid extension the it became hard to• Allows user to contribute their • Provides an interactive base that can Istanbul. It is possible to interact with consider one’s self as an “Istanbulite”experience of the event and the district be adopted by all the culture oriented this map that is revised by IKSV on a because very often one finds himself athat it takes place or their experience cities around the world.with related events. • Contains special features that• Real time text message signaling. encourage users to customize their view, a flagging system to help monitorOpen Culture Platform/”Citizen Maps”: the quality of public content, and willOpen platform is designed to be offer enhanced widgets so these mapsexplored, customized and enhanced can be embedded on other websites.by people living, observing or visitingIstanbul as well as academics to shareinsights, ratings and images or suggest > Mapmakersroutes, compare and share information What we intend by mapmakers areabout cultural events and attractions the locals willing to improve theirand share the stories of the people who communities and contribute in acreated them. collective spirit in documenting daily• Allows instant easy publishing, life. The platform is open to people fromupdating and expansion. all kinds of different backgrounds. Each 83 82
    • stranger in this city. A knowledge and institution will realize a series of actions IKSV’s existing structure will be renewed > Possibilities of future improvementexperience-sharing platform can help to organize and mobilize users in order only with a minimum of intervention • IKSV will have the right to distributeovercome this alienation feeling that the to create relevant content worthy of where all the existing departments and sell this system with its specificcity forces on its people sometimes. exchange. Guest Mappers will be invited will remain as they are and the new guidelines to other non-profit cultural periodically to create insight on specific department of City Platform will have a• As it is a flexible tool it responds to organizations of different countries. This subjects related to their specialties or transversal structure connecting to allmega events happening in the city as way, creating bridges between non a current event / phenomenon that is the departments and being supportedwell. Mega events such as conferences profit cultural organizations helping taking place in the city. These maps by the media department.and fairs bring an impact to the cities. respectively the promotion of these will in some cases act as discussion(IST) as flexible as it is can adept to cities outside their borders.communicate these events and their starters, or topic setters and in general IKSV STUCTURE • As the database keeps produing define guidelines for the users whoimpacts as well. Projects Executive useful insight about Istanbul IKSV can want to participate. This way, with• Help knowledge exchange between the Departments turn these into printed guiding books constant debate starters the databaseart spectator and the cultural providers, for Istanbul. It would be a unique will continue to remain updated. > Festivals: > Corporate Boardbetween cultural operators themselves collaborative guiding maps collection. Who determines the accountability of Music > Financeand between the academic sphere and • IKS can also choose to regularly the contributions? Film Sponsorshipthe citizens. Programme publish single maps the database IKSV will have in his body full time Jazz• Promotes international collaboration under the name “signed maps”. This Accounting media department that will manage the Theatreto share ideas and contribute valuable would also be an incentive for people to > Marketing database. The users will have the right > Biennalesinsight. contribute more. to report Editorial / Grafic Design• Provides educational input by inviting Press > Resources Required / Project Artexperts personally (IKSV) to contribute New Media > Strategic action Management/Responsibility > IKSV Designon selected themes or events. > Media Relations a. Start-up: The system is designed to make use > SALON (venue)• (Culture) map can bring communities of IKSV’s existing resources through > International The project starts with the initiativetogether and to chart practical solutions a minimum reorganization. It will Projects of IKSV and his partnership with theand address urgent issues. help communicate IKSV’s resources municipality of Istanbul who will supply >Production and network as a whole through one the mapping interface.> Limitations, Constraints, Risks NEW interface eventually aiming to broaden At this step IKSV does the strategic + IKSV CityIs it safe to trust entirely on volunteered it’s audience. Platform planning of the service.content? The (IST) will be placed and managed (IST) Guide Event Guide:The service relies on a semi institutional together with IKSV’s archive, which is in City Archive • Definition of targeted events. Set-up ofopen model. This implies that the the phase of being opened to public. the PaPaan network. 85 84
    • • Describing the type of cultural next events in the same venue, who’s Types of relations createdoperators that will make part of this attending, similar events, events in thenetwork. same district.• Definition of criteria for the selection of _ Personal: Personal profile, diary, abilitythe events that will be promoted on the to mark as attending to events, postplatform. event or post venue. Mapping interface:• Istanbul Municipality Interactive c. Launch & Functionmap activation. Dividing into districts • When the website is launched andaccording to geographic position and the Recommended by IKSV map is inrelation with art. function, the City platform will feature• Definin g of positions of existing a number of initial content created by Relatin by location Relation by quality Relation by subjectcultural assets and operators of the special guests of IKSV in the occasion The events are viewed The events are viewed The events are viewed innetwork. of the opening. These maps will also act according to their locations according to their type groups that are formed in the city and connectivity and theme making it easy for a common subject as tutorials of the mapping interface. to overcome the daily traffic to reach a desired event they interpret making it• Tagging of the elements (cultural Users will have the opportunity to follow and planning problems. fast and see alternatives. possible to extend theoperators, museums.) knowledge in subject and the guest mappers create their content. correlate events and their authors in a practical way. IKSV will start a communicationb. Set-up: campaign in which he will inviteAfter creating the consortium IKSV “Istanbulites” to contribute in thestarts with the building the platform. database until it starts to gain inertia• Building of the interface: and reach a certain rhythm.• Setting the search criteria. • From that point on IKSV will be regularly featuring guest mappers• Mapping of listed cultural operators around specific subjects and regularly• Involvement of Papaan. update their incentives in order to keep• Announcing the project. the database active and as a way to• Public and private personalized promote his activities.interface for the subscribed users._ Public: Events calendar/maps andsearch tools. Profiles for each eventsmade of relevant links, information, 87 86
    • How does the site work?+ The Opening PageWhen the site opens it offers a briefintroduction to the service and threeoptions for the user to choose:• Recommended by IKSV• Explore citizen maps• ContributeThese three options represent the threelevels of the service and directs theuser to the respective pages.Other then these at the opening pagethere is the menu buttons for moredetailed information, IKSV corporatepage, Contacts and links. 89 88
    • I. Recommended by IKSV Language selection:At the recommended by IKSV section The website is offered both in Englishthe focus of attention is the map and in Turkish and it is possible tothat features the events listed. The create content in both languagesevents listed on the page all have anindex card. An index card contains Connection between different levels ofinformation about the specific event service:that the user clicked to see. Aroundthe map there are several categories of The interface connects the man threesearch: levels of the service by offering at every stage the option of passage betweenList: Shows all the cultural operators these.marked in different colors according tothe type of organization it is (museum/gallery/art center).Where: At this section there is a listof groups of districts which are puttogether according to their proximityto each other or connectivity bypublic transport. It is possible tomake a geographical based researchhighlighting on the map only the eventsthat are at a specific district.Filters: This section contains topicsrelated to the content of the events.• Type• Theme• Ratings• Related events• Festivals• Specific Artistic networks of Istanbul 91 90
    • II. Citizen Maps:Citizen Maps section acts as the libraryof the content created in the database.This is where the users have accessto the content created by others andbrowse them through different types offilters.This part also features a slideshowwith images from IKSV’s archive andthe topics of the Becoming Istanbul’sEncyclopedia as tags, adding a higherlevel of insight to the content. 93 92
    • III. Contribute:A simple open mapping tool is providedfor the users who are interested increating content. The users can interactwith the database in two ways:1. Contributing on the open Searchcollaborative maps of districts. Here the AREA TOOLcontributions made are all visualized onsingle maps of districts. ROUTE TOOL2. Creating a new map. It isthe user’s choice to leave it open forcollaboration and inviting others tointervene or with a single author.The mapping s made easier with acomprehensive guide and simple tools. 95 94
    • Object system:The physical evidences of the systemcan be summed up under threecategories:- Promotional Materials:Interactive postcards,Printed maps as brochuresFree festival mapsMaps as table coasters for Café and bar.- Future Possible Merchandising:A printed volume including a selectionof maps. Maybe temathic guides.Signed maps by famous mappers.- Interaction tools: These are the variouswidgets and web utility buttons that willappear embedded on other sources(such as e-magazines, newspapers,blogs) and they allow interaction withthe main database without leaving thesite that is being used. 97 96
    • Conclusions we inhabit. Share of subjectivity in an - 4th step: Co-creating strategic micro approach to the territory and multiple cosmos. > The interaction with map cartographic visions are the metaphors evolves into interaction wiith people.The objective of this paper is to discuss of the world we live in today. - 5th step: Co-evolving. > Connections,how to create an interaction platform Finally the hope of this project is to help communications are created, the mindcapable of moving a community making create effective dialogue, bridges and has evolved through them, now you willprocess and knowledge exchange reciprocal contaminations between the live this change.starting from the subject of cultural institutionalized world of art and that oflife in the city of Istanbul. In many grassroots, between the art spectatordifferent examples it has been possible and the organizations and most of allto observe a trend of trying to create between citizens on a common groundcommons between people. May tat that may eventually form the future ofbe common memory of places or new dynamics that we might not evencommon language or common sense be aware being possible today.in communities. As the meaning of theword “local” is transforming from being I would like to finish with referenceplace related to community related it to the U-theory . The U theory marksis possible to consider a city, home to the levels of productive listening thatmillions and a destination for so many lead to a co-evolving that is maybea common between these and through the single most thing that is neededthe artistic production and the mapping in Istanbul. Matching the steps of theapproach stimulate a dialogue. U-theory the different moments of “realization” created through interactionThe role of design in this process is with the (IST) database it made methat of promoting convergence among think, maybe it is possible.players around a shared vision (that isthe sustainability of city culture and to - 1st step: Co-initiation common intent.promote artistic production); developing > The moment of choosing an event,this shared vision in various practical reading reviews.initiatives and designing the derived - 2nd step: Co-sensing the field ofservice interfaces. change. > Experiencing the eventThe choice of cartography is motivated - 3rd step: Presencing; inspiration andby the force of communication led by common sense. > Opening an emptythis visual tool that is a controllable map, the point of 0.representation of the physical world 99 98
    • books Ltd., 2008 14. “Working Wikily”, Stanford SocialReferences Bibliography Web-sites1. J. R. Watts, 1991 Innovation Review, 2010, Diana Scearce, Gabriel Kasper, Heather McLeod Grant.2. Serhan Ada, Deniz Unsal, Emerging • Serhan Ada, Deniz Unsal, “Emerging • Stanford Social Innovation Review,Cultural Continent: Actors and Networks, 15. www.my.barackobama.com Cultural Continent: Actors and http://www.ssireview.orgBilgi Yayinlari 2010. 16. Leadbeater, “We Think: Mass creativity Networks”, SantralIstanbul, Istanbul, • Working Wikily, http://workingwikily.3. Ezio Manzini, “A Cosmopolitan Localism”, not mass production”, chapter two, Profile 2009 books Ltd., 2008 com/Dis Indaco di Milano 1.2.2005 • Pelin Dervis, Bulent Tanju, “Becoming 17. June Holley , Network Weaver • Parish Maps, http://www.4. Pelin Tan, Bio available at: http://www. Handbook (in development) Istanbul, An Encyclopedia”, Garantitanpelin.blogspot.com/ commonground.org.uk/parishmaps/m- Publishing, Istanbul, 2008 18. Defined in The Treaty of Lisbon entered ppp.html5. Rudiger Korff, “Southeast Asian into force on 1 December 2009 • Pelin Dervis, Meric Oner, “MappingUrbanism”, Palgrave MacMillan, 2001 • European Commission Public Opinion: 19. Manzini and Meroni, 2007. Istanbul”, Garanti Publishing, Istanbul,6. In the occasion of “What makes a http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/ 2008biopolitical space?”, Paris, 17 September 20. June Holley , Bio. Available at: http:// index_en.htm2007), www.eurozine.com/articles/2008- www.networkweaving.com/june.html • Charles Leadbeater, “We Think”, Profile • Pelin Tan, (sociologist, art curator),01-21-negri-en.html Publishing, 2008 http://tanpelin.blogspot.com/ 7. Rafaella Houlstan-Hasaerts (La • E. F. Schumacher, “Small is Beautiful”, • Database: Becomin Istanbul, http:// Cambre), Nicolas Malevé (Constant vzw), Blond & Briggs, 1973“Cartography as a Common good” Published database.becomingistanbul.com/ in: Barbara Golicnik Marusic, et al. (edited • E. Manzini, “Un localismo cosmopolita. • IFEA- Institute Francais d’Etudes by), *Human Cities, Celebrating Public Prospettive per uno sviluppo locale Anatoliennes; http://www.ifea-istanbul. Space*, Brussels: Stichting Kunstboek, sostenibile ed ipotesi sul ruolo del net/website_2/ Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of design”, 2005 Slovenia and Promateria, 2010 (p. 47-51). • Istanbul Cultural Economy and • E. Manzini, “Small, local, open and8. Christian Nold is an artist, designer Assets Inventory; http://www. connected”, lecture Parsons University,and educator working to develop new istanbulkulturenvanteri.gov.tr/map/participatory models for communal 2009 index/code/bcrepresentation. • M. Sclavi, “Avventure Urbane.9. City Mine(d) is an international network Progettare la città con gli abitanti “,of individuals and collectives involved with Photo Credits Milano, Eleuthera, 2002city and local action. • C. Landry, “The Art of City Making”,10. http://www.toyfoo.com/ > Pinar Galip; Komotini/Greece, Istanbul/ Earthscan Publications, 2006 Turkey11. Nora Seni, Harp ve sulh, IFEA 2011 > Katleen Rockman; Antwerp/Belgium, • C. Nold, “Emotional Cartography-12. IKSV 35th year anniversary book. Istanbul/Turkey Technologies of the self”, Published13. Leadbeater, “We Think: Mass creativity, > Deniz Orcun; Istanbul/Turkey under CC, available at www.not mass production”, chapter one, Profile emotionacartographt.net 101 100
    • 103102