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Interactive Notebook Foldables, Organizers and Templates

Interactive Notebook Foldables, Organizers and Templates

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  • 1. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the mate-rial contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to stu-dents, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with The American Journey. Any otherreproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, OH 43240-4027ISBN 0-07-827478-8Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 079 08 07 06 05 04 03 02Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
  • 2. iiiLetter From Dinah Zike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Introduction to FoldablesWhy Use Foldables in Social Studies? . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Foldables and the NCSS Thematic Strands . . . . . . . . 2Foldable Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Using Visuals and Graphics With Foldables . . . . . . . 5Folding InstructionsBasic Foldables Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Half Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Folded Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Three-Quarter Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Bound Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Two-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Pocket Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Matchbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Shutter Fold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Trifold Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Three-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Pyramid Fold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Layered-Look Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Four-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Standing Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Envelope Fold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Four-Door Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Top-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Accordion Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Pop-Up Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Five-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Folded Table or Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Folding a Circle Into Tenths . . . . . . . . . 36Circle Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Concept-Map Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Vocabulary Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Four-Door Diorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Picture Frame Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Display Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Billboard Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Project Board With Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Sentence Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Sentence-Strip Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Forward-Backward Book . . . . . . . . . . . 47Three-Pocket Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Table of Contents
  • 3. ivChapter-Specific Foldables . . . . . . . . . 49Chapter 1 The First Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Chapter 3 Colonial America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Chapter 4 The Colonies Grow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Chapter 5 Road to Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Chapter 6 The American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Chapter 7 A More Perfect Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Chapter 8 A New Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Chapter 9 The Jefferson Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Chapter 10 Growth and Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Chapter 11 The Jackson Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Chapter 12 Manifest Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Chapter 13 North and South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Chapter 14 The Age of Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Chapter 15 Road to Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Chapter 16 The Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Chapter 17 Reconstruction and Its Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . 82Chapter 18 The Western Frontier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Chapter 19 The Growth of Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Chapter 20 Toward an Urban America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Chapter 21 Progressive Reforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Chapter 22 Overseas Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Chapter 23 World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Chapter 24 The Jazz Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Chapter 25 The Depression and FDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Chapter 26 World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100Chapter 27 The Cold War Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Chapter 28 America in the 1950s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Chapter 29 The Civil Rights Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106Chapter 30 The Vietnam Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Chapter 31 Search for Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110Chapter 32 New Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Constitutional ConventionVirginiaPlan BothNewJerseyPlanFirstContinentalCongressSecondContinentalCongressChristopherColumbusJohnCabotVascoNúñez deBalboaA NewNationChallengedTABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 4. 1FROM DINAH ZIKEDear Teacher,What is a Foldable?A Foldable is a 3-D, student-made, interactive graphic organizer based upon a skill. Makinga Foldable gives students a fast, kinesthetic activity that helps them organize and retain infor-mation. Every chapter in the student edition of the textbook begins with a Foldable that is usedas a Study Organizer. Each chapter’s Foldable is designed to be used as a study guide for themain ideas and key points presented in sections of the chapter. Foldables can also be used for amore in-depth investigation of a concept, idea, opinion, event, or a person or place studied in achapter. The purpose of this ancillary is to show you how to create various types of Foldablesand provide chapter-specific Foldables examples. With this information, you can individualizeFoldables to meet your curriculum needs.This book is divided into two sections. The first section presents step-by-step instructions,illustrations, and photographs of 34 Foldables, many of which were not used in the studentedition. I’ve included over 100 photographs to help you visualize ways in which they mightenhance instruction. The second section presents two extra ideas on how to use Foldables foreach chapter in the textbook. You can use the instruction section to design your own Foldablesor alter the Foldables presented in each chapter as well. I highly suggest making this bookavailable as a source for students who wish to learn new and creative ways in which to makestudy guides, present projects, or do extra credit work.Who Am I?You may have seen Foldables featured in this book used in supplemental programs or staff-development workshops. Today my Foldables are used internationally. I present workshops andkeynotes to over fifty thousand teachers and parents a year, sharing Foldables that I beganinventing, designing, and adapting over thirty five years ago. Students of all ages are usingthem for daily work, note-taking activities, student-directed projects, forms of alternativeassessment, journals, graphs, tables, and more.Have fun using and adapting Foldables,
  • 5. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.2INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESWhy use Foldables in Social Studies?When teachers ask me why they should take time to use the Foldables featured in thisbook, I explain that they:. . . organize, display, and arrange information, making it easier for students to graspsocial studies concepts, theories, facts, opinions, questions, research, and ideas.. . . are student-made study guides that are compiled as students listen for main ideas,read for main ideas, or conduct research.. . . provide a multitude of creative formats in which students can present projects,research, interviews, and inquiry-based reports.. . . replace teacher-generated writing or photocopied sheets with student-generated print.. . . incorporate the use of such skills as comparing and contrasting, recognizing cause andeffect, and finding similarities and differences.. . . continue to “immerse” students in previously learned vocabulary, concepts,information, generalizations, ideas, and theories, providing them with a strongfoundation that they can build upon with new observations, concepts, and knowledge.. . . can be used by students or teachers to easily communicate data through graphs,tables, charts, models, and diagrams, including Venn diagrams.. . . allow students to make their own journals for recording observations, researchinformation, primary and secondary source data, surveys, and so on.. . . can be used as alternative assessment tools by teachers to evaluate student progress orby students to evaluate their own progress.. . . integrate language arts, the sciences, and mathematics into the study of social studies.. . . provide a sense of student ownership or investiture in the social studies curriculum.Foldables and the NCSS Thematic StrandsIn Curriculum Standards for Social Studies: Expectations of Excellence, the NationalCouncil for the Social Studies (NCSS) identified 10 themes that serve as organizing strandsfor the social studies curriculum at every school level. The themes include:I. CultureII. Time, Continuity, and ChangeIII. People, Places, and EnvironmentsIV. Individual Development and IdentityV. Individuals, Groups, and InstitutionsVI. Power, Authority, and GovernanceVII. Production, Distribution, and ConsumptionVIII. Science, Technology, and SocietyIX. Global ConnectionsX. Civic Ideals and PracticesStudents are expected to master specific skills that are organized around these themes,such as analyzing data, comparing and contrasting similarities and differences, explainingand describing concepts, and identifying cause-and-effect relationships.Foldables help students practice and master these specific skills. Foldables requirestudents to identify and describe main ideas, relationships, and processes. In most cases,students need to understand and comprehend information before they can illustrate it in afoldable. Foldables help students think, analyze, and communicate.
  • 6. 3Foldable BasicsWhat to Write and WhereTeach students to write general information such as titles, vocabulary words, concepts,questions, main ideas, and dates on the front tabs of their Foldables. This way students caneasily recognize main ideas and important concepts. Foldables help students focus on andremember key points without being distracted by other print.Ask students to write specific information such as supporting ideas, student thoughts,answers to questions, research information, class notes, observations, and definitions underthe tabs.As you teach, demonstrate different ways in which Foldables can be used. Soon you willfind that students make their own Foldables and use them independently for study guidesand projects.With or Without TabsFoldables with flaps or tabs create study guides that students can use to check what theyknow about the general information on the front of tabs. Use Foldables without tabs forassessment purposes or projects where information is presented for others to view quickly.INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Venn diagram used for assessmentVenn diagram used as a study guide
  • 7. 4What to Do WithScissors and GlueIf it is difficult for your students to keepglue and scissors at their desks, set up asmall table in the classroom and provideseveral containers of glue, numerouspairs of scissors (sometimes tied to thetable), containers of crayons and coloredpencils, a stapler, clear tape, andanything else you think students mightneed to make their Foldables.Storing FoldablesThere are several ways that students canstore their Foldables. They can usegrocery bags, plastic bags, or shoeboxes.Students can also punch holes in theirFoldables and place them in a three-ringbinder. Suggest they place strips of two-inch clear tape along one side and punchthree holes through the taped edge.By keeping all of their Foldablestogether and organized, students willhave created their own portfolio.HINT: I found it more convenient to keep student portfolios in my classroomso student work was always available when needed. Giant detergent boxesmake good storage containers for portfolios.Use This Book as a Creative ResourceHave this book readily available for students to use as an idea reference for projects, dis-cussions, social studies debates, extra credit work, cooperative learning group presentations,and so on. Encourage students to think of their own versions of Foldables to help themlearn the material the best way possible.INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 8. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Using Visuals and Graphics WithFoldablesThe graphics on pages 6–12 can be used as visual aids forstudents’ Foldables. Students can incorporate them into theirjournals, notes, projects, and study guides independently. Ifound that students and teachers were more likely to usegraphics if they were available on a classroom computer wherethey could be selected and printed out as needed. You can alsophotocopy and distribute the pages that follow for students totrace or cut out for their projects. All these visuals will aidstudent understanding and retention.1. Students can mark and label large United States andworld maps to show where past and recent eventsoccurred, where a historic person lived and worked,where wars were fought and battles won, wherevolcanoes are active and inactive, where boundaries ofterritories or regions existed, and so on.2. Students can mark and label smaller maps of con-tinents to illustrate more specific locations. Forexample, when making a who, what, when, whereFoldable, students can identify exactly where theparticular event occurred or where the individuallived.3. Bar graphs, grids, and circle graphs can be used toshow changes over time, population distribution,and so on.4. Use time lines to record when someone lived orwhen an event or sequence of events occurred. Usetwo time lines to compare what was happening intwo different areas at the same time.5. Use small picture frames to sketch or name aperson, place, or thing.5INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLES12345
  • 9. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.6INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESAfrica AntarcticaAsia Australia
  • 10. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.7INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESSouth AmericaNorth AmericaEurope
  • 11. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.8INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESAlaskaHawaiiUnited StatesThe World
  • 12. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.9INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESPercentages or bar graph Circle graphGeneric Time Line
  • 13. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.10INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLES
  • 14. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.11INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESEnglandFranceSpain
  • 15. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.12INTRODUCTION TO FOLDABLESUnited States of AmericaConfederacyMexico
  • 16. 13Basic Foldables ShapesThe following figures illustrate the basic folds that are referred to throughout the instructionsection of this book.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Taco FoldHamburger FoldHot Dog FoldShutter FoldBurrito FoldValley FoldMountain Fold
  • 17. 14Half BookFold a sheet of paper in half.1. This book can be folded vertically like ahot dog or . . .2. . . . it can be folded horizontally like ahamburger.Use this book for descriptive, expository, persuasive,or narrative writing, as well as graphs, diagrams, orcharts.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.21
  • 18. 15Folded Book1. Make a half-book. (p. 14)2. Fold it in half again like a hamburger. Thismakes a ready-made cover and two smallpages for information on the inside.Use photocopied work sheets, Internet printouts,and student-drawn diagrams or maps to makethis book. One sheet of paper becomes twoactivities and two grades.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.12When folded, the worksheet becomes abook for recording notes and questions.
  • 19. 16Three-Quarter Book1. Make a two-tab book (p. 18) and raise theleft-hand tab.2. Cut the tab off at the top fold line.3. A larger book of information can be madeby gluing several three-quarter booksside by side.Sketch or glue a graphic to the left, write one ormore questions on the right, and record answersand information under the right tab.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.12Example of several books glued side by side.
  • 20. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Bound Book1. Take two sheets of paper and fold themseparately like a hamburger. Place thepapers on top of each other, leavingone-sixteenth of an inch between themountain tops.2. Mark both folds one inch from the outeredges.3. On one of the folded sheets, cut slits in themiddle to the marked spot on both sides.4. On the second folded sheet, start at one ofthe marked spots and cut the fold betweenthe two marks.5. Take the cut sheet from step 3 and fold itlike a burrito. Place the burrito throughthe other sheet and then open the burrito.Fold the bound pages in half to form aneight-page book.17FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSUse for qualitative and quantitative observation journals. Make large project books using 11" ϫ 17" paper.14532
  • 21. 18Two-Tab Book1. Make a folded book (p. 15) and cut upthe valley of the inside fold toward themountain top. This cut forms two largetabs that can be used for text and illustra-tions on the front and back.2. The book can be expanded by makingseveral of these folds and gluing themside by side.Use this book for learning about two things.For example, use it for comparing and contrast-ing, determining cause and effect, finding simi-larities and differences, using Venn diagrams,and so on.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.12
  • 22. 19Pocket Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like ahamburger.2. Open the folded paper and fold oneof the long sides up two inches toform a pocket. Refold along thehamburger fold so that the newlyformed pockets are on the inside.3. Glue the outer edges of the two-inchfold with a small amount of glue.4. Optional: Glue a cover around thepocket book.Variation: Make a multi-pagedbooklet by gluing several pocketsside by side. Glue a cover around themulti-paged pocket book.Summarize information on note cards or onquarter sheets of notebook paper. Store otherfoldables, such as two-tab books, inside thepockets.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.123 4
  • 23. 20Matchbook1. Fold a sheet of paper like a hamburger,but fold it so that one side is one inchlonger than the other side.2. Fold the one-inch tab over the short sideforming a fold like an envelope.3. Cut the front flap in half toward themountain top to create two flaps.Use this book to report on one thing, such asa person, place, or thing, or for reporting ontwo things, such as the cause and effect ofWestern Expansion.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.123
  • 24. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Shutter Fold1. Begin as if you were going to make ahamburger but instead of creasing thepaper, pinch it to show the midpoint.2. Fold the outer edges of the paper tomeet at the pinch, or mid-point, forminga shutter fold.Use this book for comparing two things.Students could also make this foldable with11" ϫ 17" paper and then glue smallerbooks—such as the half book, journal, andtwo-tab book—inside to create a large projectfull of student work.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—2-PART FOLDS1221FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 25. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Trifold Book1. Fold a sheet of paper into thirds.2. Use this book as is, or cut into shapes. Ifthe trifold is cut, leave plenty of paper onboth sides of the designed shape, so thebook will open and close in three sections.Use this book to make charts with threecolumns or rows, large Venn diagrams, reportson three events or people, or to show andexplain the outside and inside of something.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—3-PART FOLDS1222FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 26. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Three-Tab Book1. Fold a sheet of paper like a hot dog.2. With the paper horizontal, and the fold ofthe hot dog up, fold the right side towardthe center, trying to cover one-third of thepaper.NOTE: If you fold the right edge over first,the final foldable will open and close likea book.3. Fold the left side over the right side tomake a book with three folds.4. Open the folded book. Place your handsbetween the two thicknesses of paper andcut up the two valleys on the top layer onlyalong both folds. This will make three tabs.Use this book for writing information aboutthree things and for Venn diagrams.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—3-PART FOLDS123423FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 27. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Pyramid Fold1. Fold a sheet of paper into a taco,forming a square. Cut off the leftoverpiece.2. Fold the triangle in half. Unfold. Thefolds will form an X dividing fourequal sections.3. Cut up one fold line and stop at themiddle. Draw an X on one tab andlabel the other three.4. Fold the X flap under the other flapand glue together. This makes a three-sided pyramid.Label front sections and write information,notes, thoughts, and questions inside thepyramid on the back of the appropriate tab.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—3-PART FOLDSXRecord data inside the pyramid.1234Use to make mobiles and dioramas.24FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSGlue four pyramids together to form adiorama showing four parts or stages.
  • 28. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Layered-Look Book1. Stack two sheets of paper so that the backsheet is one inch higher than the front sheet.2. Fold up the bottom edges of the paper toform four tabs. Align the edges so that allof the layers or tabs are the same distanceapart.3. When all tabs are the same size, creasethe paper to hold the tabs in place andstaple or glue the sheets together.Glue the sheets together along the valleyor inner center fold or staple them alongthe mountain top.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—3-PART FOLDSWhen using more than two sheets of paper,make the tabs smaller than an inch.12325FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 29. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Four-Tab Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like a hot dog.2. Fold this long rectangle in half like ahamburger.3. Fold both ends back to touch the mountaintop.4. On the side with two valleys and one moun-tain top, cut along the three inside fold lineson the front flap to make four tabs.Use this book for recording information on fourthings, events, or people.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—4-PART FOLDS123 426FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 30. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Standing Cube1. Use two sheets of the same size paper. Foldeach like a hamburger. However, fold oneside one-half inch shorter than the otherside. This will make a tab that extends outone-half inch on one side.2. Fold the long side over the short side ofboth sheets of paper, making tabs.3. On one of the folded papers, place a smallamount of glue along the the small foldedtab next to the valley, but not in it.4. Place the non-folded edge of the secondsheet of paper square into the valley andfold the glue-covered tab over this sheetof paper. Press flat until the glue holds.Repeat with the other side.5. Allow the glue to dry completely beforecontinuing. After the glue has dried, thecube can be collapsed flat to allow studentsto work at their desks.Use the cube for organizing information onfour things. Use 11" ϫ 17" paper to makelarger project cubes that you can glue otherfoldables onto for display. Notebook paper,photocopied sheets, magazine pictures, andcurrent events articles can also be displayedon the larger cubes.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—4-PART FOLDS12345These cubes can be stored in plasticbag portfolios by collapsing the cubesto make them flat.27FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 31. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Envelope Fold1. Fold a sheet of paper into a taco forminga square. Cut off the leftover piece.2. Open the folded taco and refold it theopposite way forming another taco andan X-fold pattern.3. Open the taco fold and fold the cornerstoward the center point of the X forminga small square.4. Trace this square onto another sheet ofpaper. Cut and glue it to the inside of theenvelope. Pictures can be placed under oron top of the tabs.Use this foldable for organizing information onfour things. Use it for “hidden pictures” and cur-rent events pictures. Have your classmates raiseone tab at a time until they can guess what thepicture represents. Number the tabs in the orderin which they are to be opened.28FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS1243
  • 32. 29Four-Door Book1. Make a shutter fold (p. 21) using a largersheet of paper.2. Fold the shutter fold in half like ahamburger. Crease well.3. Open the project and cut along the twoinside valley folds.4. These cuts will form four doors on theinside of the project.Use this book for organizing informationon four things. When folded in half like ahamburger, a finished four-door book can beglued inside a large (11" ϫ 17") shutter foldas part of a more inclusive project.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS1234
  • 33. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Top-Tab Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half likea hamburger. Cut the center fold,forming two half sheets.2. Fold one of the half sheets fourtimes. Begin by folding it in halflike a hamburger, fold again likea hamburger, and finally again likea hamburger. This folding hasformed your pattern of four rowsand four columns, or 16 smallsquares.3. Fold two sheets of paper in halflike a hamburger. Cut the centerfolds, forming four half sheets.4. Hold the pattern vertically andplace on a half sheet of paperunder the pattern. Cut the bottomright hand square out of bothsheets. Set this first page aside.5. Take a second half sheet of paperand place it under the pattern. Cutthe first and second right handsquares out of both sheets. Placethe second page on top of the firstpage.(continued next page)1245330FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 34. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.6. Take a third half sheet of paper andplace it under the pattern. Cut the first,second, and third right hand squaresout of both sheets. Place this thirdpage on top of the second page.7. Place the fourth, uncut half sheet ofpaper behind the three cut out sheets,leaving four aligned tabs across the topof the book. Staple several times onthe left side. You can also place gluealong the left paper edges and stackthem together.8. Cut a final half sheet of paper withno tabs and staple along the left sideto form a cover.Use this foldable to organize severalevents or characteristics of a person,place, or occurrence.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—4-PART FOLDS67831FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 35. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.When folded, this project resembles a book,and it can be stored in student portfolios.Accordion books can be stored in file cabinetsfor future use.1245332FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSUse different colored paper to indi-cate before and after, or the begin-ning, middle, and ending of an event.Have students depict the topic visually on one side of the accordionbook and record written information on the other side.Accordion Book1. Fold two sheets of paper into hamburgers.2. Cut the sheets of paper in half along thefold lines.3. Fold each section of paper into hamburgers.However, fold one side one-half inch shorterthan the other side. This will form a tab thatis one-half inch long.4. Fold this tab forward over the shorter side,and then fold it back from the shorter pieceof paper. (In other words, fold it theopposite way.)5. Glue together to form an accordion bygluing a straight edge of one section intothe valley of another section.NOTE: Stand the sections on end to form anaccordion to help students visualize how to gluethem together. See illustration.Always place the extra tab at the back of thebook so you can add more pages later.Use this book for time lines, sequencing eventsor information, biographies, and so on.
  • 36. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Pop-Up Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like ahamburger.2. Beginning at the fold, or mountain top,cut one or more tabs.3. Fold the tabs back and forth several timesuntil there is a good fold line formed.4. Partially open the hamburger fold andpush the tabs through to the inside.5. With one small dot of glue, glue figuresfor the pop-up book to the front of eachtab. Allow the glue to dry before goingon to the next step.6. Make a cover for the book by foldinganother sheet of paper in half like ahamburger. Place glue around the outsideedges of the pop-up book and firmly pressinside the hamburger cover.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—ANY NUMBER OF PARTS1 234 5633FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 37. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Five-Tab Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like a hot dog.2. Fold the paper so that one-third is exposedand two-thirds are covered.3. Fold the two-thirds section in half.4. Fold the one-third section (singlethickness) backward to form a fold line.The paper will be divided into fifths whenopened. Use this foldable to organize infor-mation about five countries, dates, events,and so on.34FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS12341/3 2/3
  • 38. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—ANY NUMBER OF PARTS35FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSFolded Table or Chart1. Fold a sheet of paper into the number ofvertical columns needed to make the tableor chart.2. Fold the horizontal rows needed to makethe table or chart.3. Label the rows and columns.REMEMBER: Tables are organized alongvertical and horizontal axes, while charts areorganized along one axis, either horizontalor vertical.Fold the sheet of paper into as many columns orrows that you need for the particular topic.TableChart
  • 39. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.36FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSFolding a Circle Into Tenths1. Cut a circle out of a sheet of paper. Thenfold the circle in half.2. Fold the half circle so that one-third isexposed and two-thirds are covered.3. Fold the one-third (single thickness)backward to form a fold line.4. Fold the two-thirds section in half.5. The half circle will be divided into fifths.When opened, the circle will be dividedinto tenths.NOTE: Paper squares andrectangles are folded intotenths the same way. Fold themso that one-third is exposedand two-thirds is covered.Continue with steps 3 and 4.2/31/3123 45
  • 40. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Circle Graph1. Cut out two circles from two sheets ofpaper.2. Fold one of the circles in half on eachaxis, forming fourths. Cut along one ofthe fold lines (the radius) to the middleof each circle. Flatten the circle.3. Place the two circles together along thecuts until they overlap completely.4. Spin one of the circles while holding theother still. Estimate how much of each ofthe two (or you can add more) circlesshould be exposed to illustrate percentagesor categories of information. Add circles torepresent more than two percentages.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—ANY NUMBER OF PARTSUse small circle graphs in student projects or onthe front of tab books.Use large circle graphs on bulletin boards.123 437FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 41. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Concept-Map Book1. Fold a sheet of paper along the long orshort axis, leaving a two-inch tabuncovered along the top.2. Fold in half or in thirds.3. Unfold and cut along the two or threeinside fold lines.Use this book to write facts about a person,place, or thing under the appropriate tab.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS38
  • 42. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Vocabulary Book1. Fold a sheet of notebook paper in half likea hot dog.2. On one side, cut every third line. Thisusually results in ten tabs.3. Label the tabs. See the illustration belowfor several uses.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—ANY NUMBER OF PARTSUse for vocabulary books.Use to take notes and recordinformation. Leave the note-book holes uncovered and itcan be stored in a notebook.Use for recording questions and answers.39FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 43. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Four-Door Diorama1. Make a four-door book out of a shutter fold(p. 21).2. Fold the two inside corners back to theouter edges (mountains) of the shutter fold.This will result in two tacos that will makethe four-door book look like it has a shirtcollar. Do the same thing to the bottom ofthe four-door book. When finished, foursmall triangular tacos have been made.3. Form a 90-degree angle and overlap thefolded triangles to make a display casethat doesn’t use staples or glue. (It canbe collapsed for storage.)4. Or, as illustrated, cut off all fourtriangles, or tacos. Staple or glue thesides.Use 11" ϫ 17" paper to make a largedisplay case.Use poster board to make giantdisplay cases.Place display cases next to each other to compareand contrast or to sequence events or data.124340FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 44. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Picture Frame Book1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like ahamburger.2. Open the hamburger and gently rollone side of the hamburger toward thevalley. Try not to crease the roll.3. Cut a rectangle out of the middle of therolled side of the paper leaving a half-inchborder, forming a frame.4. Fold another sheet of paper in half like ahamburger. Apply glue to the inside borderof the picture frame and place the folded,uncut sheet of paper inside.Use this book to feature a person, place, orthing. Inside the picture frames, glue photo-graphs, magazine pictures, computer-generatedgraphs, or have students sketch pictures. Thisbook has three inside pages for writing andrecording notes.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—PROJECTS USING FOLDS123441FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 45. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Display Case1. Make a taco fold and cut off the leftoverpiece. This will result in a square.2. Fold the square into a shutter fold.3. Unfold and fold the square into anothershutter fold perpendicular to the direction ofthe first. This will form a small square ateach of the four corners of the sheet of paper.4. As illustrated, cut along two fold lines onopposite sides of the large square.5. Collapse the sides in and glue the tabs toform an open box.How to Make a LidFold another open-sided box using asquare of paper one-half inch larger thanthe square used to make the first box. Thiswill make a lid that fits snugly over thedisplay box. Example: If the base is madeout of an 8 ᎏ12ᎏ" paper square, make the lidout of a 9" square.Cut a hole out of the lid and cover the open-ing with a cut piece of acetate used on over-head projectors. Heavy, clear plastic wrapor scraps from a laminating machine willalso work. Secure the clear plastic sheet tothe inside of the lid with glue or tape.NOTE: You can place polystyrene foam or quiltbatting in the boxes to display objects. Glue theboxes onto a sheet of cardboard to make themstrong enough to display heavy objects.123442FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS5
  • 46. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Billboard Project1. Fold all pieces of the same size of paper inhalf like hamburgers.2. Place a line of glue at the top and bottomof one side of each folded billboard sectionand glue them side by side on a largersheet of paper or poster board. If glued cor-rectly, all doors will open from right to left.3. Pictures, dates, words, and so on, go on thefront of each billboard section. Whenopened, writing or drawings can be seen onthe inside left of each section. The base, orthe part glued to the background, is perfectfor more in-depth information or definitions.Use for time lines or for sequencing informa-tion, such as events in a war, presidents of theUnited States, or ratification of states.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS—PROJECTS USING FOLDS12343FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 47. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Project Board With Tabs1. Draw a large illustration, a series of smallillustrations, or write on the front of a sheetof paper.2. Pinch and slightly fold the sheet of paperat the point where a tab is desired on theillustrated sheet of paper. Cut into the paperon the fold. Cut straight in, then cut up toform an “L.” When the paper is unfolded, itwill form a tab with an illustration on thefront.3. After all tabs have been cut, glue this frontsheet onto a second sheet of paper. Placeglue around all four edges and in themiddle, away from tabs.Write or draw under the tabs. If the project ismade as a bulletin board using butcher paper,tape or glue smaller sheets of paper under thetabs.Revolutionary WarKorean WarCivil WarExplorationKorean WarExplorationRevolutionary WarKorean WarCivil WarExploration12344FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
  • 48. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Sentence Strips1. Take two sheets of paper and fold theninto hamburgers. Cut along the fold linesmaking four half sheets. (Use as manyhalf sheets as necessary for additionalpages to your book.)2. Fold each sheet in half like a hot dog.3. Place the folds side by side and staplethem together on the left side.4. One inch from the stapled edge, cut thefront page of each folded section up tothe mountain top. These cuts form flapsthat can be raised and lowered.To make a half-cover, use a sheet of construc-tion paper one inch longer than the book. Gluethe back of the last sheet to the constructionpaper strip leaving one inch on the left side tofold over and cover the original staples. Staplethis half-cover in place.45FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS3412
  • 49. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.46FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSSentence-Strip Holder1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like ahamburger.2. Open the hamburger and fold the twoouter edges toward the valley. This formsa shutter fold.3. Fold one of the inside edges of the shutterback to the outside fold. This fold forms afloppy L-tab.4. Glue the floppy L-tab down to the base sothat it forms a strong, straight L-tab.5. Glue the other shutter side to the front ofthis L-tab. This forms a tent that is thebackboard for the flashcards or studentwork to be displayed.6. Fold the edge of the L-tab up one-quarterto one-half inch to form a lip that willkeep the student work from slipping offthe holder.12345Use these holders to display student work ona table, or glue them onto a bulletin board tomake it interactive.
  • 50. 47Forward-Backward Book1. Stack three or more sheets of paper. On thetop sheet, trace a large circle.2. With the papers still stacked, cut out thecircles.3. Staple the paper circles together along theleft-hand side to create a circular booklet.4. Label the cover and takes notes on thepages that open to the right.5. Turn the book upside down and label theback. Takes notes on the pages that open tothe right.FOLDING INSTRUCTIONSCopyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.123FrontBackInsideInsideUse one Forward-Backwardbook to compare and contrasttwo people, places, or events.FrontBack
  • 51. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.48FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS23Three-Pocket Book1. Fold a horizontal sheet of paper (11" ϫ 17")into thirds.2. Fold the bottom edge up two inches andcrease well. Glue the outer edges of thetwo-inch tab to create three pockets.3. Label each pocket. Use these pockets tohold notes taken on index cards or quartersheets of paper.1
  • 52. 49Chapter 1 The First AmericansChapter 2 Exploring the AmericasChapter 3 Colonial AmericaChapter 4 The Colonies GrowChapter 5 Road to IndependenceChapter 6 The American RevolutionChapter 7 A More Perfect UnionChapter 8 A New NationChapter 9 The Jefferson EraChapter 10 Growth and ExpansionChapter 11 The Jackson EraChapter 12 Manifest DestinyChapter 13 North and SouthChapter 14 The Age of ReformChapter 15 Road to Civil WarChapter 16 The Civil WarChapter 17 Reconstruction and Its AftermathChapter 18 The Western FrontierChapter 19 The Growth of IndustryChapter 20 Toward an Urban AmericaChapter 21 Progressive ReformsChapter 22 Overseas ExpansionChapter 23 World War IChapter 24 The Jazz AgeChapter 25 The Depression and FDRChapter 26 World War IIChapter 27 The Cold War EraChapter 28 America in the 1950sChapter 29 The Civil Rights EraChapter 30 The Vietnam EraChapter 31 Search for StabilityChapter 32 New ChallengesThe pages that follow contain chapter-specific Foldables activities to use withThe American Journey. Included are a Chapter Summary, a reproduction of theFoldables Study Organizer that appears on each chapter opener in the textbook,and a Follow-Up Foldables Activity. Use the Follow-Up Activity after studentshave studied each chapter. Students are asked to use the Foldables they have cre-ated and completed during the study of each chapter to review important chap-ter concepts and prepare for the chapter test.Alternative Foldables activities are also included for every chapter. Use theseactivities during the study of each chapter or as chapter review activities. TheStudent Study Tip provides reading, writing, and test-taking strategies that youcan share with your students throughout the course.
  • 53. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables, review with them the dif-ferent uses foldables have: self-checkquiz, quick chapter review, andgroup quiz. Then have studentsorganize themselves into smallgroups to quiz each other about theirfoldables. Ask students to name twoother topics in the chapter thatwould adapt well to this foldable.CHAPTER PREVIEW50The First AmericansCHAPTER SUMMARYThe Inca, Maya, and Aztec societies in South and Central Americaand in Mexico created powerful empires. Among the most advanced ofthe early cultures were the Hohokam and Anasazi of the Southwestand the Mound Builders of the Ohio River valley. In the Southwest,Native American peoples improved techniques of irrigation to farm theland. The Great Plains group depended on the great herds of bison, orbuffalo, that roamed the plains. Native Americans of the Northeastformed the Iroquois League to solve disputes.CHAPTER 1Native AmericansStep 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half from topto bottom.Step 2 Fold in half again, from side to side.Step 3 Unfold the paper once. Cut up the foldof the top flap only.Step 4 Turn the paper vertically and sketchthe continents of North and Central and SouthAmerica on the front tabs.This cut willmake two tabs.Categorizing Study Foldable Group informationinto categories to make sense of what you arelearning. Make this foldable to learn about thefirst Americans.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write under the flaps of your foldable what youlearn about the Native American people livingin these regions.NorthAmericaCentraland SouthAmericaTEACHER NOTES
  • 54. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Rise DeclineName of GroupCauses EffectsMigrationtoAmericas51Alternative Activities for Chapter 1CAUSE AND EFFECTHave students use the same foldabledesign to study about the rise anddecline of one of the Native Americangroups in the chapter. Suggest studentsadd color, shapes, or illustrations tomake the information more memorablefor them. Ask students to think aboutwhat factors could have prevented thedecline of each group.EVALUATINGSuggest students use the same fold-able design to help them study thecauses and effects of early peoples com-ing to the Americas. Encourage them touse concise phrases and single-wordclues rather than complete sentences.Ask students what geographic elementallowed settlement of the Americas.(Earth’s climate)CHAPTER 1As they are learning about early NativeAmericans, suggest to students that it is some-times difficult to remember what each groupwas like, especially when they have unfamiliarnames. To help them remember, suggest theychoose a group characteristic that starts withthe same first letter of the group.
  • 55. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityAs students complete their fold-ables about explorers in theAmericas, pair them with partnersand have them quiz each otherabout the reasons they wrote down.Have them summarize what theylearned, and state the two most validreasons explorers came to theAmericas. Choose groups at randomto share with the rest of the class thetwo reasons they chose as to whyexplorers came to the Americas.CHAPTER PREVIEW52Exploring the AmericasCHAPTER SUMMARYMany explorations took place in the 1400s and 1500s and as early asc. A.D. 1000 when Leif Eriksson landed in present-day Newfoundland.The explorers represented the strongest countries at the time: England,Spain, France and the Netherlands. They were searching for new traderoutes and riches. In the late 1400s, Dias, Columbus, and da Gama setsail. Explorers such as Magellan, Cartier, De Soto, and Hudson all fol-lowed in the next 50 years. In 1565 Spain established the first settlementat St. Augustine, Florida.CHAPTER 2TEACHER NOTESFranceFranceEnglandSpainSpainStep 1 Fold the paper from the top right cornerdown so the edges line up. Cut off the leftoverpiece.Evaluating Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you learn aboutEuropean exploration of the Americas.Reading and Writing As you read, ask yourselfwhy England, France, and Spain were exploringthe Americas. Write your questions under eachappropriate pyramid wall.Step 2 Fold the triangle in half. Unfold.Step 3 Cut up one fold line and stop at themiddle. Draw an X on one tab and label theother three.Step 4 Fold the X flap under the other flap andglue together.Fold a triangle.Cut off the extraedge.This makes athree-sidedpyramid.The foldswill form an Xdividing fourequal sections.
  • 56. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.GhanaMaliSonghaiChristopherColumbusJohnCabotVascoNúñez deBalboa53Alternative Activities for Chapter 2DESCRIBINGHave students choose three explorersmentioned in the chapter and doresearch to find out more about them.Have them write details of theexplorer’s voyages on the appropriateside of their pyramids. Have them sharetheir research with the class.DRAWING CONCLUSIONSUsing the same pyramid foldabledesign, have students research moreabout the great early African kingdomsof Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Once theyhave completed their research, havethem draw conclusions about why eachkingdom eventually faded away.CHAPTER 2As students research the routes of earlyexplorers, or other topics such as militarycampaigns, suggest they take time to find thespecific locations on a map or globe. This willmake the information more dimensional andgive students some geographic perspective.
  • 57. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students create a matchingquiz of 10 questions using informa-tion from their foldables. Then askstudents to trade quizzes with aclassmate and see how many ques-tions they can answer correctly. Askfor several volunteers to write theirquizzes on the board for everyoneto try.CHAPTER PREVIEW54Colonial AmericaCHAPTER SUMMARYThe early North American colonies were a meeting place for manydifferent cultures. People came to the American colonies for variousreasons—including the pursuit of wealth, land, or religious freedom.The goals and ways of life of these different groups sometimes clashed,ending in conflict. However, America was becoming a place where peo-ple of different backgrounds and beliefs could learn to live togetherpeacefully.CHAPTER 3TEACHER NOTESThe Thirteen ColoniesNorthernMiddleSouthernMassachusettsNew HampshireRhode IslandConnecticutNew YorkDelawareNew JerseyPennsylvaniaVirginiaMarylandNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaGeorgia12Step 1 Collect 7 sheets of paper and placethem about inch apart.Comparison Study Foldable When yougroup facts into categories, it is easier to makecomparisons. Make this foldable to compareand contrast the 13 colonies and their regions.Reading and Writing As you read, write whatyou learn about each of the 13 colonies undereach tab and compare the colonies.Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges of the paperto form 14 tabs.Step 3 When all the tabs are the same size,crease the paper to hold the tabs in place andstaple the sheets together. Label each tab withthe name of a colony and color-code each region.Keep theedges straight.Stapletogether alongthe fold.This makesall tabs thesame size.
  • 58. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Summary ofWhat I’ve LearnedNew England ColoniesMiddle ColoniesSouthern ColoniesEarlyEnglishSettlementsJamestownPlymouthMassachusetts Bay55Alternative Activities for Chapter 3SEQUENCINGHave students use the same foldabledesign to create a time line that showskey events in the founding of the settle-ments of Jamestown, Plymouth, andMassachusetts Bay. Have them drawrough maps pinpointing each location.EVALUATINGAsk students to imagine they are newsettlers who are traveling throughoutthe 13 colonies before they decide whereto live. Ask them to list on the foldablethe best things and the worst thingsabout living in each of the regions. Thenask students to write a statement identi-fying their choice and describing theirfeelings about their new home.CHAPTER 3To help students grasp the main ideas, havethem create a word web as they read each sec-tion. Direct students to write the section title asthe center of the web; for example, “Section 3:Middle Colonies.” Tell students to includeimportant ideas in ovals around the center.
  • 59. The Colonies GrowCHAPTER SUMMARYColonists brought traditions from their home countries and developednew ways of life in America. Many people made important contribu-tions. A number of languages, foods from many lands, and a variety ofreligious beliefs and holidays all became part of the emerging cultureof colonial America. While lifestyles varied from region to region, intime the colonists found that they shared many concerns. The idealsof American democracy and freedom of religion took root during thecolonial period.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables, have them identify thecauses and effects of the French andIndian War for the various peoplewho lived in the Americas. Havethem share their information withthe class. Prompt students todevelop a consensus based on theclass discussion.CHAPTER PREVIEWTEACHER NOTESCHAPTER 456Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper from side to side,leaving a 2-inch tab uncovered along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and cut along the two insidefold lines.Step 4 Label the foldable as shown.Fold it so theleft edge lies2 inches fromthe right edge.Cut along thetwo folds onthe front flap tomake 3 tabs.Compare-Contrast Study Foldable Make thefollowing (Venn diagram) foldable to compareand contrast the peoples involved in the Frenchand Indian War.Reading and Writing As you read about theparticipants of the war, write facts about themunder the appropriate tabs of your foldable.The French and Indian WarFrenchand NativeAmericansBothBritishandColonists
  • 60. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 4COMPARINGUsing the same Venn diagram fold-able design, have students research tofind out more about the colonial econ-omy. Ask them to compare farming inNew England with farming in theSouthern Colonies among other things.IDENTIFYINGHave students write Government,Religion, and Culture on their foldables.Under each of the categories, havestudents identify at least two key eventsor facts from the colonial period. Foreach event or fact, ask them to explainits significance. Discuss the students’foldables as a class.The ColoniesGovernment Religion CultureEconomicsNewEnglandColoniesBoth SouthernColoniesPoint out that understanding cause and effectis essential to studying history. Students mustknow not only what happened, but why it hap-pened. Note that most effects have more thanone cause and that causes can have more thanone effect. Show students several examples ofcause-and-effect charts.CHAPTER 457
  • 61. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Road to IndependenceCHAPTER SUMMARYBefore the 1770s, most people in the American colonies thought ofthemselves as British citizens. Few wanted or expected any majorchanges in their relationships with the king or with Parliament.However, those feelings of loyalty were changing. As Britain imposed anumber of taxes on the colonies, tension grew between the two sides.When colonial objections to British law could no longer be settled byprotests or petitions to the king, war and the colonies’ final break withBritain followed.CHAPTER PREVIEWTEACHER NOTESCHAPTER 558Step 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half fromside to side.Cause-and-Effect Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to show the causes and effects of theevents that led the Americans to declareindependence from Great Britain.Reading and Writing As you read this chapter,fill in the causes (British Actions) and effects(Colonial Reactions) in the correct columns ofyour foldable.Step 2 Fold again, 1 inch from the top.(Tip: The middle knuckle of your index fingeris about 1 inch long.)Step 3 Open and label as shown.Fold the sheetvertically.Draw linesalong thefold lines.BritishActionsColonialReactionsCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityAfter students have completedtheir foldables, call on volunteers toshare their entries with the rest ofthe class. Have students note theevents that appear most often in theentries. Then arrange a class debatewhere half the class represents theBritish government and the otherhalf represents American colonists.They should try to give reasons foreach cause and effect, respectively.
  • 62. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 5IDENTIFYINGAsk students to identify importantactions taken by the First ContinentalCongress and by the Second ContinentalCongress. Students should write theseon their foldables. Then have themorganize themselves into small groupsand explain why they think the twocongresses took these actions.EVALUATINGOn their foldables, have students listat least three reasons why a Patriotmight support independence and threereasons why a Loyalist might supportallegiance to Britain. Suggest that stu-dents single out what they think is themost important reason.Patriots LoyalistsFirstContinentalCongressSecondContinentalCongressStress that students should read any assignedwork before attending class. Lectures and dis-cussions will make more sense, and they willbe able to relate the ideas discussed in class towhat they have read before class. Tell studentsthat taking notes in their own words as theyread the assignment can help sharpen theirattention and concentration.CHAPTER 559
  • 63. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize students into smallgroups, and have them role play thePatriots and Loyalists at differenttimes during the war. Suggest thatthey use their foldable answers tohelp them perform the role play. Asa class, discuss the role play choices.If you have extra time, have the stu-dents switch sides so they can seethings from both perspectives.CHAPTER PREVIEW60The American RevolutionCHAPTER SUMMARYThe American colonies declared their independence in 1776, but nocountry recognized it as an independent nation until after the Revolu-tionary War ended in 1783. The war between the Patriots—Americanswho supported independence, and the Loyalists—those who remainedloyal to Britain, was a people’s movement. The Patriot victory at York-town convinced the British that the war was too costly to pursue. In 1783the Treaty of Paris was signed, marking the end of the revolution. GreatBritain recognized the United States as an independent nation.CHAPTER 6Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper into thirds from topto bottom.Organizing Information Study FoldableWhen you group information into categories on atable, it is easier to compare characteristics ofitems. Make this foldable to help you compare theattitudes and actions of the Patriots and Loyalists.Reading and Writing As you read about theAmerican Revolution, write down facts about theattitudes and actions of the Patriots and Loyalistsat different times during the war.Step 2 Open the paper and refold it into fourthsfrom side to side.Step 3 Unfold, turn the paper, and draw linesalong the folds.Step 4 Label your table as shown.This formsthree rows.Thisforms fourcolumns.Fold it in half,then in halfagain.TheAmericanRevolutionPatriots LoyalistsBeginningMiddleEndTEACHER NOTES
  • 64. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.RevolutionaryWarWho WhatGeorgeWashingtonAbigailAdamsLordCornwallisRevolutionaryWarCause EffectDeclaration ofIndependenceFrench andAmericanAllianceTreaty ofParis61Alternative Activities for Chapter 6CAUSE AND EFFECTHave students make a foldable todetermine the causes and effects of theDeclaration of Independence, theFrench and American Alliance, and theTreaty of Paris. Organize students intopairs so they can compare answers andlearn from each other.CHAPTER 6As students are learning about theRevolutionary War, help them remember thedifferences between the Patriots and theLoyalists by creating a short rhyme or jingleabout each group that includes interesting,identifiable facts. Students may work in pairsor individually. Ask for volunteers to sharetheir rhymes with the class.CATEGORIZINGHave students make a foldable thatlists three people from the chapter. Inone column, students should write whothey were, and in the second column,they should identify several contribu-tions made by each individual. In smallgroups, have students guess who thefamous person is from each student’sdescriptions.
  • 65. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.CHAPTER PREVIEWTEACHER NOTES62A More Perfect UnionCHAPTER SUMMARYThe leaders of the new United States worked to define the powers ofgovernment. The Articles of Confederation, America’s first constitution,provided for a new central government under which the states gave uplittle of their power. A new constitution, however, corrected the weak-nesses of government under the Articles of Confederation. The UnitedStates system of government rests on the Constitution, and also limitsthe power of government.CHAPTER 7CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have completedtheir foldables, organize them intopairs or small groups. Have eachpair or group create a poster usingthe information from the foldables.Suggest that the students draw pic-tures, write captions, create titles,and so on. Have each pair or grouppresent their poster to the class.Allow students to ask each otherquestions about the posters.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper from side to side,leaving a 2-inch tab uncovered along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and cut along the two insidefold lines.Step 4 Label the foldable as shown.Fold it so theleft edge lies2 inches fromthe right edge.Cut along thetwo folds onthe front flap tomake 3 tabs.Compare-Contrast Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to help you compare the Articles ofConfederation to the U.S. Constitution.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write what you learn about these documentsunder the appropriate tabs.A More Perfect UnionArticlesofConfederation BothU.S.Constitution
  • 66. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.StatePowersNationalPowersFederal SystemBothConstitutional ConventionVirginiaPlan BothNewJerseyPlan63Alternative Activities for Chapter 7DECISION MAKINGHave students compare the VirginiaPlan and the New Jersey Plan with aVenn diagram foldable. Remind studentsto write characteristics unique to eachplan in individual circles. Shared charac-teristics should be placed in the center ofthe diagram. Plan a class discussion inwhich students choose which plan theythink is a better one.MAKING COMPARISONSSuggest students use a Venn diagramfoldable to compare state powers andnational powers of the federal system.Have them write shared powers in thecenter. Randomly choose students toshare specific details about state andnational powers, and which level theythink has the most power.CHAPTER 7As students are learning about the Articles ofConfederation and the Constitution, suggest theytake time to read the full text of the Constitutionon pages 232–253 in their textbooks. It is helpfulfor students to see the document in front of themwhen they are learning about it. Remind studentsthat the Constitution has been the fundamentallaw of the United States for more than 200 years.
  • 67. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.A New NationCHAPTER SUMMARYThe new government established by George Washington’s administra-tion struggled to keep peace at home and to avoid war abroad. Someearly challenges included serious financial problems and the WhiskeyRebellion. By the election of 1796, two distinct political parties with dif-ferent views about the role of the national government had formed—theFederalists and the Democratic-Republicans. Federalists promoted astrong federal government and Democratic-Republicans wanted to limitthe federal government’s power.CHAPTER REVIEWCHAPTER 864CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their foldablesto write questions for an interviewwith someone prominent from thechapter. Have them write questionsabout the “firsts” of the new nation.Encourage students to use the infor-mation on their foldables to writethe questions. Then organize theclass into pairs for mock interviews.TEACHER NOTESJournal ofAmericanFirstsStep 1 Fold a sheet of paper from top to bottom.Step 2 Then fold it in half from side to side.Step 3 Label the foldable as shown.Summarizing Study Foldable Make thisfoldable and use it as a journal to help you recordthe major events that occurred as the new nationof the United States formed.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,find the “firsts” experienced by the new nation,and record them in your foldable journal. Forexample, list the precedents set by PresidentWashington and identify the first political parties.
  • 68. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 8ORGANIZINGHave students research the first politi-cal parties and write each party’s viewsinside the first fold of the foldables. Thenhave students open their foldables to afull-size sheet of paper and write theviews of each party leader—AlexanderHamilton and Thomas Jefferson—in sep-arate boxes. Organize the class into twoteams. Have students from one teamread facts from their foldables out loudand have the other team identify thecorrect leader or party.SEQUENCINGHave students identify and write thechallenges of the new nation on theirfoldables. Suggest that students list theearly challenges and the results. Thenhave students draw a time line of theevents and highlight the year the eventsoccurred using a colored marker or pen.A NewNationChallengedPoliticalPartiesAs students read the chapter, have themtake notes about important events, historicaldates, and so on, to create an outline. Explainto them that the purpose of an outline is tocondense a subject by writing the main ideasin a logical order. This makes the material lessoverwhelming.CHAPTER 865
  • 69. The Jefferson EraCHAPTER SUMMARYThe election of Thomas Jefferson as the third president marked thetransfer of power from one political party to another through a demo-cratic election. Jefferson believed that a large federal governmentthreatened liberty so he reduced the size of the army and navy andeliminated certain taxes to decrease the power of federal government.The Louisiana Purchase opened a vast area to exploration and settle-ment. Beginning in 1812, the United States was at war with Britain.The end of this war produced a new spirit of nationalism.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize students into smallgroups to discuss the events of theJefferson Era. Suggest they create atrivia game with the informationfrom their foldables. Have themcreate a scoring system as well.Then have students switch groupsto play their trivia games.CHAPTER PREVIEWTEACHER NOTESCHAPTER 966Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Jefferson’sPoliciesJefferson&CourtsLouisianaPurchaseForeignSeasJ.MadisonWarof181212Fold it so the leftedge lies aboutinch from theright edge.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from sideto side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and cut the top layer only alongboth folds. Then cut each of the three tabs in half.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.This will makesix tabs.Organizing Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to organize information andsequence events about the Jefferson era intoa flowchart.Reading and Writing As you read, select keyfacts about the events of the Jefferson era andwrite them under the tabs of your foldable.
  • 70. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 9DEFININGHave students create a mini vocabu-lary book with key terms and placesfrom the chapter. They may choose termsat random or go section by section. Havethem write the terms and places on theoutside tabs with definitions under thefoldable tabs. Encourage students to usebright markers and pens to make theirmini books more memorable.ORGANIZINGHave students create a mini book ofimportant dates during the JeffersonEra. Tell students to choose dates inchronological order and list them on theoutside of their foldables. Underneaththe tabs, have students list the signifi-cant event that occurred on that date.Ask students at random to share withthe class why they chose the dates andevents they did.180018031804180618071812tributeneutralrightsimpress-mentembargoWarHawksnational-ismAs students read the chapter, have themcreate an information bank at the beginningof each section in their notes. Suggest studentsask themselves questions about what they thinkthey will learn in each section. Then suggestthey go back after class lectures and discussionto fill in what they learned.CHAPTER 967
  • 71. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Growth and ExpansionCHAPTER SUMMARYThe rise of industry and trade in the United States led to an IndustrialRevolution that caused major growth of cities. The huge amount of ter-ritory added to the United States during the early 1800s gave the coun-try a large store of natural resources and provided land for moresettlers. As the nation grew, differences in economic activities andneeds increased sectionalism. The Monroe Doctrine was announced in1823, which opposed colonization and set the groundwork forAmerica’s foreign policy stance.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1068CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityTo help students better under-stand cause and effect, try the fol-lowing activity. In small groups,have one student be the spokesper-son who reads either a cause or aneffect out loud. The other studentsin the group should quickly iden-tify if the statement is a cause or aneffect. Have students take turnsbeing the spokesperson so every-one can share their foldable.TEACHER NOTESExpansion GrowthWest EastExpansion GrowthWest EastStep 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half from topto bottom.Step 2 Fold it in half again, from side to side.Step 3 Unfold the paper once. Sketch an outlineof the United States across both tabs and labelthem as shown.Step 4 Cut up the fold of the top flap only.This cut willmake two tabs.Cause-and-Effect Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to help you analyze the causes and effectsof growth in the East and expansion into the Westof the United States.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,list causes and effects of eastern growth andwestern expansion under the appropriate tabsof your foldable.
  • 72. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 10CAUSE AND EFFECTAsk students to create a foldable witha partner. Have students look throughthe chapter to find causes and effects ofindustrialization. Encourage students todiscuss the benefits of industrialization,and how things are different today.Display the foldables on a bulletinboard.ANALYZINGHave students create foldables aboutthe pros and cons of moving west.Organize the class into two groups.Instruct one half of the class to presentthe pros and the other to present thecons. Then have the two groups debatewhether to move west or not.Pros ConsMoving WestCause EffectIndustrializationAs students read the chapter, remind themthat picture clues can help them rememberinformation. Have students choose themes inthe chapter that can be represented with a pic-ture. Students may want to draw a roughsketch of the pictures as part of their note tak-ing to help them remember key concepts.CHAPTER 1069
  • 73. The Jackson EraCHAPTER SUMMARYAmericans, for the first time, elected a president from the nation’sfrontier—Andrew Jackson. More people were able to take part in poli-tics because of an expansion of suffrage and changes in political prac-tice. The political gains, however, did not extend to women, NativeAmericans, and African Americans. As more white settlers moved intothe Southeast, conflict arose between the Native Americans who livedthere and the United States government. Economic issues affected thepresidencies of Jackson and Van Buren.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students debate whetherthey support or oppose the follow-ing statement: Andrew Jackson’spresidency ushered in a new age inAmerican government and politics.Encourage students to use theinformation compiled in their fold-ables to support their positions.CHAPTER PREVIEWTEACHER NOTESCHAPTER 1170Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.1212Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from side toside, leaving a inch tab along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into fourths.Step 3 Unfold and cut up along the three foldlines.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.Fold in half,then fold inhalf again.Make fourtabs.Evaluating Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you ask and answerquestions about the Jackson era.Reading and Writing As you read, ask yourself“who” Andrew Jackson was, “what” he did, “when”he did it, and “why” it happened. Write yourthoughts and facts under each appropriate tab.Leaveinch tabhere.Who? What? When? Why?
  • 74. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 11IDENTIFYING OPTIONSPoint out that many whites duringthis era coveted the lands of NativeAmericans. Because of this, some stategovernments forcibly removed theNative Americans from those lands.Have students write Cherokee Nation,Seminole People, and Sauk and Fox Peopleon the outside tabs of their foldables.Ask students to write what actionsthese groups took to resist removalunder the appropriate tabs.SEQUENCINGTell students that many importantevents took place during the 1830s and1840s. Have students choose four signif-icant years from the chapter to write onthe outside of their foldables. Then havethem list at least one event and the sig-nificance under each tab. Hold a classdiscussion until all important years arecovered.1832 1837 1840 1844Significant YearsCherokeeNationSeminolePeopleSaukand FoxPeopleNative American RemovalPoint out that political cartoonists use pic-tures to present their opinions about issues.They often use symbols like Uncle Sam to rep-resent something else. Have students analyzethe cartoons in Chapter 11. What symbols areused? What ideas are the cartoonists present-ing? This will help students understand other’sviewpoints.CHAPTER 1171
  • 75. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Manifest DestinyTremendous expansion during the first half of the 1800s left a lastingimprint on the United States. Manifest Destiny is the idea that theUnited States was meant to extend its borders from the Atlantic Oceanto the Pacific Ocean. Americans moved west into Texas, New Mexico,California, and the Oregon country. Texas gained its independencefrom Mexico. Because of American expansion into the SpanishSouthwest, tension between the United States and Mexico began tobuild. Victory in a war with Mexico, along with purchases and treatyagreements, eventually resulted in the United States stretching from theAtlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1272TEACHER NOTESCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their finishedfoldables to answer the followingquestions: Why did Americans set-tle in territories outside the UnitedStates? How did white Americansjustify taking land from NativeAmericans and Mexico? Whatmight have occurred had oppo-nents of Manifest Destiny been inthe White House? After studentshave answered the questions indi-vidually, have them get into smallgroups to discuss their answers.Manifest DestinyOregon CountryTexasNew MexicoCaliforniaUtahStep 1 Collect three sheets of paper and placethem on top of one another about 1 inch apart.Organizing Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to organize information fromthe chapter to help you learn more about howManifest Destiny led to western expansion.Reading and Writing As you read, use yourfoldable to write under each appropriate tabwhat you learn about Manifest Destiny andhow it affected the borders of the United States.Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges of the paperto form 6 tabs.Step 3 When all the tabs are the same size,fold the paper to hold the tabs in place andstaple the sheets together. Turn the paper andlabel each tab as shown.Keep theedges straight.Stapletogether alongthe fold.This makesall tabs thesame size.
  • 76. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 12DESCRIBINGAsk students to scan the chapter toidentify five individuals they wouldlike to know more about. Have them listone person on each tab of their foldable.Using information from the chapter andfrom other sources, students shoulddescribe important events in each per-son’s life. Ask them to share their infor-mation with the rest of the class.CATEGORIZINGHave students label the five tabs oftheir foldables with the following: MexicoGains Independence, Manifest DestinyAttitudes, Polk’s War Plan, Capture ofMexico City, and Peace Treaty. Under eachtab, have students write two quiz ques-tions. For example, under Mexico GainsIndependence, ask: From what country didMexico win its independence? Whathappened to Spain’s mission system?Have volunteers ask their questions tothe other students.War With MexicoMexico GainsIndependenceManifest DestinyAttitudesPolk’s War PlanCapture of Mexico CityPeace TreatyBiographyTo help students understand primary sources,ask them to write a diary entry covering theirtrip to school today. Suggest that they writewhat they saw, whom they encountered, andtheir expectations for the day. Then have stu-dents consider how such diary entries might beof use to historians.CHAPTER 1273
  • 77. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.North and SouthCHAPTER SUMMARYThe North and South developed distinctly different ways of life.The North developed a manufacturing economy that rivaled industrialEurope. Life in the industrial North was hard for many workers asthey toiled long hours for low pay in dangerous factories. Instead ofmanufacturing, the South’s economy was based on agriculture. Wealthyplantation owners ruled over much of Southern society, while poorwhites and enslaved Africans lived hard lives.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1374CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students make posters insmall groups using the informationin their foldables. Students shouldchoose either the North or South,sketch a map, and draw symbols inbright colors that are representativeof each area. For example, theycould draw factories, strike signs,and ships for the North. For theSouth, they could draw cotton,plantation homes, and farms.TEACHER NOTESNorthernSouthernEconomy & PeopleEconomy & PeopleStep 1 Mark the midpoint of the side edge ofa sheet of paper.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold the outsideedges in to touch at the midpoint.Step 3 Turn and label your foldable as shown.Compare-and-Contrast Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you analyze thesimilarities and differences between thedevelopment of the North and the South.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,collect and write information under theappropriate tab that will help you compareand contrast the people and economics of theNorthern and Southern states.Draw a markat the midpoint.
  • 78. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 13COMPARINGTell students to make foldables tocompare the lives of African Americanworkers in a Northern factory andenslaved African Americans in the South.Suggest that students use categories suchas “How were their lives different?” and“How were their lives similar?”EXPLAININGHave students select one technologicaladvance that aided the industrial andmanufacturing boom in the North andone advance that aided the agriculturalboom in the South. Ask students toresearch to find information about howthe technologies were developed andwhat benefits they provided. Theyshould write this information on theirfoldables.NorthSouthBoom in AgricultureBoom in Industry andManufacturingNorthSouthEnslaved African AmericansAfrican American WorkersPoint out that the first word in a questionsignals the task that is required to successfullyanswer it. Words such as “List” or “Identify”emphasize information collection. Other wordscall for description like “Describe” or “Explain.”Still others ask students to compare and con-trast. Ask students to look through the ques-tions in Chapter 13 and discuss the kinds ofresponses required.CHAPTER 1375
  • 79. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.The Age of ReformCHAPTER SUMMARYIn the early 1800s, many religious and social reformers attempted toimprove American life and education and help people with disabilities.The Second Great Awakening, a new religious movement, inspired peopleto become involved in missionary work and social reform movements.Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass workedto end slavery. Suffragists struggled for equal rights for women. Whilereligious and social reformers fought to change society, writers and paintersexplored the relationship between humans and nature.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1476CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables, ask them to choose atype of reform from the chapterthat interests them and research tofind the most current informationabout it. For example, what are thebasic principles of public educationtoday? Are children required toattend school? Students shouldcombine all of their research onto aposter board to show the “Then v.Now” aspect of their reform.TEACHER NOTESWomen’sRightsWomeRightsAntislaveryMovementSocialReformSocialReformStep 1 Fold the paper from the top right cornerdown so the edges line up. Cut off the leftoverpiece.Identifying Main Ideas Study FoldableMake and use this foldable to identify anddescribe major topics about the Age of Reform.Reading and Writing As you read, write whatyou learn about social reform, the antislaverymovement, and the women’s rights movementunder each appropriate pyramid wall.Step 2 Fold the triangle in half. Unfold.Step 3 Cut up one fold and stop at the middle.Draw an X on one tab and label the other threeas shown.Step 4 Fold the X flap under the other flap andglue together.Fold a triangle.Cut off the extraedge.This makes athree-sidedpyramid.The foldswill form an Xdividing fourequal sections.
  • 80. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 14IDENTIFYINGTell students to select and research ahistorical figure mentioned in Chapter14. Have them write Who, What, andWhen on each side of their pyramidfoldables, and ask them to fill in theinformation that they have learned inthe respective spaces on the foldable.Have students share their work witha partner.DESCRIBINGHave students choose three peoplefrom the chapter to write on each sideof their pyramid foldables. Under eachname, or inside the foldable, they shouldwrite the contributions of each. Ask forvolunteers to share their foldables withthe rest of the class so the importantpeople in the chapter are discussed.HoraceMannLucretiaMottFrederickDouglassWhoSojournerTruthWhatWhenAs students read about the reforms of theearly nineteenth century, remind them thatreform occurs when there are problems insociety. Help students create a Problem-SolutionChart with problems from the chapter in onecolumn and the reform established to helpsolve that problem in the opposite column.They will then have a better understanding ofwhy change is often necessary.CHAPTER 1477
  • 81. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Road to Civil WarCHAPTER SUMMARYAs new states entered the Union, the question of whether to admit themas free states or slave states arose. As Northerners and Southerners grewfarther apart, differences could not be solved by compromise. Eager toencourage settlement of the West and to satisfy both the North and theSouth, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed settlersin each of these two territories to vote on whether to allow slavery.Lincoln’s election as president was followed by Southern states leavingthe Union. Soon after, the Civil War began.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1578CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables, have them create a 10-question quiz using the informationon their foldables. Ask students totrade quizzes with a classmate.Have them share questions theythought were difficult, and writethem on the board for discussion.Offer bonus points to volunteerswho would like to research thechallenging questions and reportback to the class.TEACHER NOTESSlavery &the WestActs of1850 &1854Dred Scott& Lincoln/DouglasDebates1860ElectionThe Road to Civil War1212Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from side toside, leaving a inch tab along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into fourths.Step 3 Unfold and cut up along the three foldlines.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.Fold in half,then fold inhalf again.Make fourtabs.Sequencing Events Study Foldable Make anduse this foldable to sequence some of the keyevents that led to the Civil War.Reading and Writing As you read, write factsabout the events under each appropriate tab ofyour foldable. How did these events lead to theCivil War?Leaveinch tabhere.
  • 82. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 15ANALYZINGHave students create foldables to helpthem understand several events thatoccurred in the 1850s and how the eventsmay have affected each other. They couldchoose events from the chapter or labeltheir foldables as shown. Have them listfacts under the appropriate tab. Discussas a class how certain events led to thenation dividing.SUMMARIZINGHave students write the followingevents on the outside of their foldables:Republican Party formed; James Buchananelected; Dred Scott decision, and JohnBrown/Harper’s Ferry. On the inside oftheir foldables, tell students to summa-rize how these events challenged slavery.Have them note the final outcome alongthe inside bottom of their foldables.1854RepublicanPartyformed1856JamesBuchananelected1857DredScottdecision1859JohnBrown/Harper’sFerryChallenges to Slavery1850FugitiveSlaveAct1852UncleTom’sCabinpublished1854Kansas-NebraskaAct1856“BleedingKansas”A Nation DividingAs students are learning about the tensionsthat divided the Union, it is important for themto be able to identify the events that led to theSouth’s secession. Students should be able toanalyze information by identifying cause-and-effect relationships. Help students identify vari-ous causes discussed in the chapter, and thenhave them list the effects.CHAPTER 1579
  • 83. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.The Civil WarCHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1680CHAPTER SUMMARYSeveral Southern states formed the Confederacy when they secededfrom the Union. Both the North and the South had strengths and weak-nesses that helped determine their military strategies in the Civil War.Neither side gained a strong advantage during the early years of the war.The Union troops failed to take Richmond, which was the Confederatecapital at the time. In 1863, however, the North began to win key battlessuch as Gettysburg and Vicksburg. In April 1865, Lee surrendered toGrant to end the Civil War, giving the victory to the Union.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave each student find a partner.Working together with their com-pleted foldables, have each set ofpartners create an illustrated timeline of the events that occurredbefore, during, and after the CivilWar. Encourage students to becreative by using different kindsof paper, colored markers or pencils,and pictures to illustrate importantevents.TEACHER NOTESBeforethe WarDuringthe WarAfterthe WarThe Civil War12Fold it so the leftedge lies aboutinch from theright edge.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from sideto side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and cut the top layer only alongboth folds.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.This will makethree tabs.Organizing Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you organize what youlearn about the Civil War.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,list events that occurred before, during, and afterthe Civil War under the appropriate tabs of yourfoldable.
  • 84. Alternative Activities for Chapter 16EXPLAININGHave students label their foldableswith the following leaders: Robert E. Lee,William Sherman, and Ulysses Grant. Asthey read the chapter, they should noteroles, contributions, and successes of theleaders and write these under theappropriate tab. Discuss the leaders as aclass, and ask students who they foundmost interesting.ORGANIZINGHave students select three Civil Warbattles to research and write the informa-tion they find on their foldables. Advisestudents to include dates and locations ofeach battle, the military leaders involved,the significance of the battle, the out-come, and so on. Organize the class intogroups of four or five, and have the stu-dents in each group take turns readingdetails about a battle out loud until theother students in the group are able toguess which battle is being described.First Battleof Bull Run(Manassas)Antietam VicksburgThree Civil War BattlesRobertE. LeeWilliamShermanUlyssesGrantLeaders of the Civil WarTo remember Civil War battles and dates,students could create flashcards which serveas a quick reference and study guide. Havestudents create interesting cards with minimaps or sketches, and then have them use thecards in groups to study for the chapter test.CHAPTER 1681Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 85. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Reconstruction and Its AftermathCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their com-pleted foldables to write out a listof 10 similarities and differencesconcerning Reconstruction in theNorth and the South. Ask them toleave out a key term or phrase, andthen trade their list with anotherclassmate to complete. Have themreturn the lists to the authors forgrading.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1782CHAPTER SUMMARYAfter the Civil War, Americans attempted to reunite the shatterednation. Differences over how Reconstruction should be carried outdivided the government. By the end of 1865, all the former Confederatestates had formed new governments and were ready to rejoin the Union.The South worked to rebuild not only its farms and roads, but also itssocial and political structures. Democrats steadily regained control ofSouthern governments as support for Radical Reconstruction policiesdecreased.Step 1 Mark the midpoint of the side edge ofa sheet of paper.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold the edges in totouch at the midpoint.Step 3 Turn and label your foldable as shown.Comparison Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to help you compare and contrastReconstruction in the Northern and Southern states.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write facts that show how Reconstruction differedand was the same in the Northern states andSouthern states. Write the facts in the appropriateplaces inside your foldable.Draw a markat the midpoint.NorthReconstructionSouthTEACHER NOTES
  • 86. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 17EVALUATINGUsing the same foldable design, havestudents explore Abraham Lincoln’splan for Reconstruction known as theTen Percent Plan, and the plan passed byCongress, the Wade-Davis Bill. Studentsshould write information regarding eachplan under the appropriate tabs on theirfoldables. Have students write a para-graph comparing and contrasting thetwo plans for Reconstruction, and thenask students which they feel was thebetter plan.Four-teenthAmend-mentFifth-teenthAmend-mentReconstru ctionPlansTenPercentPlanWadeDavisBill-CHAPTER 1783COMPARINGHave students compare and contrast theFourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.Suggest that students draw a Venndiagram on the inside of their foldables,listing the individual elements of eachamendment under the appropriate tab,with the common elements of eachamendment listed in the middle of thediagram. Ask students to consider theamendments’ positive aspects, as well ashow they fell short of ensuring equalityfor all American citizens.Encourage students to spend some timebecoming familiar with using library resources.Students should explore these various types ofreference books: encyclopedias, biographicaldictionaries, atlases, and almanacs. Studentsmay use card catalogs, periodical guides,and/or computer databases to help them findthe information they need.
  • 87. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESThe Western FrontierCHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1884CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables, ask them to choose one ofthe four groups and write severaljournal entries that describe emo-tions they may have felt or eventsthey may have experienced duringwestern expansion. Students’ jour-nals should include positive andnegative aspects of their group’sexperience. Have students exchangetheir journals with a partner.CHAPTER SUMMARYDiscoveries of gold and silver drew thousands of fortune seekers tothe West. Boomtowns sprang up near popular mining sites, but quicklybecame ghost towns when miners moved on to other areas or returnedhome. Once transcontinental rail lines were completed, more settlersmoved west, and raw materials and manufactured goods were exchangedbetween the two coasts. The government moved Native Americans toreservations, which resulted in conflict. Farmers began to band togetherinto groups and associations to fight their problems.on the Western Frontier1212Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from side toside, leaving a inch tab along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into fourths.Step 3 Unfold and cut up along the three foldlines.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.Fold in half,then fold inhalf again.Make fourtabs.Evaluating Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to organize information andask yourself questions as you read about thewestern frontier of the United States.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,ask yourself and write down questions (under eachappropriate tab) about the tragedies and triumphsthese four groups of people experienced duringthe expansion of the western frontier.Leaveinch tabhere.Miners Ranchers Farmers NativeAmericans
  • 88. Alternative Activities for Chapter 18SUMMARIZINGUsing the same foldable design, havestudents select four presidents that heldoffice during western expansion. Forexample, they might write Buchanan,Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and Grant onthe outside tabs of their foldables. Askstudents to research the presidents’backgrounds and list contributions dur-ing the time period.IDENTIFYINGThe purpose of this foldable is forstudents to think about the problemsfarmers experienced during the mid- tolate-1800s and and how they tried tosolve them. Encourage students to usetheir textbooks and do further research iftime permits. Students should write vari-ous solutions under the tabs. Examples ofsolutions include: organize cooperativesand alliances, support Populist Party can-didates, support free silver, and so on.Farmers’ ProblemsSolu tionsFour PresidentsBuchanan1857 1861 1865 1869Lincoln A.Johnson GrantAs students read the chapter, suggest theycreate an outline for each section. Have studentswrite a main idea for each section and list thesupporting details for that idea underneath it.This will help the students visualize the mainideas of the chapter and manage all of theevents surrounding them.CHAPTER 1885Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 89. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESThe Growth of IndustryCHAPTER SUMMARYA growing transportation network spread people, products, andinformation across the nation. Inventions improved the transportationand communication networks that were vital to the nation’s industrialand economic growth. Business growth was driven by the formation ofcorporations and the ambition of their owners. Railroads were the firstbusinesses to form corporations. Industrial workers labored long hoursfor low pay and soon organized into labor unions to demand better payand working conditions.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 1986CHAPTER REVIEWFoldable Follow-Up ActivityOnce students have created theirfoldables about the developments ofindustry, organize them into smallgroups. Have them design a mus-eum exhibit that shows the historyand beginnings of one of the indus-tries. They should sketch out theplan and write a group descriptionof the exhibit. Ask them to sharetheir ideas with the class.Inventions1"Step 1 Fold two sheets of paper in half from topto bottom. Cut the papers in half along the folds.Identifying Main Ideas Study Foldable Makethis foldable to describe the growth of industryin the United States in the late 1800s.Reading and Writing As you read, write whatyou learn about the developments of industryunder each appropriate tab.Step 2 Fold each of the four papers in half fromtop to bottom.Step 3 On each folded paper, make a cut1 inch from the side on the top flap.Step 4 Place the folded papers one on top of theother. Staple the four sections together and labeleach of the tabs Railroads, Inventions, BigBusiness, and Industrial Workers.Cut alongthe foldlines.Staple here.Cut 1 inch fromthe edge throughthe top flap only.Railroads
  • 90. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 19IDENTIFYINGHave students select four Key Termsfrom the chapter and write these on thetabs. Students should define each termunder the appropriate tab and write asentence using the term correctly. Havethem select four more terms and repeatthe process.DESCRIBINGHave students select four inventions,such as the telegraph, telephone, auto-mobile, electric lightbulb, and so on,and research their history. They shouldlabel the tabs of their foldables with thename of each invention, and write whatthey learn about each under the appro-priate tabs. Students could include thename of the inventor, the date of inven-tion, common uses of the invention, andprices of the products today.AutomobileTelegraphSecondConsolidationRemind students that sections in a chapter areoften related. For example, in this chapter, rail-roads, inventions, big business, and industrialworkers affected one another. Ask students toexpound on this, and refer back to other chap-ters if you have extra time.CHAPTER 1987
  • 91. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Toward an Urban AmericaCHAPTER SUMMARYBetween 1860 and 1910, the urban population of the nation grew froma little over 6 million people to more than 40 million. Americans movedin huge numbers from farming areas to cities, looking for jobs. Thenumber of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe also increas-ed dramatically. The rapid growth of cities produced serious problems,such as overcrowding, crime, and public health dangers. Urban growthled to developments as well, like skyscrapers and new kinds of publictransportation.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 208812Fold it so the leftedge lies aboutinch from theright edge.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half fromside to side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and cut the top layer only alongboth folds.Step 4 Label as shown.This will makethree tabs.Sequencing Events Study Foldable Analyze andsequence key influences that led to the urbaniza-tion of the United States by making this foldable.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write information about these influences underthe appropriate tabs. Think about how theseinfluences followed and affected one another.The NewImmigrantsMovingto theCityA ChangingCultureCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their com-pleted foldables to write three briefparagraphs describing how newimmigrants, people moving intocities, and the mix of different cul-tures led to the urbanization of theUnited States. Suggest they use theInternet or magazines to do furtherresearch. After they write the para-graphs, have them use transitionalwords to combine the paragraphsinto an essay about urbanization.TEACHER NOTES
  • 92. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 20CAUSE AND EFFECTHave students use the same foldabledesign to study immigration and itsimpact on American society, past andpresent, more closely. Using their text-books and other sources, students shoulddescribe how immigration affected theUnited States and the people involvedfor the time periods before 1865, after1865, and today. Discuss the contribu-tions that immigrants have made toAmerican society.ORGANIZINGHave students organize what they learnabout art, music, and leisure-time activi-ties at the beginning of the twentiethcentury under the appropriate tabs oftheir foldables. Ask students to choosean artist, musician, or a leisure-timeactivity from this time period on whichto do further research. Ask students toprepare a brief presentation with theinformation that they find.The Beginning of the 20th CenturyArt Music LeisureImmigrationBefore1865After1865 TodayRemind students that it is important to thinkbefore writing an essay. Brainstorming in groupscan be especially helpful to produce ideas or top-ics. Make sure students understand what is beingasked of them and to ask questions if they areconfused. If students are not under a time con-straint, encourage them to write several draftsbefore writing the final essay.CHAPTER 2089
  • 93. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESProgressive ReformsCHAPTER SUMMARYThe spirit of reform gained strength in the late 1800s and thrived dur-ing the early 1900s. The reformers, called progressives, were confidentin their ability to improve government and the quality of life. Journalistscalled muckrakers aided the reformers by exposing injustices and cor-ruption. Also during this time period, women worked for the right tovote, for improved working conditions, and for temperance. Presidentsduring the Progressive Era worked to control big business and to dealwith labor problems.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 21901212Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from side toside, leaving a inch tab along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold into fourths.Step 3 Unfold and cut up along the three foldlines.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.Fold in half,then fold inhalf again.Make fourtabs.Analyzing Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you analyzeinformation about the Progressive movement.Reading and Writing As you read, find andwrite answers to the four questions under theappropriate tab of your foldable.Leaveinch tabhere.WHATwas theProgressivemovement?HOW didit changethe rolesof women?WHOwere theProgressivepresidents?WHY weresome groupsexcludedfromreform?CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityAsk students to work in groupsto write stories for a newspaper.Using their completed foldables,each group should choose one ofthe questions on the foldable andwrite a brief news story respondingto that question. Once the storiesare written, groups should combinethe stories to create the front pageof a newspaper.
  • 94. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 21DESCRIBINGHave students create a foldable aboutthe Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth,and Nineteenth Amendments to theConstitution. Advise students to writeimportant information regarding eachamendment under the appropriate tabsof their foldables, including the reasonfor the amendment, the date the amend-ment was passed, and the effects of theamendment on society. Ask students toconsider how these amendments affectthe lives of American people today.EXPLAININGHave students create a foldable toresearch a reform leader of the Progres-sive Era. Suggest they use informationfrom their textbooks or the Internet toanswer, “Who?,” “What?,” “When?,”and “Where?” under the appropriatetabs of their foldables. Ask for volun-teers to share with the class what theyfeel was the person’s most importantcontribution to society.Who? What? When? Where?Booker T. WashingtonSixteenthSeventeenthEighteenthNineteenthAmendmentsRemind students that their foldables through-out the course can be used as preview andreview tools. Encourage them to review theinformation they have learned from their fold-ables to study for chapter tests. Reviewing keyinformation will help them remember the mostimportant facts from the text and increaseretention.CHAPTER 2191
  • 95. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Overseas ExpansionCHAPTER SUMMARYForeign policy in the early 1900s had been dominated by two ideas.The first was President Washington’s isolationist warning against enter-ing into “entangling alliances.” The second was President Monroe’swarning to Europe against interference in the Americas. War with Spain,however, resulted in a more aggressive foreign policy and the acquisitionof overseas colonies. After the Spanish-American War, the United Statesattempted to extend its political and economic influence in Latin Amer-ica. Suddenly the United States had become a major world power.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 2292TEACHER NOTESCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivitySelect six students and organizethem into two groups. Ask onegroup to take the view that over-seas expansion is in the best inter-ests of the nation. Have the othergroup take the opposite viewpoint.Both groups should use their fold-ables to prepare arguments sup-porting their views. Have the classlisten to each side and ask ques-tions. Then ask the class to vote“yes” or “no” for expansion basedon the most convincing arguments.PROS ofOverseasExpansionCONS ofOverseasExpansionStep 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half from topto bottom.Step 2 Fold it in half again, from side to side.Step 3 Unfold the paper once. Cut up the foldof the top flap only.Step 4 Label the foldable as shown.This cut willmake two tabs.Drawing Conclusions Study FoldableInvestigate the pros, or positive outcomes, and thecons, or negative outcomes, of overseas expansionby making this foldable.Reading and Writing As you read, write whatyou learn about the positive and negative effectsof United States overseas expansion under theappropriate tabs of your foldable.
  • 96. Alternative Activities for Chapter 22SEQUENCINGAlaska became a territory in 1867, andHawaii became one in 1900. Ask stu-dents to use this foldable to explain thechain of events by which each became apart of the United States. They shouldwrite these under the appropriate tabsof their foldables. Stress that studentsshould explain whether political rea-sons, economic reasons, or both, led theUnited States to obtain these territories.COMPARINGAsk students to compare ocean trans-portation before and after the building ofthe Panama Canal under the Before andAfter tabs of their foldables. Have stu-dents describe the water route from SanFrancisco to New York City before thecanal was completed and the route afterit was completed. Have students locatethe Panama Canal on a map or globe.AfterPanama CanalTransp ortationBefore1867Alaskabecomesaterritory1900HawaiibecomesaterritoryAlaska and HawaiiWhile taking tests, advise your students toanswer the easier questions first, and thenwork on the harder questions. This way theywill gain some confidence when they focus onthe more difficult questions. They will also notfinish a test with unanswered questions forwhich they knew the answers.CHAPTER 2293Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 97. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESWorld War ICHAPTER SUMMARYWhen Europe went to war in 1914, the United States tried to stay outof the conflict. Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare andeconomic ties to Great Britain, however, led the United States into theconflict on the side of the Allies. During World War I, the American peo-ple readily cooperated with the government in support of the war effort.The entry of the United States into the conflict helped the Allies win. Theend of the war brought changes to many parts of the world and anattempt to establish world peace.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 2394CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their foldablesto answer the following questions:What time span is covered? How farapart is each interval? Then havevolunteers read their entries for oneof the years. Ask: Why is this eventsignificant? Did this event prolongthe conflict or shorten it? Did thisevent lead to, or cause, anotherevent? Finish by asking students:Is there one event that marked themost critical turning point of WorldWar I? If so, what was it?1914 1915 1917 1919 War1916 1918 Post-Step 1 Fold two sheets of paper in half from topto bottom.Time Line Study Foldable Time lines are usedto list important dates in chronological order. Usethis foldable to sequence key events of World War I.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,record key events that occurred during each yearof World War I.Step 2 Turn the papers and cut each in half.Step 3 Fold the four pieces in half from topto bottom.Step 4 Tape the ends of the pieces together(overlapping the edges very slightly) to make anaccordion time line and label it as shown.Cut alongfold lines.Piecesof tape
  • 98. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 23COMPARINGHave students use their textbooksand other sources to find informationabout how people viewed the role ofthe United States in world affairs beforeand after World War I. Students shouldwrite this information on the appropri-ate section of their foldables. As a class,discuss why these attitudes might havechanged as a result of the war.ANALYZINGHave students use their textbooks andthe Internet to find information aboutthe status of the war in Europe whenthe United States was neutral and howthe war changed when the UnitedStates entered on the side of the Allies.Ask students to summarize the contri-butions the United States made to thewar effort in two or three paragraphs.U.S. Is NeutralJoinsAlliesU.S.World WarIWorldWarIAfterStudents with decoding problems may skipunfamiliar words. Often, however, they cancomprehend words based on the context. Whenassigning a reading, ask students to write unfa-miliar words in their notebooks. Then encour-age students to guess the meaning based on thecontent. If they are still unsure, have them lookup the words in the Glossary or a dictionary.CHAPTER 2395
  • 99. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESThe Jazz AgeCHAPTER SUMMARYThe decade that followed World War I was a time of social andpolitical change. Conflicts came to the surface, especially among work-ers and different races. The internationalism of Woodrow Wilson wasreversed under the Republican administrations of Harding, Coolidge,and Hoover. The 1920s saw striking changes in American society. Radioand film became immensely popular. Prosperity provided more leisuretime and more spending money and the availability of credit allowedpeople to buy more items than they could afford.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 2496CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityAssign students in pairs orgroups to create a crossword puz-zle using the terms on their fold-ables. Students should use theterms’ definitions as the crosswordclues. After the students make theirpuzzles, tell them that their fin-ished crossword puzzles will becopied and given to their class-mates to complete. Ask each groupto provide an answer key for theirown crossword puzzle.Step 1 Fold a sheet of notebook paper in halffrom side to side.Step 2 On one side, cut along every third line.Step 3 Label your foldable as you read thechapter. The first vocabulary term is labeled in themodel below.Tabs will formas you cut.Usually forms10 tabs.Explaining Vocabulary Study FoldableTo fully understand what you read you must beable to identify and explain key vocabulary terms.Use this foldable to identify, define, and useimportant terms in Chapter 24.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write key vocabulary terms on the front tabs ofyour foldable. Then write the definition of eachterm under the tab and write a sentence usingeach term correctly.Capitalism
  • 100. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 24DESCRIBINGOrganize students into groups andassign each group one of the followingtopics: Red Scare, Booming Economy,Automobile Age, Aviation, Labor Unrest,Harlem Renaissance, Prohibition, and theScopes Trial. Ask each of the groups tocreate this foldable and then list on theirfoldable ten interesting facts about theassigned topic. Have each group presenttheir list to the class.ORGANIZINGAssign students to select ten individ-uals from Chapter 24 and list thesenames on the tabs of their foldables.Students should write a short descrip-tion with important facts about thatindividual’s life under the appropriatetab. Then ask students to select one per-son they listed, research more about hisor her life, and then write a short essayabout the person.TheAutomobileAgeFacts:Will RogersHenry FordBabe RuthExplain to students that if an essay’s introduc-tion does not address the essay’s main idea, thereader might become confused. The main ideashould be stated clearly, and the sentences thatfollow should contain evidence to support it.CHAPTER 2497
  • 101. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.The Depression and FDRCHAPTER SUMMARYThe stock market crash in 1929 began a worldwide business and eco-nomic slump known as the Great Depression. Millions of Americans losttheir jobs and poverty was widespread. President Franklin Roosevelt triedto help boost the economy and relieve the suffering through a comprehen-sive set of social and economic programs called the New Deal. New Deallegislation affected banking, the stock market, industry, agriculture, andwelfare. Despite periods of economic upturn and Roosevelt’s launching ofthe Second New Deal, the Depression continued.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize the class into pairs.Assign each pair a cause or aneffect, and have them stand in ran-dom locations around the room.Have the “cause” pairs find thematching “effect” pairs and standtogether. Remind students thatcauses often have multiple effects.Have each group of students relatetheir causes and effects.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 2598TEACHER NOTESStep 1 Fold a sheet of paper into thirds from topto bottom.Cause-Effect Study Foldable Make this foldableto help you organize what you learn about theGreat Depression and the New Deal.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,use your foldable to record the causes and effectsof the Great Depression and the New Deal.Step 2 Open the paper and refold it into thirdsfrom side to side.Step 3 Unfold the paper and draw lines alongthe folds.Step 4 Label your table foldable as shown.This formsthree rows.Thisforms threecolumns.Fold itinto thirds.EVENT CAUSES EFFECTSGreatDepressionNewDeal
  • 102. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 25DRAWING CONCLUSIONSInstruct students to fill in their fold-ables with actions taken by PresidentHoover and President Roosevelt in thefirst column, and the ensuing results inthe second column. Have students readChapter 25 to find different social andeconomic programs employed by thetwo presidents and whether or not theprograms were effective. As a class,discuss how presidents lead in differentways.DESCRIBINGHave students refer to Section 3 ofChapter 25 to consider how the GreatDepression impacted the lives of womenand minorities. Have them make a fold-able describing this change by explaininghow women and minorities lived beforeand during the Depression. Organize theclass into small groups to discuss in moredetail how the change might haveimpacted individual families.LIFEBefore theDepressionDuring theDepressionForWomenForMinoritiesGREATDEPRESSION Actions ResultsHooverRooseveltAs students read the chapter, explain to themthat they might be able to learn more aboutthe Great Depression by talking to relatives orneighbors who lived during the 1930s. Tell stu-dents that learning history from Americanswho experienced it firsthand can provide themwith a deeper understanding of the historicalevents.CHAPTER 2599
  • 103. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.World War IICHAPTER SUMMARYWorld War II was the most destructive war in history and resulted inthe deaths of more than 40 million people. Despite early attempts tofollow a policy of neutrality, the United States was drawn into theglobal conflict. Many nations were drawn into the war, largely becauseof political alliances and economic relationships. Americans at homewere affected in profound ways. Demand for war goods created newindustries and new jobs. At the end of the war, the United Statesemerged as the strongest nation in the world.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize the class into five groups.Assign each group one section ofthe foldable, such as “Road to War”or “War Begins.” Have each groupmake a poster illustrating that partof the war. Suggest to students thatthey draw maps, symbols, andaction scenes. Display the postersin the classroom in the correctsequential order.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 26100TEACHER NOTESWorld War IIRoad to WarWar BeginsOn the Home FrontWarinEuropeandAfricaWar in the PacificStep 1 Collect 3 sheets of paper and placethem about 1 inch apart.Sequencing Events Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to describe and sequence the events ofWorld War II.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,identify, sequence, and briefly describe the keyevents that belong under each heading on yourfoldable. Write information under each tab.Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges of the paperto form 6 tabs.Step 3 When all the tabs are the same size,fold the paper to hold the tabs in place andstaple the sheets together. Turn the paper andlabel each tab as shown.Keep theedges straight.Stapletogether alongthe fold.This makesall tabs thesame size.
  • 104. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternatives Activities for Chapter 26SUMMARIZINGHave students make foldables todescribe the rise of dictatorships. Underthe appropriate tabs, instruct studentsto summarize how each of the followingcountries became a dictatorship: Italy,Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union.Suggest that students consider eco-nomic and political factors in eachcountry that contributed to the dictator-ship. As a class, discuss various waysthe four countries were similar.ANALYZINGAsk students to create a foldable thatrelates how three historic days: D-Day,V-E Day, and V-J Day were important.Direct them to describe the events ofthe day and how the day was signifi-cant. As a class, discuss the sequenceof events that led to each importantoccurrence.Three Historic DaysD Day-V-E DayV-J DayRise of DictatorshipsItalyGermanyJapanSoviet UnionAs students are studying World War II,remind them that maps are useful tools tohelp them visualize where events occurred.Maps display different types of information.They may show locations of battles, troopmovements, neutral nations, and so on. Havestudents skim Chapter 26 to describe the differ-ent kinds of maps.CHAPTER 26101
  • 105. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.The Cold War EraCHAPTER SUMMARYAfter World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union enteredinto a bitter rivalry known as the Cold War. Each side tried to provethat its system—democracy or communism—was better. The UnitedStates struggled to prevent the spread of communism. Americansunder the United Nations flag fought to stop a Communist takeoverof the Korean peninsula in the Korean War. The Cold War intensifiedAmericans’ fears of communism at home, and few Americans weresafe from accusations of disloyalty.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityDivide the class into small groups.Have each group use their foldablesto compare the differences of livingin a democracy versus that of acommunist country. Tell the groupsto consider such things as the qual-ity of daily life and personal free-doms. Have the groups write aparagraph describing life in eachtype of government.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 27102TEACHER NOTESStep 1 Fold a sheet of paper from side to side,leaving a 2-inch tab uncovered along the side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it in half.Step 3 Unfold and cut along the inside fold line.Step 4 Label the foldable as shown.Fold it so theleft edge lies2 inches fromthe right edge.Cut along thefold on the frontflap to make2 tabs.Compare-Contrast Study Foldable Organizeand compare information about the rivalry thatshaped the Cold War era by making and usingthis foldable.Reading and Writing As you read about thisperiod of time, write what you learn about de-mocracy and communism under the tabs of yourfoldable. Compare the two sides and use whatyou learn to explain how the Cold War started.The Cold WarDemocracy Communism
  • 106. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 27COMPARINGHave students compare Korea beforeand after June 1950. They should writedescriptions of what the country waslike during the specific time periodsunder the appropriate tabs of their fold-able. As a class, discuss how Korea wasa battleground in the Cold War.CAUSE AND EFFECTInstruct students to refer to Section 4to find the causes and effects of theCold War. After students have com-pleted their foldables, organize theminto pairs. Have students quiz eachother on how the Cold War started andhow it impacted the United States.Cold WarCauses EffectsKoreaBeforeJune 1950AfterJune 1950To improve reading retention, have studentsquestion themselves on material immediatelyafter they read it. Every time students reach anew subject head, have them ask themselveswhat they learned in the previous subsection.This will ensure that they link the whole sec-tion together and read more carefully.CHAPTER 27103
  • 107. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESAmerica in the 1950sCHAPTER SUMMARYPresident Dwight Eisenhower ushered in one of the most prosperousperiods in American history. Economic growth resulted in increasedemployment and higher wages throughout the 1950s. This prosperity,however, was not shared by the rural and urban poor. The baby boomin the 1950s increased population drastically, and suburbs sprang up onthe fringes of major cities. The United States-Soviet Union rivalry keptthe Cold War at the center of American foreign policy and resulted in anuclear arms race.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 28104KNOW: WANT TOKNOW:LEARNED:Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper into thirds fromtop to bottom.Step 2 Turn the paper horizontally, unfold,and label the three columns as shown.Know-What-Learn Study Foldable Make thisfoldable to determine what you already know, toidentify what you want to know, and to recordwhat you learn about America in the 1950s.Reading and Writing Before you read thechapter, write what you already know about the1950s in the “Know” column. Write what youwant to know about the 1950s in the “Want toKnow” column. Then, as you read the chapter,write what you learn in the “Learned” column.Then check to see if you have learned what youwanted to know (from the second column).CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityForm groups of four to six stu-dents. Have students participate ina read-aloud of their foldables. Tellthem to discuss each of the threesections in their group for about10 minutes. After the discussions,ask students if there were commonideas about what they alreadyknew or wanted to learn in theirgroups. List these ideas on theboard and discuss them.
  • 108. Alternative Activities for Chapter 28DETERMINING CAUSEAND EFFECTHave students write the following ontheir foldables: Domestic Policy, ForeignPolicy and Cold War. As students readthe chapter, have them identify threedomestic and foreign policy issues. Inthe third column have students describehow each of these issues was a directresult of the Cold War. Have studentsshare their answers with the class.CATEGORIZINGHave students make a foldable aboutrural, suburban, and urban life in the1950s. Using what they may alreadyknow and information from the text,have them write what life was like underthe appropriate lifestyle heading on theirfoldables. Then organize students intosmall groups to discuss the similaritiesand differences.RuralLifeSuburbanLifeUrbanLifeDomesticPolicyForeignPolicyColdWarAs students are learning the chapter, havethem write important facts on index cards:vocabulary words, dates, important people,and so on. Remind students to review theircards throughout the study of the chapter.Students may want to quiz each other usingtheir index cards before taking the chapter test.CHAPTER 28105Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 109. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.The Civil Rights EraCHAPTER SUMMARYThe campaign for equality grew and gained momentum in the 1960s.Presidents Kennedy and Johnson proposed increased spending onsocial programs. They both established government programs to fightpoverty, help cities and schools, and promote civil rights. Soon newleaders emerged as growing numbers of African Americans becamedissatisfied with the slow progress of civil rights. In the 1960s and1970s, women, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and disabledAmericans entered the struggle for equal rights.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 29106The Civil Rights EraWomen’s RightsHispanic AmericansNative AmericansAmericans With DisabilitiesAfrican AmericansStep 1 Collect 3 sheets of paper and placethem about 1 inch apart.Identifying Main Ideas Study FoldableMake and use this foldable to identify the majorissues about the Civil Rights era and to classifyinformation under those topics.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write (under each appropriate tab) what you learnabout the struggle for civil rights by differentgroups of Americans.Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges of the paperto form 6 tabs.Step 3 When all the tabs are the same size,fold the paper to hold the tabs in place andstaple the sheets together. Turn the paper andlabel each tab as shown.Keep theedges straight.Stapletogether alongthe fold.This makesall tabs thesame size.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize students into smallgroups. Have each group create abillboard that shows support forequal rights for one of the groupslisted on the students’ foldables.Groups should design the billboardon poster board and can use col-ored markers and pictures frommagazines to create visual interest.Display completed posters aroundthe classroom.TEACHER NOTES
  • 110. Alternative Activities for Chapter 29DESCRIBINGHave students choose three peoplewho influenced the civil rights move-ment such as Rosa Parks, Martin LutherKing, Jr., and Malcolm X. Then havestudents write the three names on theirfoldables with relevant informationabout the contributions of each personon the back of each appropriate tab.Ask for volunteers to share their infor-mation with the class.SEQUENCINGHave students create a foldable aboutthe civil and equal rights movements.Students should label three tabs Before,During, and After. Then they shouldreview the chapter and describe what lifewas like at the specified time period dur-ing these movements. Have students dis-cuss how and what events contributed tothe changes that occurred.Civil Rights andEqual Rights MovementsBeforeDuringAfterPeople of theCivil Rights MovementRosa ParksMartin Luther King, Jr.Malcolm XRemind students to practice good studyhabits. Encourage them to study difficult topicsfirst when they are fresh, choose a place tostudy where distractions are minimal, andavoid lengthy study sessions where exhaustionimpedes learning. They should also take breaksfrequently to help remain focused.CHAPTER 29107Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.
  • 111. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESThe Vietnam EraCHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 30108Step 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half fromside to side.Step 2 Turn the paper and fold it into thirds.Step 3 Unfold and label the foldable as shown.Step 4 Cut the top layer only along bothfold lines.This will makethree tabs.Sequencing Events Study Foldable Sequencethe actions of the United States‘s presidents duringthe Vietnam War by making and using this foldable.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,record facts about the actions and policies of thepresidents in office during the Vietnam era. Besure to also record the dates of these importantevents.J.F.K. L.B.J. NixonJ.F.K. L.B.J. NixonCHAPTER SUMMARYIn the early 1960s, the United States faced Cold War confrontations withthe Soviet Union in Cuba and Berlin, Germany. Also at this time, theUnited States became involved in the Vietnam War. United States leadersfeared that if all of Vietnam fell under a Communist government, commu-nism would spread throughout Southeast Asia and beyond. Many Ameri-cans opposed the nation’s involvement in Vietnam. The Vietnam War wasthe longest war in the history of the United States.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityOrganize the class into smallgroups. Each group should create anewspaper headline that identifiesthe significance of a date they havelisted on their foldables. You maywant to assign each of the presiden-tial administrations to groups sothat all presidents listed on thefoldables are covered. Have groupswrite the first paragraph of thestory that follows each of the head-lines they have created. Have a rep-resentative from each group readtheir headline and paragraph tothe class.
  • 112. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 30DESCRIBINGHave students characterize howAmericans felt about the Vietnam Warby defining and describing the doves,hawks, and the silent majority on theirfoldables. Students should review thechapter and write information abouteach group on their foldables. Encouragestudents to describe why these groupssupported or opposed the war inVietnam and how they chose to expresstheir feelings.BeginningMiddleEndDoves Hawks SilentMajorityEncourage students to use time lines to organ-ize information. Students should draw time linesin their notebooks that have a range of at leastten years. As students read the chapter andencounter new dates and events, they shouldadd these to their time lines. Students shouldwrite brief notes about what occurred on thatdate and use their time lines to review for thechapter test.CHAPTER 30109SEQUENCINGHave students describe events thatoccurred on the war front and at homeduring the beginning, middle, and endof the Vietnam War. To differentiate theevents, students may want to use dif-ferent colors of ink. As a class, discusshow these events led to the Americanwithdrawal of troops.
  • 113. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESSearch for StabilityCHAPTER SUMMARYDuring the 1960s and 1970s, some people believed that the United Stateshad lost its position as the economic and political leader of the free world.President Nixon, elected in 1968, tried to ease cold war tensions by open-ing relations with China and the Soviet Union. He also tried to deal withthe nation’s economic problems, but was forced to resign as a result of theWatergate scandal. Elected in 1976, President Carter approached economicand foreign policy issues differently than previous presidents. In 1980,however, Carter lost the presidential election to Ronald Reagan.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 31110WhydidPresidentNixonresign?WhatledtobetterrelationswithChina?WhathappenedinIranin1979?Whowontheelectionof1980?Step 1 Mark the midpoint of a side edge of onesheet of paper. Then fold the outside edges in totouch the midpoint.Evaluating Information Study FoldableMake and use this foldable to organize informationabout America’s search for stability at the end ofthe twentieth century.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,search for the answers to these four questions.Write answers under each of the tabs.Step 2 Fold in half from side to side.Step 3 Open and cut along the inside fold linesto form four tabs. Label your foldable as shown.Cut alongthe fold lineson both sides.CHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students work with theircompleted foldables by organizingthe class into groups of four. Eachmember of the group should askone follow-up question to a mainquestion labeled on the front of theircompleted foldable. For example,for the main question: “What led tobetter relations with China?” a stu-dent might ask: “What is realpolitik?”The other group members shouldanswer the follow-up questionusing the information from theirfoldables.
  • 114. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 31CATEGORIZINGHave students make and use this fold-able to chronicle the events that occurredwhile Richard Nixon was the presidentof the United States. Students shouldlabel the foldable as shown and thensummarize the events that occurred dur-ing the periods under each tab of thefoldable. Have students use their fold-ables to create a time line of the Nixonpresidency.Impeach-mentNixon’sFirstTermNixon’sSecondTermWatergateCrisisWhenWhat WhereWhyHow/Remind students that their notes should beconcise. Notes should briefly describe the mainideas and list supporting details. Students shoulduse key words or phrases, rather than completesentences or paragraphs, to help them rememberspecific events or concepts.CHAPTER 31111EXPLAININGOrganize the class into four groupsand assign one of the following topicsto each: the Watergate crisis, thePanama Canal treaties, the incident atThree Mile Island, and the crisis in Iran.Each group should take notes about thetopic by answering What?, When?,Where?, and Why/How? on their fold-ables. Have each group share theirinformation with the class so that therest of the class can take notes on thatspecific topic.
  • 115. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.TEACHER NOTESNew ChallengesCHAPTER SUMMARYThe 1980s and 1990s were a time of great change as a result of thecollapse of the Soviet Union. Former Cold War foes sought closer eco-nomic and political ties with each other. New advances in technology,medicine, and industry helped the United States move forward. Thepresidencies of Reagan, Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush faced chal-lenges in domestic and foreign policies. In 2001 the United States suf-fered the worst terrorist attack in its history. In response, the UnitedStates called for a worldwide coalition to fight terrorism.CHAPTER PREVIEWCHAPTER 32112Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper into fifths from topto bottom.Organizing Information Study FoldableMake this foldable to help you organize what youlearn about the challenges facing the United Statestoday.Reading and Writing As you read the chapter,write information about the presidents, theirpolitical parties, and their foreign and domesticpolicies in the correct spaces of your foldable.Step 2 Open the paper and refold it into fourthsfrom side to side.Step 3 Unfold, turn the paper, and draw linesalong the folds.Step 4 Label your foldable as shown.This formsfive rows.Thisforms fourcolumns.Fold it in half,then in halfagain.Reagan Bush G.W.BushClintonPoliticalPartyForeignPolicyDomesticPolicyCHAPTER REVIEWFoldables Follow-Up ActivityHave students use their com-pleted foldables charts to answerone of the following questions ina one-page essay: “How did thedomestic policies of PresidentsRonald Reagan and Bill Clinton dif-fer?” “Compare the foreign policiesof Presidents George H.W. Bushand George W. Bush.” Studentsshould be able to answer theseessay questions by using the infor-mation on their foldables.
  • 116. Copyright©byTheMcGraw-HillCompanies,Inc.Alternative Activities for Chapter 32ORGANIZINGStudents should fold the sheet of paperinto fourths from top to bottom in Step 1 tocreate this foldable. Then students shouldopen the paper and refold it into thirdsfrom side to side in Step 2. Have studentscomplete their foldables using the informa-tion in their textbooks. Ask students toexplain which candidate they would havevoted for and explain why.CauseNewChallen-gesEffectINFTreatyAmericansWithDisabilitiesActWar onTerrorRemind students that they should try to usecontext clues to understand new vocabularywords. Articles such as “a,” “an,” or “the,”often precede nouns, and verbs often end with“ing” or “ed.” As students come across the KeyTerms when reading the section, have them usethese clues to decipher the word’s meaning.CHAPTER 32113DETERMINING CAUSEAND EFFECTStudents should fold the sheet of paperinto fourths from top to bottom in Step 1to create this foldable. Then studentsshould open the paper and refold it intothirds from side to side in Step 2. Afterstudents have identified the causes andeffects of each new challenge, have themcreate a diagram that illustrates the rela-tionships. Students might note how someeffects become causes.PoliticalParty2000ElectionCampaignIssuesGeorgeW.BushAlGoreRalphNader