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Architectural Class

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    005 005 Presentation Transcript

    • University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB Lecture 005: Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction Review Chapter 4 Questions 1- 3 on page 141 Reading assignment: “ Fundamentals of Building Construction” Chapter 6: Exterior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction Question: 1 – 7 page 225
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • In this chapter, you will learn:
        • Why wood light frame construction is so popular in North America
        • How wood light frame construction evolved
        • The logic of platform frame construction, and why it is generally preferable to balloon framing
        • How to lay out light frame floors, walls, and roofs
        • Typical details of wood light framing
        • Fire safety precautions for wood light frame buildings
        • Why light frame construction can lead to both good and bad architecture
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.1 Laying Out Floor Framing
      • Design and draw ground floor framing layouts for the buildings whose foundation plans are shown on this page and the following. Designate the size and spacing of joist used in each, and show beams, posts, doubled joists, joist hangers, blocking, and other features.
        • Many layouts are feasible. See Figure 5.17 through 5.20 of the text. See also guidelines provided on page 34 of the Exercises workbook. Plans that are simple in layout and that minimize joists of different depths are to be preferred over others more complex or irregular.
        • An important point to communicate to students is that the regular 16” or 24” spacing of joists should be maintained throughout the framing plan, even when this results in occasional close spacing between a regularly spaced joist and another specially located for a partition, floor opening, or other special condition. Omitting a regularly spaced joist can result in an unsupported plywood edge, depending on the layout of plywood sheets on the deck.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.1 Laying Out Floor Framing
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.1 Laying Out Floor Framing
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.2 Laying Out Wall Framing
      • 1. Design and draw complete framing for these two exterior walls, using 2x6 studs 24"o.c. (38 x 140 mm studs 600 mm o.c.) and 1x4 (19 x 89 mm) let-in diagonal bracing. Follow the procedure outlined in Figure 5.32 of the text. For door and window headers, use 2x8 (38 x 184 mm) framing or larger. Lettered arrows refer to details on the following page.
      • See Figure 5.32 of the text. As in Problem 5.1 it is important that students appreciate the need to maintain the regular stud spacing even when occasional closely-spaced studs result.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.2 Laying Out Wall Framing
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.2 Laying Out Wall Framing
        • 2. Draw details A, B, C from the previous page in the space below. See Figures 7.18 and 7.19 in the text for 2 x 6 framing detail examples.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 1. Study the two examples below, then draw roof plans and thumbnail perspectives of ten more ways of covering an L-shaped building with roofs at a pitch of 8/12.
      • See Figure 5.46 of the text.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 1. Study the two examples below, then draw roof plans and thumbnail perspectives of ten more ways of covering an L-shaped building with roofs at a pitch of 8/12.
      • See Figure 5.46 of the text .
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 2. You are remodeling a 23-foot wide (7010 mm) attic beneath a roof at 8/12 pitch. How wide a room can you create between new walls that are 5'-0" (1524 mm) high? Show calculations.
      • See page 40 of the workbook for example roof pitch problem solutions.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 2. You are remodeling a 23-foot wide (7010 mm) attic beneath a roof at 8/12 pitch. How wide a room can you create between new walls that are 5'-0" (1524 mm) high? Show calculations.
      • See page 40 of the workbook for example roof pitch problem solutions.
      • a) x = distance from outer wall to new wall: x/5’ = 8/12
      • b) x = ( 8/12 ) x 5’ = 7.5’
      • c) Width between new walls = 23’-0” – 2x
      • = 23’-0” – 2( 7.5’ )
      • = 23’-0” – 15’
      • = 8’-0”
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 3. If you made the room in the problem above 11' (3353 mm) wide, how high would the walls be? Show calculations.
      • a) Width between new walls: 11’-0” = 23’-0” – 2x
      • b) x = (23’ – 11’)/2 = 6’-0”
      • c) h = height: h/6’ = 8/12
      • d) height = ( 8/12 ) x 6’ = 4’-0”
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.3 Working With Pitched Roofs
      • 4. What is the widest balcony that can be built in the building shown to the right while maintaining a minimum headroom above the balcony of 6'-6" (1420 mm)? Show calculations.
      • a) 7’-6” + 6’6” = 14’-0”
      • b) Rise of roof to balcony edge: 14’ – 8’ = 6’
      • c) x = distance from outer wall to balcony edge: 10/12 = 6’/x; x = 7.2’
      • d) Width: 15.33’ – 7.2’ = 8.13’ = 8’-1 1/2”
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • To the right is the ground floor plan of a vacation cottage. The Dining Area and Kitchen should have a ceiling height of 7’-6” (2286 mm). The Loft floor is 12” (305 mm) thick, and the Loft should have a minimum headroom of 6’-8” (2032 mm). The Living Room should be a dramatic room that rises to the sloping underside of the roof framing.
      • More than one solution is possible.
      • 1. In the space below, draw a small freehand perspective of a design for a roof for this cottage. The roof may consist of any number of planes, but all must slope at the same pitch, which may not be less than 6/12.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • 1. In the space below, draw a small freehand perspective of a design for a roof for this cottage. The roof may consist of any number of planes, but all must slope at the same pitch, which may not be less than 6/12.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • 2. Complete the section drawing above to indicate how your roof design looks when cut at the section line indicated on the Floor Plan. Show the numerical pitch of the roof and give all wall heights and headroom clearances.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • 2. Complete the section drawing above to indicate how your roof design looks when cut at the section line indicated on the Floor Plan. Show the numerical pitch of the roof and give all wall heights and headroom clearances.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • 3. Complete the roof framing plan below in accordance with your roof design. Use rafters spaced 24" (600 mm) o.c. assume that the rafters can span no more than 12'-0“ (3660 mm) in plan, and that one or more wood beams, as Indicated on your plan, may be used to support rafters. No rafters may rest on the chimney.
      • See Figures 5.47 and 5.52 for sample roof framing plans.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • 5.4 Designing Roof Framing
      • 3. Complete the roof framing plan below in accordance with your roof design. Use rafters spaced 24" (600 mm) o.c. assume that the rafters can span no more than 12'-0“ (3660 mm) in plan, and that one or more wood beams, as Indicated on your plan, may be used to support rafters. No rafters may rest on the chimney.
      • See Figures 5.47 and 5.52 for sample roof framing plans .
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 1. Draw a series of very simple section drawings to illustrate the procedure for erecting a platform frame building starting with the foundation and continuing with the ground floor, the ground-floor walls, the second floor, the second-floor walls, and the roof. Do not show details of the connections but simply represent each plane of framing as a heavy line in your drawing.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 1.Draw a series of very simple section drawings to illustrate the procedure for erecting a platform frame building starting with the foundation and continuing with the ground floor, the ground-floor walls, the second floor, the second-floor walls, and the roof. Do not show details of the connections but simply represent each plane of framing as a heavy line in your drawing.
      • [The sequence of steps in erecting a light wood frame structure are illustrated beginning with Figure 5.3 and continuing intermittently through Figure 5.51.]
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 2. Draw from memory the standard detail sections for a two-story platform frame dwelling. Hints: The easiest way to draw a detail section is to draw the pieces in the order in which they are put in place during construction. If your simple drawings from Question 1 are correct, and if you follow this procedure, you will not find this question so difficult.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 2. Draw from memory the standard detail sections for a two-story platform frame dwelling. Hints: The easiest way to draw a detail section is to draw the pieces in the order in which they are put in place during construction. If your simple drawings from Question 1 are correct, and if you follow this procedure, you will not find this question so difficult.
      • [Most of the information needed to answer this question can be taken from Figure 5.2. Additional figures interspersed through the series of figures referenced above provide more detailed information.]
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 3. What are the differences between balloon framing and platform framing? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Why has platform framing become the method of choice?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 3. What are the differences between balloon framing and platform framing? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Why has platform framing become the method of choice?
      • In balloon framing, the studs run in one piece from the sill to the rafter plate, whereas in platform framing, the studs are interrupted by the floor platforms. Balloon framing has less vertical shrinkage from drying out of the wood, while platform framing is easier and safer to erect, uses shorter lengths of lumber for studs, and is automatically firestopped, for which reasons it has become the method of choice.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 4. Why is firestopping not usually required in platform framing?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 4. Why is firestopping not usually required in platform framing?
      • Platform framing is automatically firestopped at each floor by the double top plate.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 5. Why is a steel beam or glue-laminated wood beam preferred to a solid wood beam preferred to a solid wood beam at the foundation level?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 5. Why is a steel beam or glue-laminated wood beam preferred to a solid wood beam preferred to a solid wood beam at the foundation level?
      • A wood beam under the ground floor of a platform frame will probably dry and shrink, allowing the floor to tilt, while a steel beam will not. A glue laminated wood beam is an acceptable substitute for a steel beam because it is made of thoroughly seasoned wood and will be fairly stable dimensionally.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 6. How is a platform frame building braced against wind and earthquake forces?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 6. How is a platform frame building braced against wind and earthquake forces?
      • A platform frame building is braced laterally by let-in diagonal bracing at the corners, by rigid sheathing such as plywood panels, or by diagonal sheathing boards.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Review Questions:
      • 7. Light framing of wood is highly combustible. In what different ways does a typical building code take this fact into account?
      • Most importantly, building codes restrict the height and size of buildings constructed of wood light frame, to keep occupant loads low and escape routes short. Occupant escape is also facilitated by smoke and heat alarms, and by the requirement for bedroom windows of a size sufficient to permit the emergency passage of residents and firefighters. For a few types of occupancy, wood light frame construction is not permitted at all. Building codes also encourage (and in many specific instances require) the protection of the wood frame with fire-resistant materials such as gypsum board or plaster. Increasingly, automatic sprinkler systems are becoming a requirement for types of wood frame buildings.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 5, Wood Light Frame Construction:
      • Chapter 5 Web Links  
      • www.cwc.ca
      • Canadian Wood Council
      • www.finehomebuilding.com
      • Fine Homebuilding Magazine
      • www.jlconline.com
      • Journal of Light Construction Magazine
      • www.nahb.com
      • National Association of Home Builders
      • www.wood.ca
      • Wood Design & Building Magazine
    • University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB
      • To do for next class:
        • Reading assignment:
        • “ Fundamentals of Building Construction”
        • Chapter 6
        • Exterior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction
        • Question: 1 – 7 page 225