Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program         UNCOVERING THE VOICES OF             API WOMEN ON SEX            SELE...
Presenters                                                           Jedrek Chua                                          ...
CYWC QUANTITATIVE                    STUDY FINDINGS                       Methods & Demographics                          ...
METHODS &                       DEMOGRAPHICSSunday, May 15, 2011
Methods                 Online survey conducted through SurveyMonkey                 Random sampling of 5000 full-time und...
Demographic                                                    African American        Characteristics of our             ...
Religious Affiliation of UC Irvine                                   Campus       40%        30%        20%        10%     ...
SEX                       SELECTIONSunday, May 15, 2011
Poll        Do you believe boys are valued more in                   Asian families?Sunday, May 15, 2011
What is Sex Selection?Sunday, May 15, 2011
Sunday, May 15, 2011
Boys & Girls are Valued Equally                       50%                       40%                       30%             ...
Who are more valued?     60%                                            60%     45%                                       ...
“All things considered, I believe that I,     as a woman, have as much opportunity as a man”                       100%   ...
Sex Choice of First-Born Child        40%         30%         20%                       31%         10%                   ...
Sex Choice if Only Child            40%             30%             20%             10%               0%                  ...
Sex Selection Reinforces Sexist Notions                       50%                   37.5%                       25%       ...
“Do you know people in your family or communities            who have used some sort of technology,      including abortio...
Sunday, May 15, 2011
CYWC QUALITATIVE         STUDY FINDINGS (UROP)                       Introduction to UROP                        Qualitati...
INTRODUCTION TO                        UROPSunday, May 15, 2011
Undergraduate Research          Opportunities Program (UROP)                       How Sex Selection & Gender Preference A...
Hypothesis                  We propose that sex selection and               gender preference has an adverse impact       ...
Qualitative Methods                  2 Focus Group Discussions [N=19]                       Female Group [N=12]           ...
Focus Group Discussion Questions               How Sex Selection & Gender Preference Affects Self-Esteem               How ...
Data Analysis                 Transcribed both sets of focus group audio recordings                 Generated transcripts ...
Findings                                                     Attitudes on gender roles and              How self-esteem af...
Findings                       Familial Responsibilities                           Expectations placed on older child     ...
Conclusion                 Parental Encouragement & Guidance                 Careers with Financial Stability             ...
Conclusion                  Limitations                       Ethnic Composition of Focus Groups                       Fol...
MOCK FOCUS GROUP                  ACTIVITYSunday, May 15, 2011
Mock Focus Group           1. What were some cultural expectations in                          your family?Sunday, May 15,...
Mock Focus Group           2. Did you ever feel any pressure from your               parents to choose a specific major?Sun...
Mock Focus Group     3. Have you ever felt your gender dictated your                    choice of major?Sunday, May 15, 2011
Mock Focus Group       4. How do your familial responsibilities differ               from that of your sibling(s)?Sunday, M...
Mock Focus Group       5. Are girls and boys VALUED equally within                         your family?Sunday, May 15, 2011
Mock Focus Group               6. Do you think you would have more              opportunities if you were of the opposite ...
Mock Focus Group          7. If given a choice, would you like your first                         born child to be:        ...
Mock Focus Group      8. If, for whatever reason, you could not have      more than one child, what sex would you wish    ...
THANK YOU! :)Sunday, May 15, 2011
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Uncovering the Voices of API Women on Sex Selection, Gender Preference & Self-Esteem

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Presented research findings at the University of California, Irvine's Voice & Visibility: API Women's Health Summit. Irvine, CA. May 15, 2011.

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Uncovering the Voices of API Women on Sex Selection, Gender Preference & Self-Esteem

  1. 1. Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program UNCOVERING THE VOICES OF API WOMEN ON SEX SELECTION, GENDER PREFERENCE & SELF-ESTEEM Voice & Visibility: API Women’s Health Summit May 18, 2011 Irvine, CaliforniaSunday, May 15, 2011
  2. 2. Presenters Jedrek Chua University of California, Irvine Public Health Policy & Urban Studies Christine Lee University of California, Irvine Biological Sciences & Anthropology Allison Nguyen University of California, Irvine Public Health Policy & Business Economics Denise Tran University of California, Irvine Public Health SciencesSunday, May 15, 2011
  3. 3. CYWC QUANTITATIVE STUDY FINDINGS Methods & Demographics Sex SelectionSunday, May 15, 2011
  4. 4. METHODS & DEMOGRAPHICSSunday, May 15, 2011
  5. 5. Methods Online survey conducted through SurveyMonkey Random sampling of 5000 full-time undergraduate females, 18-25 years of age Final sample size: N=1100 Questions included topics on: Demographics Contraceptive choice Association with Religion Views on abortion Sex Education Sex selection Sexual history Reproductive TechnologySunday, May 15, 2011
  6. 6. Demographic African American Characteristics of our Latina/Chicana Sample Population 2% 14% API 50% White 22% 20% 15% 13% 10% Multi-Racial 5% 0% Chinese Vietnamese Filipina Korean South AsianSunday, May 15, 2011
  7. 7. Religious Affiliation of UC Irvine Campus 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Catholicism Christianity Buddhism Islam Hinduism Judaism OtherSunday, May 15, 2011
  8. 8. SEX SELECTIONSunday, May 15, 2011
  9. 9. Poll Do you believe boys are valued more in Asian families?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  10. 10. What is Sex Selection?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  11. 11. Sunday, May 15, 2011
  12. 12. Boys & Girls are Valued Equally 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Agree* Neutral Disagree* Agree*: Strongly Agree & Agree Disagree*: Strongly Disagree & DisagreeSunday, May 15, 2011
  13. 13. Who are more valued? 60% 60% 45% 45% 30% 30% 15% 24% 15% 9% 0% 0% Disagree* Neutral Agree* Disagree* Neutral Agree* Boys more valued Girls more valued than Girls than Boys Agree*: Strongly Agree & Agree Disagree*: Strongly Disagree & DisagreeSunday, May 15, 2011
  14. 14. “All things considered, I believe that I, as a woman, have as much opportunity as a man” 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% Disagree* Neutral Agree* Agree*: Strongly Agree & Agree Disagree*: Strongly Disagree & DisagreeSunday, May 15, 2011
  15. 15. Sex Choice of First-Born Child 40% 30% 20% 31% 10% 14% 0% Boy Girl Do Not Not Sure No Children Care PlannedSunday, May 15, 2011
  16. 16. Sex Choice if Only Child 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Boy Girl Do Not Care Not SureSunday, May 15, 2011
  17. 17. Sex Selection Reinforces Sexist Notions 50% 37.5% 25% 47% 12.5% 20% 0% Disagree* Neutral Agree* Agree*: Strongly Agree & Agree Disagree*: Strongly Disagree & DisagreeSunday, May 15, 2011
  18. 18. “Do you know people in your family or communities who have used some sort of technology, including abortion, to have a child of a specific sex?” 80% 60% 40% 20% 7% 0% Yes No Not SureSunday, May 15, 2011
  19. 19. Sunday, May 15, 2011
  20. 20. CYWC QUALITATIVE STUDY FINDINGS (UROP) Introduction to UROP Qualitative Methods Findings ConclusionSunday, May 15, 2011
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION TO UROPSunday, May 15, 2011
  22. 22. Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) How Sex Selection & Gender Preference Affects Asian American Women’s Self-Esteem & Self-Perception Allison Nguyen Christine Lee Jedrek Chua Denise TranSunday, May 15, 2011
  23. 23. Hypothesis We propose that sex selection and gender preference has an adverse impact on the self-esteem and self-perception of Asian American women.Sunday, May 15, 2011
  24. 24. Qualitative Methods 2 Focus Group Discussions [N=19] Female Group [N=12] Male Group [N=7] Focus Group Included: Pre-focus group questionnaire Warm-up questions Focus group discussion questions Reflection unintended consequence :)Sunday, May 15, 2011
  25. 25. Focus Group Discussion Questions How Sex Selection & Gender Preference Affects Self-Esteem How Sex Selection & Gender Preference Affects Self-Perception How Self-Esteem Affects Educational Opportunities & Career Paths Attitudes on Gender Roles and Familial ResponsibilitiesSunday, May 15, 2011
  26. 26. Data Analysis Transcribed both sets of focus group audio recordings Generated transcripts totaling about 50 pages Coded and created themes Tabulated pre-focus group questionnaires Discussed & interpreted emerging themesSunday, May 15, 2011
  27. 27. Findings Attitudes on gender roles and How self-esteem affects familial responsibilities educational opportunities & career paths ♂ Privileged in job-related opportunities compared to ♀ Desire to be male for greater women freedom ♀ Get married, have families ♀ Need for push from parents ♂ Men to protect women ♀ Need for jobs with financial security ♀ Family life given priority ♂ Jobs first, families later ♀ Gender-based choresSunday, May 15, 2011
  28. 28. Findings Familial Responsibilities Expectations placed on older child Educational Expectations Emphasis placed on younger childSunday, May 15, 2011
  29. 29. Conclusion Parental Encouragement & Guidance Careers with Financial Stability Familial Responsibilities vs. Educational AchievementSunday, May 15, 2011
  30. 30. Conclusion Limitations Ethnic Composition of Focus Groups Follow-Up Questions Generation Gap and Acculturation Retherford and Roy (2003) Having open and honest discussion Recruitment Asian CharacteristicsSunday, May 15, 2011
  31. 31. MOCK FOCUS GROUP ACTIVITYSunday, May 15, 2011
  32. 32. Mock Focus Group 1. What were some cultural expectations in your family?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  33. 33. Mock Focus Group 2. Did you ever feel any pressure from your parents to choose a specific major?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  34. 34. Mock Focus Group 3. Have you ever felt your gender dictated your choice of major?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  35. 35. Mock Focus Group 4. How do your familial responsibilities differ from that of your sibling(s)?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  36. 36. Mock Focus Group 5. Are girls and boys VALUED equally within your family?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  37. 37. Mock Focus Group 6. Do you think you would have more opportunities if you were of the opposite gender?Sunday, May 15, 2011
  38. 38. Mock Focus Group 7. If given a choice, would you like your first born child to be: A boy A girl Do not care Not sure I am not planning to have childrenSunday, May 15, 2011
  39. 39. Mock Focus Group 8. If, for whatever reason, you could not have more than one child, what sex would you wish for your only child to be? A boy A girl Do not care Not sureSunday, May 15, 2011
  40. 40. THANK YOU! :)Sunday, May 15, 2011
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