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    001 001 Presentation Transcript

    • University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB Lecture # 001: Chapter 1, Making Building: Review chapter #1 Question 1-5 on page 17 Reading assignment: “ Fundamental of Building Construction” Chapter 2, Foundations Question: 1 – 8 on page 71
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Designing Buildings
      • Choosing Building Systems: Constraints
        • Zoning Ordinances
        • Building Codes
        • Other Legal Constraints
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 1, Making Buildings:
      • In this chapter, you will learn:
        • The various professionals who work together to create buildings, and how they relate to one another
        • The legal context within which we build
        • How building heights and areas are restricted according to the type of construction used
        • Why it is important to build sustainable
        • The information resources from which we work when we design buildings
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Designing Buildings
        • Idea base on need of a family, organization, or an enterprise.
        • Interior Design, Architect, Engineer, help consolidate the owner’s ideas
        • The team of designers, working with the owner to develop the scheme of the building
        • A general contractor is selected
        • The GC hires subcontractors to carry out the project
        • The drawings and specifications are submitted to the municipal inspector of the build.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Building Systems: Constraints
        • Lands (physical limitations)
        • Soil (how heavy a building the soil can support)
        • Materials (spans)
        • Budget
        • Legal restrictions
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Zoning Ordinances
        • Coverage
        • Set back from property lines
        • Parking space requirement
        • Building size allowed
        • Building height allowed
          • Fire zone
          • Historical zone
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Building Codes
        • The intend of the building code is to protect public health and safety, primarily against building fires.
        • Model Building Codes
        • National Building Code of Canada
        • Uniform Building Code “UBC” (Western and Mid-West)
        • National Building Code “BOCA” (Eastern and other area)
        • International Building Code (In the USA)
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Building Codes: Occupancy Groups
        • Groups “A-1” through “A-5” are Assembly occupancies.
        • Group “B” is Business occupancies.
        • Group “E” is Educational occupancies.
        • Group “F” is Industrial Buildings.
        • Groups “H-1” through “H-5” are High Hazard occupancies.
        • Groups “I-1” through “I-4” Institutional occupancies.
        • Group “M” is Mercantile occupancies.
        • Groups “R-1” through “R-4” are Residential occupancies
        • Group “S-1” includes building for storage of hazardous materials, and “S-2”, low hazard storage
        • Group “U” is Utility buildings.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 1.1 Building Code Restrictions
      • 1. An old, unsprinklered warehouse of heavy timber construction with exterior walls of brick masonry is being considered for conversion to a drama theater in a small West Virginia town. The building is two stories high, 40 by 70 feet in plan, and conforms to the definition of Type IV (HT) Construction. (Theaters are defined as a Group A-1 Occupancy.)
        • A. Will this conversion be permitted?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 1.1 Building Code Restrictions
      • 1. An old, unsprinklered warehouse of heavy timber construction with exterior walls of brick masonry is being considered for conversion to a drama theater in a small West Virginia town. The building is two stories high, 40 by 70 feet in plan, and conforms to the definition of Type IV (HT) Construction. (Theaters are defined as a Group A-1 Occupancy.)
        • A. Will this conversion be permitted?
        • Refer to Figure 1.1 in the text. Height and area limitations for Group A-1, Construction Type IV are 65 feet, 3 stories in height, and 15,500 sf in building area. The proposed building is within these limits.
        • Yes.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 1.1 Building Code Restrictions
      • 1. An old, unsprinklered warehouse of heavy timber construction with exterior walls of brick masonry is being considered for conversion to a drama theater in a small West Virginia town. The building is two stories high, 40 by 70 feet in plan, and conforms to the definition of Type IV (HT) Construction. (Theaters are defined as a Group A-1 Occupancy.)
        • B. If modifications to exterior bearing walls are required, what fire resistance rating must be provided for this new work?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 1.1 Building Code Restrictions
      • 1. An old, unsprinklered warehouse of heavy timber construction with exterior walls of brick masonry is being considered for conversion to a drama theater in a small West Virginia town. The building is two stories high, 40 by 70 feet in plan, and conforms to the definition of Type IV (HT) Construction. (Theaters are defined as a Group A-1 Occupancy.)
        • B. If modifications to exterior bearing walls are required, what fire resistance rating must be provided for this new work?
        • See Figure 1.2 in the text, Bearing walls, Exterior, for Construction Type IV. 2-hour rated
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • a. What is the maximum total floor area this store can have?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • a. What is the maximum total floor area this store can have?
        • Referring to the Occupancy Group information included in the text, a clothing store is Group M. Area limitations are follows:
        • Maximum area, unsprinklered: 14,000 sf per floor
        • Maximum area, sprinklered: 56,000 sf for a single-story building; 42,000 sf per floor for a building up to 3 stories in height; for a building taller than 3 stories, a combined area of 126,000 sf (3 x 42,000 sf) for all floors.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • b. How tall can this building be ?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • b. How tall can this building be ?
        • Maximum height, unsprinklered: 50 feet, 3 stories
        • Maximum height, sprinklered: 70 feet, 4 stories
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • c. What is the required fire resistance rating for floor construction?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • c. What is the required fire resistance rating for floor construction?
        • 1-hour rated
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
      • Unless Occupancy H-1 or H-2, the maximum height is unlimited in feet and number of stories.
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • a. What is the required fire resistance rating for a column?
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • a. What is the required fire resistance rating for a column?
        • 3-hour rated, except for columns supporting the roof only, which may be 2- hour rated
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • b. What fire resistance is required for floor beams in this building? Why do you think answers in a. and b. differ?
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • b. What fire resistance is required for floor beams in this building? Why do you think answers in a. and b. differ?
        • 2-hour rated. Failure of a column is more likely to cause progressive collapse of the entire structure. Failure of a floor beam should have less severe consequences.
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • c. If a large concert hall is to be constructed directly abutting the office building, what fire-resistance rating is required for the wall separating these two structures so that they may be treated as separate buildings from a building code standpoint?
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 3. What is the maximum height for a reinforced concrete office building of Type 1A construction?
        • c. If a large concert hall is to be constructed directly abutting the office building, what fire-resistance rating is required for the wall separating these two structures so that they may be treated as separate buildings from a building code standpoint?
        • See Figure 1.6 in the text, assuming Occupancy Group A for the concert hall.
        • 3-hour rated
      ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • a. What is the least expensive (lowest fire-rated) Construction Type you are permitted to use?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • a. What is the least expensive (lowest fire-rated) Construction Type you are permitted to use?
        • Total building area: 5 x 41,500 sf = 207,500 sf
        • Try Construction Type IIB: Allowable area 16,000 x 3 (for sprinklers) x 3 (for buildings three or more stories in height) = 144,000 sf < 207,500 sf. No good.
        • Try Construction Type IIA: 24,000 x 3 x 3 = 216,000 sf > 207,500 sf. OK.
        • Type IIA
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • b. How tall, in feet and number of stories, may the building be?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • b. How tall, in feet and number of stories, may the building be?
        • With sprinklers the building may be 5 stories and 75 feet in height.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • c. What level of fire protection will be required for each of the following elements of this building?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • c. What level of fire protection will be required for each of the following elements of this building?
        • Columns: 1-hour
        • Floor construction: 1-hour
        • Roof construction: 1-hour
        • Note that footnote d. in the table allowing reduction in the fire protection with sprinklers is not applicable, since the sprinklers were already applied to height and area increases .
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • d. There is a fifteen-foot wide pedestrian passage along one edge of the site that the owner would like to develop as a shopping lane. Can large glass display windows, with a fire-resistance rating of zero, be used along this edge of the building? (See Figure 1.2 in the text, Table 602.)
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 4. You have decided to use steel framing (Construction Type I or II) for a new five-story hotel Occupancy R-1) with 41,500 square feet per floor. The building will be fully sprinklered.
        • d. There is a fifteen-foot wide pedestrian passage along one edge of the site that the owner would like to develop as a shopping lane. Can large glass display windows, with a fire-resistance rating of zero, be used along this edge of the building? (See Figure 1.2 in the text, Table 602.)
        • In Table 602, with a fire separation between 10 and 30 feet, Construction Type IIA, and Occupancy Group R, the required fire-resistance rating for openings in the exterior wall is 1-hour. Unrated windows are not permitted.
        • No
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 5. How tall, in number of stories and in feet above grade, can you build a single-family house (Occupancy R-3) made of wood light frame, unsprinklered, with floor joists and roof rafters left exposed inside (Type VB Construction)?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 5. How tall, in number of stories and in feet above grade, can you build a single-family house (Occupancy R-3) made of wood light frame, unsprinklered, with floor joists and roof rafters left exposed inside (Type VB Construction)?
      • 3 stories, 40 feet
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 1. Who are the members of the typical team that designs a major building? What are their respective roles?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 1. Who are the members of the typical team that designs a major building? What are their respective roles?
        • The members of a typical building design team are: a. The architect: Determines the form of the building, coordinates the design team, and takes the major responsibility for specifying and detailing the exterior and interior finishes. b. The structural engineer: Develops with the architect the design of the structural system of the building, and takes the major responsibility for calculating, specifying, and detailing the loadbearing structure, including cladding attachments. c. The Mechanical engineer: Develops with the architect the design of the plumbing, heating, ventilating, and cooling systems of the building, and takes the major responsibility for calculating, detailing, and specifying these systems. d. The electrical engineer: Develops with the architect a design for artificial illumination of the building, and takes the major responsibility for calculating, detailing, and specifying this system, as well as systems of electric power distribution and communications wiring. e. The geotechnical and/or foundation engineer: Analyzes soils conditions, develops with the architect a design for the foundations and substructure of the building, and takes the major responsibility for calculating, detailing, and specifying this system. All these professionals are also involved in inspecting the construction work as it progresses, to be sure the specifications and details are followed, and to deal with questions that arise during construction. On many projects, a Construction Manager (CM), hired by the Owner of the building, is also part of the team. The CM acts to coordinate the entire process of design and construction, and is often responsible for hiring the architect and engineers as well as the contractor and subcontractors.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 2. What are the major constraints under which the designers of a building must work?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • 2. A client has asked you to design a clothing store of protected platform frame (Type VA) wood construction. Provide answers for both a sprinklered and unsprinklered building.
        • a. What is the maximum total floor area this store can have?
        • b. How tall can this building be ?
        • c. What is the required fire resistance rating for floor construction?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 2. What are the major constraints under which the designers of a building must work?
        • The designers of a building must work under the existing physical constraints of a building site (size, shape, soil conditions, subsurface water conditions, vegetation, etc.), as well as legal constraints that include zoning ordinances, building codes, access standards, OSHA regulations, and energy efficiency standards. Additional constraints come from building insurance companies, building contractors, labor unions, and the client’s program, taste, and budget.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 3. What types of subjects are covered by zoning ordinances? By building codes?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 3. What types of subjects are covered by zoning ordinances? By building codes?
        • Zoning ordinances control the type of use to which a piece of land may be put, how much of the land may be covered by buildings, how far the buildings must be set back from the property lines, how tall the building may be, how large a total floor area may be constructed on a given piece of land, how many parking spaces must be provided, and other such matters that have to do with the relationship of a building to its site and the community in which it is built. Building codes deal with questions of safety and health by controlling the quality of construction, especially with regard to structural stability and fire resistance, but also including space and light requirements, ventilation, emergency egress, and energy efficiency.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 4. In what units is fire resistance measured? How is the fire resistance of a building assembly determined?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 4. In what units is fire resistance measured? How is the fire resistance of a building assembly determined?
        • Fire resistance of building assemblies is measured in hours of fire endurance. Fire resistance is determined by subjecting a building assembly to a fire endurance test as specified by ASTM E-119.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 5. If you are designing a five-story office building (Occupancy Group B) with 35,000 square feet per floor, what types of construction will you be permitted to use under the International Building Code if you do not install sprinklers? How does the situation change if you install sprinklers?
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings:
      • Review Questions
        • 5. If you are designing a five-story office building (Occupancy Group B) with 35,000 square feet per floor, what types of construction will you be permitted to use under the International Building Code if you do not install sprinklers? How does the situation change if you install sprinklers?
        • If this building is not sprinklered, Types IA, IB, IIA, and IV are permitted; Types IIA and IV are probably the most economical. If sprinklers are installed, Types IIB, IIIA, and IIIB are also permitted.
    • ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Making Buildings: Web Sites Relating To Sustanainability
      • Chapter 1 Web Links
      • www.sustainable.doe.gov Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development 
      • www.usabc.org United States Green Building Council  
      • solstice.crest.org Renewable Energy Policy Project  
      • www.epa.gov U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  
      • www.buildinggreen.com Environmental Building News  
      • www.crbt.org Center for Resourceful Building Technology  
      • www.planning.org/plnginfo/growsmar/gsindex American Planning Association Smart Growth
      • www.cagbc.ca Canadian Green Building Council
    • University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB To do for next class: Reading assignment: “ Fundamental of Building Construction” Chapter 2, Foundations Question: 1 – 8 on page 71 Bridge Project Due September 9