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Book of graphic organizers

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Interactive Notebook Foldables, Organizers and Templates

Interactive Notebook Foldables, Organizers and Templates

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  • Hi Denise,
    I've found it very interesting and useful.
    May I request you a copy of the book also? Hope you can help me.
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  • Hi Denise. This is my first year teaching writing an in a maze with lack of resources at my school. I lucked up on your site. May I request to copy the book also? Unfortunately, the save it button is still disabled. Here's my email if you can send it. Thanks a million!
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  • 1. www.josseybass.com$22.95 U.S. | $27.95 CanadaCover design by Michael CookEDUCATIONReproducible Organizers thatHelp Kids with Reading, Writing,and the Content AreasTheTeacher’sBIG BOOKofGraphic OrganizersJOSSEY-BASS TEACHER GRADES K–12HANDMODELTopic Generator: Hand ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Lake Eriesmallest of theGreat Lakes involume(119 cubicmiles).The Great LakesContain 95%of US freshwater.Lake Huron2ndlargestof theGreatLakes.Lake MichiganThe only one of theGreat Lakes that isentirely within theUnited States.LakeSuperiorThe largestanddeepest.Lake OntarioSmallestof theGreatLakes.Penny SanersDecember 1, 2009Name __________________________Date __________________________SPIDERMacbethLady MacbethMacbethBanquoBattlefieldCharacters SettingKing Duncan’s CastleUpon the HeathWitches makepredictions aboutMacbeth.The first prediction comestrue which motivatesMacbeth to make theothers come true.Macbeth becomes a tyrantand rules Scotland with great cruelty.Fate can influence future.Ruthless ambition.Forfeiting moral standingfor power.Plot ThemeMary RogersApril 28, 2009TopiNameDateDERSTORY TRAILSAND HISTORYTRAILSDIRECTIONS: Write down and illustrate the key events in chronological order.123456Katie SullivanSugar Act 1764Key events that started the American Revolution1765-Stamp Act1767-TownshendRevenue Acts1770 Boston Massacre1773 Boston Tea Party 1774 First ContinentalCongressOctober 12, 20095–12Katherine S. McKnight100Research has shown that visually organizinginformation helps students better comprehendnewly acquired material. Graphic organizerscreate a strong visual picture for students andsupport their ability to learn facts, information,and terms. Students are literally able to seeconnections and relationships between facts,terms, and ideas.In this value-packed resource, veteran educa-tor Katherine McKnight shows teachers how totap into the power of graphic organizers, andoffers 100 organizers—more than any otherbook on the market—that support successin the classroom. All the graphic organizersoffered in this book promote active learning,which is central to effective learning. Using theorganizers as guides, students are promptedto ask questions and are encouraged to applycritical thinking skills.The book’s graphic organizers help teachers• Support teaching and studentcomprehension in learningnew material• Develop vibrant curriculum plans• Assess classroom achievement• Build students’ learning skillsThe book is filled with dynamic graphicorganizers that can be used before,during, and after learning activities acrossthe content areas and contains easy-to-follow instructions on how to apply andadapt each organizer. In addition, theauthor has included helpful strategiesfor teachers who want to create theirown graphic organizers for differentgrade levels.TheTeacher’s BIG BOOKBIG BOOKof Graphic OrganizersBattlefieldSettingKing Duncan’s Castleon the Heathn influence future.hless ambition.Forfeiting moral standingfor power.ThemeBBBKiKingKKingonon tn in influ n fnfluence futuutuiinflu nnfluence urure.ess ambition.hless amForfeiting moral standingral standingr powerer.f pfor powefor powerf ppgJOSSEY-BASS TEACHERB ttl fBattlefBattlefi ldieldieldS ttiSettingDg Du ’ncan’s C tlCastleehe Heaththe HeathTheTeacher’sBIGBOOKBIGBOOKofGraphicOrganizersGRADES5–12With Easy-to-Copy, Lay-Flat PagesMcKNIGHTEasy-to-CopyPagesTeacherKatherine S. McKnight, Ph.D., has been an educator for over 20 years.A former high school English teacher, she currently works as associateprofessor of Secondary Education at National-Louis University. She alsotrains educators regularly as a professional development consultant forthe National Council of Teachers of English, and presents at educationalconferences. She is the coauthor of The Second City Guide to Improv in theClassroom, Teaching the Classics in the Inclusive Classroom, and TeachingWriting in the Inclusive Classroom.Includes access to freedownloadable PDF versionsof the graphic organizersincluded in this book
  • 2. Jossey-Bass TeacherJossey-Bass Teacher provides educators with practical knowledge and tools to create apositive and lifelong impact on student learning. We offer classroom-tested and research-based teaching resources for a variety of grade levels and subject areas. Whether you are anaspiring, new, or veteran teacher, we want to help you make every teaching day your best.From ready-to-use classroom activities to the latest teaching framework, our value-packedbooks provide insightful, practical, and comprehensive materials on the topics that mattermost to K–12 teachers. We hope to become your trusted source for the best ideas fromthe most experienced and respected experts in the field.
  • 3. The Teacher’sBig Book of GraphicOrganizers100 Reproducible Organizers That HelpKids with Reading, Writing, and the Content AreasKATHERINE S. MCKNIGHT
  • 4. Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Published by Jossey-BassA Wiley Imprint989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.comNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United StatesCopyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on theWeb at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.Permission is given for individual classroom teachers to reproduce the pages and illustrations for classroom use. Reproduction ofthese materials for an entire school system is strictly forbidden.Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed ordisappeared between the time this was written and when it is read.Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, theymake no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specificallydisclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended bysales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation.You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit orany other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer CareDepartment within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002.Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available inelectronic books.ISBN: 9780470502426Printed in the United States of AmericaFIRST EDITIONPB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 5. CONTENTSAcknowledgments viiiAbout the Author ixChapter One Why Are Graphic Organizers Such Important Toolsfor Teaching and Learning? 1Chapter Two Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and IdeaGeneration 51: Power Thinking (Levels of Brainstorming) 62: ABC Brainstorm 83: Carousel Brainstorm 104: Venn Diagram 125: Compare and Contrast 146: KWL 167: KWS 188: KWHL 209: KWLT 2210–17: Topic Generation Graphic Organizers10: Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–Linear Model 2411: Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–Linear Model 2612: Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–Linear Model 2813: Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–Circle Model 3014: Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–Circle Model 3215: Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–Circle Model 3416: Character Traits Web 3617: Topic Generation: Hand Model 3818: Anticipation Guide 4019: Hypothesis Guide 4220: Idea Web 4421: Fishbone 4622: Spider 4823: Herringbone 5024: Y Diagram 52Chapter Three Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 5525: Vocabulary Slide 5626: Concept or Vocabulary Map I 5827: Concept or Vocabulary Map II 60v
  • 6. 28: Concept or Vocabulary Map III 6229: Concept or Vocabulary Map IV 6430: Word Detective 6631: Six-Column Vocabulary Organizer 6832: Vocabulary Tree 7033: Cyber Vocabulary Detective 72Chapter Four Graphic Organizers for Note Takingand Study Skills 7534: Cornell Notes 7635: Three-Column Notes 7836: T Notes 8037: Analysis Notes 8238: Summary Organizer 8439: Journalist Graphic Organizer 8640: Story Board Notes: Three Frame 8841: Story Board Notes: Six Frame 9042: Outline Notes 9243: The Five Senses 9444: Cycle or Food Chain 9645–48: Graphic Organizer Bookmarks 9845: Bookmark for Reading Fiction 9946: Reading Reminders Bookmark 10047: Bookmark for Questions During Reading 10148: Textbook Reminders Bookmark 10249: Individual Performance in a Cooperative Group 10450: Cooperative Group Planner 10651: Portfolio Tracker 10852: Independent Reading Log 11053: Assignment Tracker 112Chapter Five Graphic Organizers for Supporting ReadingComprehension 11554: Questioning the Author 11655: Question-Answer-Relationship (QAR) 11856: Gist 12057: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R) 12258: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, Reflect (SQ4R) 12659: Fix-Up Strategies 13060: Reading Connections 13261: ReQuest 13462: Story Trails and History Trails 13663: Text-Think-Connect (TTC) 13864: REAP 14065: PLAN 142vi Contents
  • 7. 66: PACA 14467: DRTA 14668: Text Structures 14869: Reference Frames 15070: Prior Knowledge 15271: Inference Prompter 15472: List-Group-Label 15673: Think-Pair-Share 15874: The Five Ws 160Chapter Six Graphic Organizers for Writing 16375: Autobiographical Poem 16476: Historical Bio Poem 16677: Inquiry Chart 16878: Peer Review 17079: Entrance Slip 17280: Exit Slip 17481: Writer Checklist 17682: Sensory Starter 17883: Story Map I 18084: Story Map II 18285: Chain of Events 18486: Beginning-Middle-End 18687: Climax Ladder 18888–91: Persuasive Writing Organizers 19088: Persuasive Writing I 19189: Persuasive Writing II 19290: Persuasive Writing III 19391: Persuasive Writing IV 19492: Writing Revision Organizer 19693: Prewriting Organizer 19894: What Happens? 20095: Character Creator 20296: Conflict and Solution Organizer 20497: Getting Ready to Write 20698: Writing Process 20899: Story Pyramid 210100: RAFT 212References 214Contents vii
  • 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMy journey as an educator began when I was a high school teacher more than twenty years ago. Earlyon, I knew that best teaching practices were central to successful classroom teaching and learning.I would try anything. Beverly LaCoste, a wonderful educator and my principal for several years,proclaimed, ‘‘Katie Mac, I can send you to a conference, and the next day you’re trying somethingnew.’’ It’s true. I’m a tinkerer. Always looking for another instructional strategy or another idea, Imotivate my students who are preparing to become middle school and high school teachers to beeclectic and work to reach all kinds of learners. And eclectic teaching and reaching all types of learnersare really what this book is about. The more strategies we employ, the more likely we are to succeedin reaching all our students.There are many individuals whom I wish to thank who have supported my efforts to make thisbook a valuable teaching resource. Ellie McKnight, Celia Woldt, Laura Woldt, Olivia Doe, and SydneyLawson were instrumental in making the student samples feature a success. My graduate assistant,Astrid Rodrigues, is always patient and diligent. My husband, Jim, is always supportive of my workand often reminds me that teaching is my vocation. Colin, my son, is a constant reminder that evenwhen our work is challenging, we educators must remember that all children are beautifully different.I also want to thank my sister, Mary (a writing teacher), who often helped me get back on the horsewhen I fell off. I am grateful to the supportive staff at Jossey-Bass. It is a joy to work with an editorlike Margie McAneny. Justin Frahm’s attention to detail and artistic finesse were critical to the designof this book. Finally, I must acknowledge my first teacher and mentor, my mom, Patricia Siewert(1934–2008). Mom was a teacher in the Chicago public schools for more than thirty-four years; shetaught me that teaching was truly an act of love and social justice. I often sought teaching advice fromher, and she was, and will always be, my ‘‘BFF.’’For Jim, Ellie, and Colin, who bring joy to my lifeviii Acknowledgments
  • 9. ABOUT THE AUTHORKatherine S. McKnight, Ph.D., has been a literacy educator for over twenty years. A formerhigh school English teacher, she currently works as an associate professor of secondary education atNational-Louis University. She also trains educators regularly as a professional development consultantfor the National Council of Teachers of English. Katie publishes regularly in professional journals andis a frequent presenter at education conferences. She has coauthored numerous books for teachers,including Teaching Writing in the Inclusive Classroom (with Roger Passman; Jossey-Bass, 2007), Teachingthe Classics in the Inclusive Classroom (with Bradley Berlage; Jossey-Bass, 2007), The Second City Guideto Improv in the Classroom (with Mary Scruggs; Jossey-Bass, 2008), and Teaching English in Middle andSecondary Schools, 5th Edition (with Rhoda Maxwell and Mary Meiser; Pearson, 2010). Katie lives inChicago with her husband and children.About the Author ix
  • 10. CHAPTER ONEWhy Are Graphic Organizers Such Important Toolsfor Teaching and Learning?Graphic organizers are important and effective pedagogical tools fororganizing content and ideas and facilitating learners’ comprehensionof newly acquired information. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelli-gences (1993, 2006) posits that students are better able to learn and internalizeinformation when more than one learning modality is employed in an instruc-tional strategy. Because graphic organizers present material through the visualand spatial modalities (and reinforce what is taught in the classroom), the useof graphic organizers helps students internalize what they are learning.For today’s classroom, nothing is more essential to successful teachingand learning than strategy-based instruction. It is through the use of specificteaching strategies and learning tools that students can be more successfullearners. Graphic organizers are teaching and learning tools; when they’reintegrated into classroom experiences, students are better able to understandnew material. Creating a strong visual picture, graphic organizers supportstudents by enabling them to literally see connections and relationshipsbetween facts, information, and terms.This book contains 100 graphic organizers, teaching and learning tools thatsupport success and active, effective learning in the classroom. Students are1
  • 11. prompted to ask questions and encouraged to build and apply crucial thinking skills while developingtools for learning. You can use the graphic organizers in this book for• Curriculum planning and development• Teaching and supporting student comprehension in learning new material• Classroom assessment• Building students’ learning skillsReaching All LearnersBy integrating text and visual imagery, the 100 graphic organizers featured in this book actively engagea wide variety of learners, including students with special needs and English language learners. Theseorganizers can be used for any subject matter and are easily integrated into course curriculum.We know from learning theory that the human mind naturally organizes and stores information.Our minds create structures to store newly acquired information and connect it to previous knowledge(Piaget, 1974). The graphic organizers featured in this book are visualizations of these mental storagesystems, and serve to support students in remembering and connecting information (Vygotsky, 1962).When students are able to remember and assimilate information, they can delve into more criticalthinking.Numerous studies have found graphic organizers to be effective for teaching and learning, andmany support the effectiveness of graphic organizers for gifted children and students with special needs(Cassidy, 1991). Textbook publishers have taken note of the research that supports the importance ofgraphic organizers for teaching and learning, and regularly feature them in textbooks.Because graphic organizers are widely successful, these learning tools are used at all grade levels.They are also effective for adult learners. Community colleges and corporate entities use graphicorganizers to present information in similar instructive contexts. Often you will see college-leveltextbooks and corporate instructional materials use graphic organizers. The visually stimulatingnature of graphic organizers draws the learner’s attention. As learners, we attend to what is novel andvisually intriguing because the brain is more equipped to process images than text. Because graphicorganizers integrate text and visual images, learners are having more whole-brain experiences.In addition, for all learners, but for adult learners in particular, graphic organizers facilitate theintegration of long-term memory and new learning. Adult learners generally have more backgroundand long-term knowledge, and graphic organizers bridge what adult learners already know with whatthey are learning. Graphic organizers actually trigger long-term memory and promote synthesis withnew information (Materna, 2007).Getting StartedThis book is divided into chapters based on the different applications of the graphic organizers.You, the teacher, are the best judge of which organizers are best for a given lesson. Here are somesuggestions and bits of advice as you decide which organizers to use for a specific instructional purpose:Modeling. It is critical to model the graphic organizer when you present it to the class. Show thestudents how you, as a learner, use this organizer to understand material.Learning experiences. You can use the graphic organizers in this book for individual or smallgroup instruction. In general, graphic organizers are great for cooperative learning because theyprovide a structure for the students.2 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 12. Assessment. Assessment should be reliable and varied. As students progress through middleschool and high school, quizzes and tests become more common, but they are only one kind ofassessment. Graphic organizers can be easily used for classroom assessment. For example, you coulduse the Questioning the Author activity (Chapter Five) to determine if the students read the pages thatwere assigned for homework. You will probably gain greater insight into the students’ comprehensionof the text than you would with a multiple-choice reading quiz.Special needs. Students with special needs often have difficulty decoding and comprehending textand developing vocabulary. This makes reading even more challenging. Here are some suggestions tosupport students with special needs when they use the graphic organizers in this book:1. Physically divide some of the organizers by cutting, folding, or highlighting different sections.This helps the students focus on one section and activity at a time.2. Use a highlighter or different colors for the graphic organizer headings to help students processand focus on key information.3. Have students work in pairs or in small groups, as needed. Students who have difficulty withattention and reading will benefit from working with their peers. Working in a social settinghelps all students work collaboratively and take responsibility for their own learning. We wantour students to develop self-efficacy in their learning experiences.4. Create reading frames for students. Using heavy card stock or cardboard, create frames ofdifferent sizes so that students can place them over sections. This helps students focus on onesection at a time.5. Encourage students to use vocabulary logs or notebooks. All the vocabulary graphic organizersthat are featured in Chapter Three can be used as templates for a vocabulary log or notebook.This is a student-created vocabulary reference book to which the students can refer during thecourse of the school year.Variations. There is no one right way to visually represent information. Your students mayhave several variations of the same organizer for a given topic or subject. Further, some studentsare more visually oriented than others, so you should expect to see a range of results. Particularlyhelpful to English language learners, the graphic organizers featured in this book support students inunderstanding language more easily with the assistance of visual images.The key to successful teaching and learning is to employ a wide variety of strategies. I hope thatthe 100 graphic organizers in this book will add to your repertoire of strategies to reach all kinds oflearners in your teaching.You can download PDF versions of the graphic organizers found in this book atwww.josseybass.com/go/graphicorganizersPassword: 4g6hn7Why Are Graphic Organizers Such Important Tools for Teaching and Learning? 3
  • 13. CHAPTER TWOGraphic Organizers for Brainstormingand Idea Generation1: Power Thinking (Levels of Brainstorming)2: ABC Brainstorm3: Carousel Brainstorm4: Venn Diagram5: Compare and Contrast6: KWL7: KWS8: KWHL9: KWLTGraphic Organizers 10–17: Topic Generation10: Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–Linear Model11: Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–Linear Model12: Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–Linear Model13: Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–Circle Model14: Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–Circle Model15: Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–Circle Model16: Character Traits Web17: Topic Generation: Hand Model18: Anticipation Guide19: Hypothesis Guide20: Idea Web21: Fishbone22: Spider23: Herringbone24: Y Diagram5
  • 14. 1 Power Thinking (Levels of Brainstorming)Grades 6—12Social studies, English, science, healthEasyMediumHardPower Thinking is a graphic organizer that allows learners to organizeideas and information hierarchically. As an alternative form of outlining,this tool can be used to group terms, ideas, and vocabulary, for example,into main headings and subheadings.POWER 1POWER 2POWER 2POWER 3POWER 4 POWER 4POWER 3POWER 4POWER 4POWER 3POWER 4 POWER 4POWER 3POWER 4POWER 4POWERTHINKINGName __________________________Date __________________________Kepler telescopeHow does it work?What will it do?Identify commonstellar characteristicsof host starsSearch forEarth-likeplanetsFind lifeon otherplanetsIdentifytypesof planetsPlanetcrossesin frontof a starTransit methodPropertiesof stars inrelation toplanet typesChangein star’sbrightnessKepler’s third law(calculates orbit)Targets systems withterrestrial planetsStarmassOrbittimePenny Saners8-Sep-08When this graphic organizer isimplemented into instruction, itis acceptable for the students toadd information at the differentlevels. If there are more than twoideas or details at power 2 thatsupport the identified main idea inpower 1, this is fine. The studentsneed to understand that the PowerThinking template is malleable. Asteachers we need to place greateremphasis on the students’ thinkingand their ability to organize infor-mation in a hierarchy rather thanon completing the template as it isexactly presented.Another important considerationfor power thinking is the notion thatthere is more than one way to orga-nize information Individual thinkingalways varies. Instead of emphasiz-ing one particular answer, we needto focus on the process of thinkingin arranging, organizing, and repre-senting information.When the students work on the Power Thinking organizer, I like to have them in groups of three students or in pairs. As weprogress through the different levels of the organizer, the students can discuss points of information or details to include.This approach naturally shifts the focus: this becomes less a teacher-directed activity and more of student-directed activityin which you take on the role of facilitator.6 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 15. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.POWER1POWER2POWER3POWER4POWER4POWER3POWER4POWER4POWER3POWER4POWER4POWER3POWER4POWER4POWERTHINKINGName__________________________Date__________________________POWER2Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 7
  • 16. 2 ABC BrainstormGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardAs students brainstorm information, the ABC framework helps them orga-nize their thoughts. Because a fact or point of information must berecorded for each letter of the alphabet, the students need to dig moredeeply to retrieve information and ideas for this kind of brainstorm.A NB 0C PD QE RF SG TH UI VK XL YM ZABCBRAINSTORMTopicName __________________________Date __________________________NutrientsOrganismPlantsQuietly kill treesReproductionSlime moldsTrufflesUsesVegetative incompatibilityAse x ual reproductionYeastsZoosporeFungusAntibioticsBiologyDNA sequencingEukaryoticFermentationGreen algaeHeterotrophicIonizing radiationKaryogamyLichensMulticellularCelluloseBobby Barrett10-Sep-08This graphic organizer can be applied in manyteaching and learning situations. As a preread-ing activity, the ABC Brainstorm can facilitatethe recording of previous knowledge. It can alsobe used to support student’s comprehension asthey are reading a textbook or other nonfic-tion text. As the students read the material,the ABC Brainstorm structure allows them torecord newly acquired facts, information, andcontent vocabulary. For after reading, the ABCBrainstorm is a suitable graphic organizer forstudents to review and assess what they recallfrom a recent text or unit.The students may have some difficulty find-ing information that begins with the letters Qand X. Some strategies for resolving this issueinclude allowing the students to include adjec-tives and allowing Q or X as a letter within aword or phrase (see the sample).The students can also develop this graphic orga-nizer into a picture book. Each page wouldrepresent a letter, a corresponding vocabu-lary word, and a phrase that helps studentsremember important information. They can alsoillustrate each vocabulary word with a picture.ExampleA is for antibiotics.Antibiotics are anti-infection and beat up thegerms that can cause infection.With great detection, antibiotics go after germsthat cause infection.8 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 17. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.ABCBRAINSTORMA NB 0C PD QE RF SG TH UI VK XL YM ZTopicName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 9
  • 18. 3 Carousel BrainstormGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardWhether the students are activating prior knowledge or reviewing newlyacquired information, this organizer allows them to identify and studysubtopics within a larger topic.20-Nov-08CAROUSELBRAINSTORMName __________________________Date __________________________Here is a sample of a carousel brainstorm for Diary of a Wimpy Kid.Each box represents a sheet of large chart paper.What do you knowabout the author?What do you knowabout the maincharacter?List as many thingsas you can about thesetting of the book.What happens in thebook? What are the“key events”?Write down somedescriptions thatyou “liked.”What questions doyou have about thebook so far?The author is Jeff Kinney.He develops video games.He has a websitewww.wimpykid.comHe wrote two moreWimpy Kid books.His name is Greg Heffley.He’s in middle school.His mom makes himkeep a diary.He has 2 brothers.There are a bunch ofsettings in the book.Halloween in theneighborhood.Greg lives in a house.He can walk to hisfriend’s house.It seems like a nice place.Since Greg andRowley became friendsagain, will Greg treatRowley better?What will they do inthe summer?P. 134 The spider.PP. 126-128Christmas present.P. 131 Big wheelgoing down the hill.PP. 100-101 School play.Greg and his best friendRowley have a big fight.Greg lies and gets his bestfriend in trouble.Greg and Rowley becomebest friends at the end.Anisha BryantDivide the students into groups of three or four.Identify subtopics and write each one on a sep-arate sheet of large paper. In each group, astudent will serve as the recorder, using anassigned colored marker, which makes it easyto associate each group with its comments.Explain to the students that they will have abrief time, about thirty to forty-five seconds,to write down everything they can think of foreach topic. The different sheets with the differ-ent topics will be passed to each group. As thesheets progress through the groups, it will benecessary to extend the time allowed for eachsheet because the students will have to readwhat has already been recorded by the othergroups, and they will probably find it more chal-lenging to add new information. The carousel iscomplete when the students have their originalsheet.Students often compare this exercise to elec-tronic blogging. They enjoy reading, respondingto, and adding to each others’ comments andideas. As the students engage in this activity inthe classroom, there is often discussion as theyprogress from one chart to another.When I have used this activity in the classroom,I allow (and sometimes encourage) the studentsto use language taken directly from the text.When students closely examine text, they areactively analyzing what they are reading.10 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 19. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CAROUSELBRAINSTORMName __________________________Date __________________________Each box represents a sheet of large chart paper.What do you knowabout the author?What do you knowabout the maincharacter?List as many thingsas you can about thesetting of the book.What happens in thebook? What are the“key events”?Write down somedescriptions thatyou “liked.”What questions doyou have about thebook so far?Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 11
  • 20. 4 Venn DiagramGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardVenn diagrams are graphic organizers that provide a visual comparisonof similarities and differences between subjects. The structure of thisorganizer is applicable to a wide variety of topics.VENNDIAGRAMName __________________________Date __________________________Spain and FranceSpainPopulation is 46 million.The government isa ParliamentaryDemocracy andConstitutional Monarchy.King: Juan Carlos lPrime Minister: José LuisRodriguez ZapateroBoth countriesspeak romancelanguages:French and Spanish.Located on theIberian Peninsula.Both countries aremembers ofthe EuropeanUnion.Population is 65 million.The government is UnitarySemi-Presidential Republic.President: Nicolas SarkozyPrime Minister: Francois FillonFrance is linked to Englandby the Channel Tunnel.No longer has a monarchy.FrancePenny Saners28-Jan-09Venn diagrams can be easily adapted to includemore than two topics and one common area.Once the students have completed the Venndiagram, they should discuss and explain whatthey have included in the circles and commonarea(s). These discussions can be completed inlarge or small group discussions.The middle area where the two circles overlapcan be tricky. Sometimes the students becomeconfused and continue to put opposites or com-parisons in this space. Using different coloredmarkers or pencils for each circle and the over-lapping intersection is a simple adaptation thatallows students to see the differences and sim-ilarities in the presented information from theonset.12 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 21. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.VENNDIAGRAMName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 13
  • 22. 5 Compare and ContrastGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer is useful for looking at two items and figuring outthe similarities and differences between them. The students should lookfirst for the similarities and then the differences.COMPAREANDCONTRASTName __________________________Date __________________________Name1Attribute1Attribute2Attribute3Name 2TriangleNumberof sidesNumberof anglesNumberof vertices333 444QuadrilateralBobby Barrett24-Sep-08The Compare and Contrast graphic organizerhas a wide variety of classroom applications.History or social studies teachers can use itas a means of comparing different historicalevents, geographical regions, or political sys-tems, for example. This organizer is widely usedas a prewriting activity in preparation for writ-ing an essay or research paper. In science ormath, this organizer visually represents infor-mation so that students can develop a theory orhypothesis.14 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 23. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.COMPAREANDCONTRASTName __________________________Date __________________________Name1Attribute1Attribute2Attribute3Name 2Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 15
  • 24. 6 KWLGrades 6—12All subjects, but particularly useful as a preview for a new unitor a prereading activityEasyMediumHardCreated by Donna Ogle, the KWL strategy is a three-column chart thatcaptures the before, during, and after stages of reading.K = What a reader already knows about the selected text topic. Students tap intotheir prior knowledge before they begin reading. As we know from research inreading, prior knowledge supports student comprehension.W = What a student wants to know about the selected text topic. Students’ asking questions before they read a text alsosupports their comprehension.L = What the students learned about the topic. Students’ reflecting and thinking about what they just read aids them intheir ability to synthesize newly acquired information with prior knowledge.K W LKWLWhat I know. What I want toknow.What I learned.Name __________________________Date __________________________Topic American RevolutionIt happened over200 years ago.The 13 Americancolonies declaredindependence fromthe British Empire.Did Thomas Jeffersonwrite the declarationall by himself?How was the warfought?How did differencesget resolved?Tories were colonistswho were loyal toEngland.First war that hadguerilla warfare.Communication betweenthe colonies wassometimes verydifficult.Thomas Jeffersonhad help writing theDeclaration ofIndependence.Maria Briano12-Oct-09Often used at the beginning of an instructionalunit, the KWL strategy is one of the most widelyrecognized graphic organizers and instructionalstrategies. It can be used for individual, small-group, and large-group instruction. There issignificant evidence that when learners tap intoprevious knowledge and pose individual ques-tions, they are more likely to become engagedin their learning and more apt to internalizewhat they learn.To support all kinds of learners, consider usingdifferent colors for each column. The studentsmay also draw or visually represent their knowl-edge and ideas for each column.16 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 25. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.K W LKWLWhat I know. What I want toknow.What I learned.Name __________________________Date __________________________TopicGraphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 17
  • 26. 7 KWSGrades 4—12All subjects—particularly useful for a Web search or as anintroduction to an I search or research paperEasyMediumHardThe KWS organizer is a modified KWL that incorporates sources forresearching the topic and question.KWSTopicK W SWhat I know. What I want toknow.Possible sources.Name __________________________Date __________________________Penicillin is madefrom mold.What other kindsof fungus areused to makemedicines?Library ofCongress website.My biologytextbook.FungusMaria Briano13-Oct-09Obtaining access to sources for research inthe classroom is helpful for the studentsas they answer posed questions. Once thestudents complete the S (Possible Sources)column, they can convert the information andsources they found into a bibliography followingMLA, APA, or other formatting.At a time when students are inundated withinformation from media resources, they needa systematic strategy to organize, understand,and synthesize. The KWS is one strategy thatstudents can use to organize information.18 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 27. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.KWSTopicK W SWhat I know. What I want toknow.Possible sources.Name __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 19
  • 28. 8 KWHLGrades 9—12Social studiesEasyMediumHardKWHL is a modified KWL that incorporates primary and secondary resourcesfor research. Students are able to incorporate prior knowledge as theycreate a plan for investigating a topic.K = What do I already know?W = What do I want to find out?H = How am I going to find out?L = What did I learn?KWHLTopicK W H LWhat I know. What I wantto know.How am Igoing to find out?What did Ilearn?Name __________________________Date __________________________I know thatrainforests arefilled with allkinds of plantsand animals andthat they arevery importantto the healthof the wholeplanet.What wouldhappen if therain forestswere all gone?Look up goodwebsites likeNationalGeographic andweatherwebsites.I learned thatthe rainforestsare critical tothe health ofthe planetbecause theseareas produceso much oxygenfor theatmosphere.If the rainforests aredestroyed, wewould lose tonsof oxygen thatis needed forthe differentforms of life.Tropical Rain ForestsMaria Briano15-Oct-09Accessibility to primary and secondary sourcesis necessary for the students to answer posedquestions. When I ask students to pose theirown questions, I often find that they are con-fused and hesitant because they fear that theywill ask the ‘‘wrong’’ question or simply aren’tsure where to begin. This organizer is especiallyuseful for students who are posing their ownquestions through Web searches or are engagedin inquiry projects.20 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 29. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.KWHLTopicK W H LWhat I know. What I wantto know.How am Igoing to find out?What did Ilearn?Name __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 21
  • 30. 9 KWLTGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardKWLT is modeled after the KWL strategy. In this version, students areprompted to engage in the metacognitive experience of talking to peersabout what they have learned and teaching the material to others.K = What do I already know?W = What do I want to find out?L = What did I learn?T = What do I want to tell others?KWLTTopicK W L TWhat I know. What I wantto know.What did Ilearn?What do Iwant to tellothers?Name __________________________Date __________________________Hamlet’s fatherwas murderedby his uncle.Hamlet is veryangry and hisfather’s ghostappears toHamlet and tellshim to avengehis death.Hamlet beginsto act strangelyand his friendsand girlfriendworry abouthim.I want to knowif Hamlet’sactions wouldhave been thesame if hisfather’s ghostdidn’t appearto him.I learned thatHamlet wasvery unhappybefore theghost appearedand heconfirmed thathis unclemurdered hisfather. Hamletwas upsetbecause hismother marriedhis uncle rightafter his fatherdied.I want to tellothers howShakespearecan create acharacter likeHamlet who isvery complexand canrepresent allof our bad andgood qualities.Shakespeare’s HamletJim Smith16-Oct-09For the T column of this graphic organizer, thestudents can teach in pairs, or the class canparticipate in a cooperative learning activity,such as a jigsaw.KWLT, the final variation of KWL, contains areflective component. As in the foundationalKWL experiences, the students1. brainstorm what they already know about atopic2. pose questions about what they want tolearn3. reflect on what they learned4. The ‘‘T’’, the last step for the KWLT strat-egy, prompts students to teach what theyhave learned.It is through the last step in this teaching andlearning strategy that students are more ableto internalize the information that they havelearned, since they are now practicing theirunderstanding for the new material throughteaching it.22 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 31. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.KWLTTopicK W L TWhat I know. What I wantto know.What did Ilearn?What do Iwant to tellothers?Name __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 23
  • 32. EasyMediumHard.10 Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–LinearModelGrades 4—12All subjectsLINEARMODELTopic Generation with 3 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________How can a democraticgovernment be beneficial?Democraticgovernments allowpeople to chooseleaders.The citizens in ademocracy havegreater influence onthe laws that governthe country.Democracies allowpeople to vote andhave a voice in thegovernment.January Williams24-Feb-09It is always helpful to model graphic organizersbefore the students apply them on their own. Asthe teacher, you can model how these graphicorganizers are used to document and generatetopics and ideas.Remind students that it is always useful to adaptthese graphic organizers as needed. The empha-sis should not be on filling out all squares orcircles. Instead, students should use these topicgeneration graphic organizers so that they canbegin to observe• connections between new material and• prior learning• patterns and main ideas• relationships between key ideasGraphic organizers 10 through 17 offerstudents the opportunity to visualize andorganize their ideas. They have a widevariety of applications, the most common ofwhich are for essay or research paper topicorganization and other writing activities.24 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 33. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.LINEARMODELTopic Generation with 3 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 25
  • 34. 11 Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–LinearModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12All subjectsLINEARMODELTopic Generation with 4 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________How can the water qualitybe improved in the ChicagoRiver?Stricter laws aboutdumping waste into theriver with steeperpenalties to offenders.Educate the public aboutthe current condition ofthe water quality and howpeople impacted thisenvironmental concern.People need to takea greater role in preservingthe Chicago River by doingthings like cleaning up thegarbage or educating othersabout the effects of pollutionon this ecosystem.Reintroduce native species.January Williams24-Feb-0926 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 35. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.LINEARMODELTopic Generation with 4 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 27
  • 36. 12 Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–LinearModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12All subjectsLINEARMODELTopic Generation with 6 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________The American colonistsdecided to rebel againstthe British government.The colonists were tired of beingtaxed without representation in theBritish government.Through taxation many Americansfelt that the British governmentthreatened their livelihoods.Americans became so removed fromthe British homeland that theybegan to forge a new identity thatwas apart from the mother country.Acts of American rebellion likethe Boston Tea Party and the BostonMassacre fueled the passions andanger of the colonists.American Founding Fathers likeFranklin, Jefferson, and Adamspopularized new ideas of governmentthat were based on John Locke’sphilosophy. Traditional monarchies wererejected.American colonists became resentfulof resources being shipped back toEngland.January Williams24-Feb-0928 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 37. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.LINEARMODELTopic Generation with 6 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 29
  • 38. 13 Topic Generation with 3 Ideas–CircleModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12All subjectsCIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 3 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________How can people produce lessgarbage that gets put in landfills?Recycle bottles,cans, and,papers.Create lessgarbage (i.e. useless plastic bagsand bring reusableones to thegrocery store).Yard waste canbe composted.Billy McNeil28-May-0930 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 39. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 3 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 31
  • 40. 14 Topic Generation with 4 Ideas–CircleModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12All subjectsCIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 4 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Identify the author ofthe website anddetermine if theyare credible.Determine ifinformation is reviewedprior to posting on thewebsite.Strategies for determining a credible website.Identify if the websitewas created by areputable company,agency, or organization.There should be sourcesand references for thematerial found onthe website.Billy McNeil29-May-0932 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 41. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 4 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 33
  • 42. 15 Topic Generation with 6 Ideas–CircleModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12All subjectsCIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 6 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________How can ahousehold saveon energy eachyear?Use solarfilteringshades forthe hotsummermonthsSwitchto energy-savinglight bulbsInsulatethe atticandbasementTurn downthermostatUsepower cordsto turn offappliancesMake surethatwindowsare sealedproperlyBilly McNeil30-May-0934 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 43. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CIRCLEMODELTopic Generation with 6 Ideas – Circle ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 35
  • 44. 16 Character Traits WebGrades 4—12Social studies and EnglishEasyMediumHardThe Character Traits Web organizer offers students another way to visuallyrepresent their ideas. The students collect attributes of a character orreal-life person.CHARACTERTRAITS WEBCharactersappearanceCharacters actionsand thoughtsCharacterswordsHow others reactto the characterCharacterThe OdysseyHomerSelf-assured.Strong.Favored by the Gods.Good looking.Arrogant but becomes humble.Almost gives up “Odysseusknees shook and his spirit failed.”Clings to thoughts of beingwith his wife and son.Protects his men.Seen as cunning.Calypso loves him.Men look at him as a hero andleader.Brave-faces the Sirens’ song.Smart-tricks Cyclops.“I know of no sweeter sights for aman’s own eyes than his own country.”“I am Odysseus,Laertes’ son. The wholeworld talks of my stratagems, andmy fame has reached the heavens.”Odysseus(Laertes’ son)Fumni Johnson29-Jan-08In a language arts class, remind the studentsthat authors provide direct and indirect cluesabout their characters. Choose a character fromthe literature and model the chart throughlarge-group discussion.You can also use this organizer in a social studiesclass. Instead of discussing a character, thestudents select a historical figure.36 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 45. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CHARACTERTRAITS WEBCharactersappearanceCharacters actionsand thoughtsCharacterswordsHow others reactto the characterName : __________________________Date : __________________________Title : __________________________Author : __________________________CharacterGraphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 37
  • 46. 17 Topic Generation: Hand ModelEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—6All subjectsThis highly visual graphic organizer represents information, ideas, andthoughts about a specific topic.HANDMODELTopic Generator: Hand ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Lake Eriesmallestof theGreatLakes involume(119 cubicmiles).The Great LakesContain 95%of US freshwater.Lake Huron2ndlargestof theGreatLakes.Lake MichiganThe only one ofthe GreatLakes that isentirely withinthe UnitedStates.LakeSuperiorThe largestanddeepest.Lake OntarioSmallestof theGreatLakes.Penny Saners1-Dec-09The hand model is also useful for the 5 Wquestions: Who, What, When, Where, and Why.Each finger on the hand can correspond witheach ‘‘W’’ question and the palm of the handcan be used to record information that answers‘‘How.’’The hand model graphic organizer can alsobe used for literary elements. Each finger canrepresent: title and author, setting, problem,solution, genre. For the palm, I like to have thestudents list the characters in the story.38 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 47. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.HANDMODELTopic Generation: Hand ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 39
  • 48. 18 Anticipation GuideGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardAnticipation guides are great prereading graphic organizers for the follow-ing reasons: they preview key themes and ideas that will be presentedin the upcoming text; they provide opportunities for students to draw ontheir prior knowledge and experiences, or schema; and they offer stu-dents the opportunity to recognize the effects of their point of view informulating their opinions of the text.ANTICIPATIONGUIDEANTICIPATION GUIDEDIRECTIONS: Put an “X” in the space to indicate whether or not you agree or disagreewith the corresponding statement.Agree StatementDisagreeName __________________________Date __________________________Topic “THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO” A Short Story by Edgar Allen Poe1) Revenge is a learned behavior.3) Time eases a guilty conscience.4) Trust no one.5) Pride goes before a fall.6) You should defend your reputation.7) Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.8) Premeditated is worse than crimes of passion.9) Greed destroys.10) An ‘eye for an eye’ is a good philosophy for life.2) It is o.k. to do something as long as you don’t get caught.Annie Jarovich9-Dec-08Here are some tips for the creation of an antic-ipation guide as well as a sample guide.• In advance, create statements that relateto the text that the students are about toread. These statements could be about thethemes, ideas, and characters that will bepresented in the text. Generally ten state-ments are manageable.• The students choose either agree or disagreeafter each statement.• When good readers pick up a text, theytend to anticipate what the reading will beabout. However, struggling readers gener-ally do not anticipate when they read, andthe Anticipation Guide organizer can supportthem in developing this skill. Remember thisas you prepare anticipation guides for yourstudents.I was first introduced to anticipation guideswhen I was working with struggling adolescentreaders over ten years ago. Like many of mycolleagues, I was willing to try a wide varietyof strategies to help these students. The firsttime I used an anticipation guide was when Iwas teaching the prologue from The Canter-bury Tales. From the first, I could see thatthe students didn’t struggle as much in theircomprehension. I spent less time explaining theactual text.40 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 49. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.ANTICIPATIONGUIDEANTICIPATION GUIDEDIRECTIONS: Put an “X” in the space to indicate whether or not you agree or disagreewith the corresponding statement.Agree StatementDisagreeName __________________________Date __________________________TopicGraphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 41
  • 50. 19 Hypothesis GuideEasyMediumHard.Grades 4—12Social studies and scienceEspecially useful for the science classroom, the Hypothesis Guide is avisualization structure for the scientific method. Guiding the studentsthrough the process of formulating a hypothesis reinforces the mainconcepts that are integral to the creation of a question or idea. Once thestudents create the question or idea, which is a hypothesis, they can testand evaluate it. As always, it is beneficial to model the graphic organizerfor the students. This graphic organizer can be especially useful for labexperiments.Name _____________________Date _____________________Results ConclusionsHYPOTHESISGUIDETest the hypothesis/dataHypothesisInformationQuestionHow does water impact plant growth?Food, sunlight and location can impact plant growth.Use books, magazines and the Internet to find informationon plant growth.I predict that if a plant does not get enough water, it will die.The plants that receivedless water did not grow aswell as the ones that receivedthe correct and recommendedamount of water.Plants need differentamounts of water to growwell and the plants thatreceived the recommendedwater grew the best.Six plants: 2 with the recommended amount of water(control group) 2 plants with less than the required waterand 2 with more than the required amount of water.Portia Smith5-Dec-09A scientific experiment may comprise the follow-ing:1. When you observe something, you may havequestions about that phenomenon. Stateyour QUESTION.2. Gather as much INFORMATION as you canabout your question.3. Find out what information has already beendiscovered about your question.4. Formulate a HYPOTHESIS. Write a statementthat predicts what may happen in your exper-iment.5. Test your hypothesis. Design an experimentto test your hypothesis.6. Perform the experiment.7. Collect DATA. Record the results of the inves-tigation.8. Summarize RESULTS. Analyze the data andnote trends in your experimental results.9. Draw CONCLUSIONS. Determine whether ornot the data support the hypothesis of yourexperiment.42 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 51. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________Results ConclusionsHYPOTHESISGUIDETest the hypothesis/dataHypothesisInformationQuestionGraphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 43
  • 52. 20 Idea WebGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardAn idea web allows learners to organize information in a visual format.Unlike a standard linear outline, the idea web makes the connectionsamong ideas and details more evident.IDEAWEBName __________________________Date __________________________Have antennaeUsually have6 legsImportant partof food chainEggreproductionSometimesspread diseasesSome are helpfuland pollinate plantswe needCan destroycrops, buildingsInsectsChudi Henders14-Oct-09A highly adaptable organizer, the Idea Web canbe used as an opening brainstorming activitythrough large group discussion. You can uselarge chart paper or an overhead projector torecord the students’ ideas. Students can alsouse an idea web for prewriting or to tap intoprior knowledge at the beginning of an instruc-tional unit.44 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 53. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.IDEAWEBName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 45
  • 54. 21 FishboneGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThe Fishbone (also known as the Cause and Effect Diagram or Ishikawa Dia-gram) is named after its Japanese inventor, Kaoru Ishikawa (1915–1989).Use the Fishbone to determine the causal relationships in a complex ideaor event. This organizer helps students understand how a central themecan have numerous related ideas. To effectively use this graphic organizer,begin with the result and then analyze the contributing causes.RESULTFISHBONEFishgulp waterGills extractoxygenfromwaterMoves through fish’sthroats and passes throughgills to obtain oxygenSupplies the fishbody with oxygenTwo chambered heartcirculates bloodOxygenatedbloodtravelsthroughthebodyfromthegillsFishhaveaclosedcirculatorysystemFish get oxygenfrom the waterPenny Saners27-Apr-09For the students to better under-stand the different components ofthis structured graphic organizer,model its use through large-groupdiscussion prior to the students’independent application.46 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 55. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.RESULTFISHBONEName__________________________Date__________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 47
  • 56. 22 SpiderGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThe Spider is a free-form graphic organizer that allows students to thinkabout information as both visual and metaphorical. The students are alsoable to visualize the interconnectedness of information and ideas to acentral idea.Name __________________________Date __________________________SPIDERMacbethLady MacbethMacbethBanquoBattlefieldCharacters SettingKing Duncan’s CastleUpon the HeathWitches makepredictions aboutMacbeth.The first prediction comestrue which motivatesMacbeth to make theothers come true.Macbeth becomes a tyrantand rules Scotland with great cruelty.Fate can influence future.Ruthless ambition.Forfeiting moral standingfor power.Plot ThemeMary Rogers28-Apr-09Choose a central idea, character, text, or prob-lem. Explain to the students that this graphicorganizer will help them visualize their ideasand organize and connect their thinking.Put the students in pairs to fill out the Spider.Once the pairs have completed the organizer,have them share their completed work. Discusswith the students the similarities and differ-ences among their responses. It is importantfor students to observe that although they com-pleted the same graphic organizer, the contentand organization differed to some degree. Thisis fine and illustrates that we all think somewhatdifferently about ideas and information.48 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 57. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________SPIDERGraphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 49
  • 58. 23 HerringboneGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThe Herringbone graphic organizer is used for establishing supportingdetails for a main idea. It can be used to organize information for allcontent areas.SupportingdetailsSupportingdetailsMAINIDEAHERRINGBONETaxationofcolonistsbyBritishInadequaterepresentationinparliamentBostonMassacreOnlyEnglishimportsSettlementsbannedwestofAppalachianmts.ForcedhousingofBritishsoldiersThe American colonists are provoked to revoltwhich prompts the American RevolutionMary Rogers15-May-09Students will benefit from yourmodeling the use of this graphicorganizer on an overhead projectoror chart paper.Learning how to organize and clas-sify information is an important skillfor all students. Students are askedto organize and classify informa-tion every day. When students read,they should be encouraged to readand classify information. Studentscan use this graphic organizer whentaking notes for assigned reading asa way to organize and classify newinformation.50 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 59. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.SupportingdetailsSupportingdetailsMAINIDEAHERRINGBONEName__________________________Date__________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 51
  • 60. 24 Y DiagramGrades 4—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThe Y Diagram is a useful graphic organizer for students to visualize howideas or details can support a main idea. It is a more simplified version ofthe Herringbone and Fishbone graphic organizers.Y DIAGRAMName __________________________Date __________________________MacbethbecomeskingMurdersBanquoCorruptedbypowerHasnoheirsBanquoSuspectsthatMacbethkilledKingDuncanIsnotcorruptedbypowerHasason, FleanceMacbeth and Banquo are:Best friendsThanes of ScotlandSee the witches for the first timeDerreck Williamson1-May-09Students will benefit from your modeling theuse of this graphic organizer on an overheadprojector or chart paper.The Y Diagram helps students to organize whatthey already know about a topic for writing. Thestudent has to think about the topic and detailsand examples that can support that topic. Inthe classroom, I always invite the students toshare their charts because I think it is importantfor them to see how their peers think aboutthe same information. Although we may havesimilar ideas and arguments, it is important forus to recognize that there is more than one wayto organize information and consider the topic.52 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 61. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Y DIAGRAMName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Brainstorming and Idea Generation 53
  • 62. CHAPTER THREEGraphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development25: Vocabulary Slide26: Concept or Vocabulary Map I27: Concept or Vocabulary Map II28: Concept or Vocabulary Map III29: Concept or Vocabulary Map IV30: Word Detective31: Six-Column Vocabulary Organizer32: Vocabulary Tree33: Cyber Vocabulary DetectiveA special note on this chapter: As mentioned in Chapter One, all of thesegraphic organizers can be used as templates for a vocabulary log or notebook.These organizers become a student-created vocabulary reference book towhich the students can refer during the course of the school year.55
  • 63. 25 Vocabulary SlideGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardIt is quite likely that most of us were taught vocabulary by being given longlists of words; we were required to write down the definition for each wordand write a sentence using the vocabulary word. Once we had memorizedthese words, they were given on a quiz, usually on a Friday. Today weknow that this is not the most effective way to teach vocabulary. Instead,vocabulary lessons must be contextual.Simply put: the more students manipulate and use a new word, the more likely it will become part of theirvocabulary. Vocabulary slides prompt students to use and apply newly encountered words. When students studyfewer words in greater depth, as they do with the vocabulary slide, they are learning how language works. Thesections of the slide require the students to examine the etymology and the part of speech, to find a synonymand antonym, and to use the word in an original sentence. These applications enable students to connect to andprocess the word through several tasks.VOCABULARYSLIDESynonymVocabulary wordPicture or icon of vocabularywordAntonymSentence using the vocabulary wordPart of speechDiscourage PersuadeDissuadeVerbI dissuaded my friend who wantedto go to the beach to not go for itwas raining.Ellie McKnight20-Oct-09You can have students create vocabulary slidesfrom self-identified words in the assigned read-ing, or you can assign words. You can also usethe vocabulary slides as flash cards that thestudents use for review.The first time that I required eleventh-gradestudents in a British literature class to cre-ate vocabulary slides, the students were abit surprised when I asked them to draw pic-tures of the vocabulary words. What I noticedwas that the students had to internally pro-cess the vocabulary in order to create visualrepresentations of the words’ meanings. As aresult, I witnessed greater transference in thestudents’ writing and improved ability to rec-ognize the newly acquired vocabulary words.56 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 64. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.VOCABULARYSLIDESynonymVocabulary wordPicture or icon of vocabularyAntonymSentence using the vocabulary wordPart of speechName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 57
  • 65. 26 Concept or Vocabulary Map IGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardStudents often memorize definitions rather than study words or conceptsin depth. When students study words from different perspectives, theyare more likely to internalize the new vocabulary. Our understandingof vocabulary acquisition has evolved. Visualization has become a criti-cal component of effective vocabulary teaching. This organizer requiresstudents to visually represent key aspects of a new word or concept.CONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IImportant characteristics Wrong or incorrectcharacteristicsExample ExamplesConcept orvocabulary word. Easy to set on fire. Ignite. Hard to set on fire. Damp. Can’t igniteFlammable. Wood. Candles. Oil. Fire starters. Leaves. Paper. Ice. Damp wood. Water. SteelCelia Woldt20-Oct-09You or the student selects a word or conceptfor the center oval of the organizer. Studentsshould record key elements of the concept orword in the upper left corner. In the upperright corner, the students should record infor-mation that is incorrectly assigned to the wordor concept. Examples of the word or conceptare recorded in the lower left corner. Thelower right corner is where students can recordexamples that are not correct and explain whythese examples are incorrect. The Wrong orIncorrect Characteristics box and the crossed-out Examples box are the most challenging andwill need to be modeled for some students.If you have your own classroom, post the vocab-ulary maps. They can be arranged in a wordwall format. As you may recall, a word wall isa systematic organization of vocabulary words.The large letters of the alphabet are displayedon a classroom wall, and the vocabulary mapsare posted under the corresponding letters. Aword wall is not a display but a shared learningtool and a source for information.58 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 66. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.CONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IImportant characteristics Wrong or incorrectcharacteristicsExample ExampleConcept orvocabulary wordName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 59
  • 67. 27 Concept or Vocabulary Map IIGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThis version is different from Concept or Vocabulary Map I in that it ismore explicit about the placement of information and requires an exactdefinition for the vocabulary word or concept.What is it like? What is it not like?What is it?ExamplesWordCONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IIAll straight sidesAn enclosed figurewith all straightsides.CirclesEnclosed Polygon Ovals3-D figures2-DTriangle Square RectangleEllie McKnight20-Oct-09You or the student selects a word or conceptfor the center box of the organizer. In the boxdirectly above, students should write the dictio-nary definition of the word or concept. Studentsshould record key elements of the word or con-cept in each of the boxes on the upper left side.In each of the boxes on the upper right side, thestudents should record information that is incor-rectly assigned to the word or concept. Examplesof the word or concept are recorded in the boxesalong the bottom of the page.The ‘‘What is it like?’’ and ‘‘What is it NOT like?’’boxes can be particularly challenging. Be sureto model responses to these or allow studentsto work in pairs so that they will have greatersuccess in completing this activity.60 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 68. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.What is it like? What is it not like?What is it?ExamplesWordCONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IIName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 61
  • 69. 28 Concept or Vocabulary Map IIIGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThis version of the concept or vocabulary map requires students to includean illustration or visualization.ExamplesWhat is it?Word or conceptIllustrationDefinitionNonexamplesCONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IIIAnimals with segmentedbodies, antennae, and 6 or morelegs.ArthropodsLobsters SquidsButterflyGrasshopperMiceClamsLaura Woldt20-Oct-09You or the student selects a word or concept forthe center box of the organizer. Above the wordor concept box, students should write the defi-nition in the provided space. They should recordkey elements of the concept or word in each ofthe boxes on the left side. In each of the boxeson the right side, the students should recordinformation that is incorrectly assigned to theword or concept. They should place a picture oricon that visualizes the word or concept in theoval at the bottom.This organizer is particularly helpful with con-crete nouns similar to those that you would findin a science textbook.62 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 70. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.ExamplesWhat is it?Word or conceptIllustrationDefinitionNonexamplesName __________________________Date __________________________CONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IIIGraphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 63
  • 71. 29 Concept or Vocabulary Map IVGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThis version of the concept or vocabulary map requires a personal connec-tion with the new vocabulary word or concept.What is it?Word or conceptCONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IVDefinitionI can find this word... This word reminds me of...Examples NonexamplesTo be unwilling to spend moneyThriftyEbenezer ScroogeA bankerA person withoutmuch money.in a Christmas Carol byCharles DickensParis HiltonA wealthy personA movie starmy dadCelia Woldt20-Oct-09You or the student selects a word or concept forthe center box of the organizer. Above the wordor concept box, students should write the defi-nition in the provided space. They should recordkey elements of the concept or word in each ofthe boxes on the left side. In each of the boxeson the right side, the students should recordinformation that is incorrectly assigned to theword or concept. In the bottom two boxes,students write personal connections and ideasabout where they would encounter the word orconcept. These kinds of personal connectionshelp students connect to prior knowledge, thuspromoting retention into long-term memory.64 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 72. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.What is it?Word or conceptCONCEPT ORVOCABULARYMAP IVDefinitionI can find this word... This word reminds me of...Examples NonexamplesName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 65
  • 73. 30 Word DetectiveGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThe importance of encouraging students to study words cannot be empha-sized enough. In this graphic organizer, students are prompted to researchthe etymology of words and connect visual images to the words that theyencounter.WORDDETECTIVEText or quote where the word was originally foundDetectiveContext clue #1Context clue #2DefinitionPicture or illustrationSentenceWordPart of speechSherlock Holmes“Elementary my dear Watson.”They are solving acrime and SherlockHolmes believesthat clues are easyto come across.Elementary AdjectiveTo solve a crimeyou needto put togethersimple facts.The way to solve a crime isto use elementary knowledge.Involving only the most simple and basic facts.Sydney Lawson20-Oct-09You or the student selects the vocabulary wordto be recorded in the center box. In the boxabove the word box, students record thelocation where they discovered their word bywriting a direct quote from the text or the pagenumber where the vocabulary word or conceptwas first encountered. Context clues, which arehints or text that may indicate the meaningof the word, are recorded in the two boxeson the left side. The part of speech is placedin the oval on the right side. A sentence thatrequires students to use the new vocabularyword or concept is placed in the box at thelower center of the organizer. Below the sen-tence box, students write the exact definitionof the word. Finally, an image or illustrationthat represents the student’s visualization ofthe word or concept is placed in the bottomspace.You can use these sheets as templates for stu-dents to compile into their own vocabularydetective notebook. I particularly like this ideabecause students have a written record or his-tory of their vocabulary journey. Many studentslike to look back on the vocabulary that theyhave learned so that they can see how manywords they have encountered and learned.66 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 74. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.WORDDETECTIVEText or quote where the word was originally foundDetectiveContext clue #1Context clue #2DefinitionPicture or illustrationSentenceWordPart of speechName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 67
  • 75. 31 Six-Column Vocabulary OrganizerGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer is a learning log that allows students to cataloguethe etymology of vocabulary words they encounter in their reading.VocabularywordSentencedictionarydefinitionPart of speech Synonym AntonymPicture or iconthat representsthe wordSIX COLUMNVOCABULARYORGANIZEREllie McKnight6/16/09Monotonous Lacking varietyAt timesWithout logic ormeaningUnawareVery painfulTedious ExcitingAdjectiveAdjectiveAdjectiveAdjectiveAdjectiveVerbAsleepAwkwardTo explodeUnbearableAwakeCalmAssembleCalmRationalNeverSometimesAdverbTo lack comfortTo break openExcruciatingBurstUncomfortableUnconsciousIncoherentOccasionallyMidnight SunDisjointedStudents can use this organizer asa template for a vocabulary learn-ing log. It can be used in classroominstruction for students to keep arunning record of the vocabularythat they encounter and learn.Of all the vocabulary graphic orga-nizers that I have included in thischapter, I probably used this onemost frequently. It was especiallyhelpful for keeping a log or historyof vocabulary words from a partic-ular unit or chapter.68 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 76. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.VocabularywordSentencedictionarydefinitionPartofspeechSynonymAntonymPictureoriconthatrepresentsthewordSIXCOLUMNVOCABULARYORGANIZERBookTitleName__________________________Date____________________________________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 69
  • 77. 32 Vocabulary TreeEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsThis highly visual graphic organizer requires students to specify a rootword and related words, a strategy that supports students in learning andunderstanding new vocabulary.VOCABULARYTREERoot WordHexagonOctagonHeptagon PentagonHendecagonDecagonTetradecagonPolygonNatalie Palmert20-Oct-09In addition to using this graphic organizer as ameans to show how words can relate to a rootword, I have also used this graphic organizerfor expository writing. The students can use themain trunk for their thesis and the upper spacesto list details and evidence to prove the thesis.I have also used the tree graphic organizer as aprereading activity. The students will write theirmain prediction about the text they are about toread on the trunk and then use the upper spacesfor details and examples from the text to proveor disprove their prediction.70 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 78. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.VOCABULARYTREEName __________________________Date __________________________Root WordGraphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 71
  • 79. 33 Cyber Vocabulary DetectiveGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardOftentimes vocabulary words are assigned to students at the beginningof an instructional unit. This organizer prompts the students to find theassigned words on the Internet and to use this information to determinethe meanings of the assigned vocabulary.DIRECTIONS: As you look for your vocabulary words in the assigned Web sites, it is helpfulto use the FIND command. For each of the assigned vocabulary words, write the sentencefrom the Web site where you find the word. Guess what the word might mean.Web Site Name: ____________________________________________________Vocabulary word What might thevocabulary word mean?Sentence that includesvocabulary wordCYBERVOCABULARYDETECTIVEEleanor RigbyJune 29, 2009Yahoo, FinanceConfectioneryCapitaAbstemiousDiscretionaryPenetrateRecessionSkirmishesThe global confectionerymarket accounted for 50 billion inretail sales last year.Americans consume 25 lbs ofcandy per capita annually.Abstemious, positively with theaverage consumption of 16 lbs.....The global economic downturn mayhave caused many consumers to cutdiscretionary spending.Some beetles can penetrate wood.Recessions happen when the stockmarket crashes.In our school there are very fewskirmishes.All types of candyA prominent partModerateYou can do what youwant with itTo pierce throughWhen there is nogrowth in the economyFightsGive the students a list of Internet sites thatwill assist them in researching the vocabulary.The students can work in pairs to complete theorganizer.Here are some sites that I recommend for vocab-ulary research.Dictionary.com. This site offers a standardEnglish language dictionary.etymonline.com. This site describes the originsof words rather than supplying a traditionalor straight definition.Word.com. Sponsored by Merriam-Webster, thissite offers complete information about words.I am a big fan of this strategy for many reasons.Effectively using technology in classrooms helpsall kinds of learners. Exploring Web sites tolearn and study vocabulary is engaging becauseit is highly visual and resembles what peopledo in the ‘‘real world’’ to gather information;further, many Web sites provide audio support,which is particularly helpful for English languagelearners and students who have speech or lan-guage needs. The audio-supported Web sitesoften provide pronunciations of the words andhave auditory files for definitions and samplesentences.72 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 80. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.DIRECTIONS: As you look for your vocabulary words in the assigned Web sites, it is helpfulto use the FIND command. For each of the assigned vocabulary words, write the sentencefrom the Web site where you find the word. Guess what the word might mean.Web Site Name: ____________________________________________________Vocabulary word What might thevocabulary word mean?Sentence that includesvocabulary wordCYBERVOCABULARYDETECTIVEName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development 73
  • 81. CHAPTER FOURGraphic Organizers for Note Takingand Study Skills34: Cornell Notes35: Three-Column Notes36: T Notes37: Analysis Notes38: Summary Organizer39: Journalist Graphic Organizer40: Story Board Notes: Three Frame41: Story Board Notes: Six Frame42: Outline Notes43: The Five Senses44: Cycle or Food ChainGraphic Organizers 45–48: Bookmarks45: Bookmark for Reading Fiction46: Reading Reminder Bookmark47: Bookmark for Questions During Reading48: Textbook Reminders Bookmark49: Individual Performance in a Cooperative Group50: Cooperative Group Planner51: Portfolio Tracker52: Independent Reading Log53: Assignment Tracker75
  • 82. 34 Cornell NotesGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardDeveloped by Walter Pauk, an education professor at Cornell Universityin the 1950s, Cornell Notes is a widely used and accepted strategy fortaking notes. The students should take notes In the right-hand column ofthe organizer; the left-hand column is for corresponding questions, mainpoints, or ideas. The bottom space prompts students to summarize theinformation they have recorded.TopicCORNELLNOTESQuestions/key points NotesSummaryPenny LaneJune 29, 2009Legally Blonde, The MusicalWhy is the titleLegally Blonde?Why did she go tolaw school?Why is there aGreek chorus ?• Because a blonde went to law school and shewants a right to be blonde.• Because they wanted to add some of theThis article is about the musical Legally Blonde. It reviews how thecharacters make the musical much more entertaining and how it is fun.• Because she wanted to win back herex-boyfriend.vintage Broadway elements.Model this strategy for the students and remindthem of the five Rs of note taking:1. Record the most important or emphasizedinformation.2. Reduce and synthesize information wher-ever possible, making it as concise asyou can.3. Recite: read your notes aloud.4. Reflect and consider how this informationis connected to your personal experiencesand what you already know.5. Review: look over your notes more thanonce.Cornell Notes are most frequently used at thehigh school level. Oftentimes when we assigntextbooks for our students to read, they arefaced with text that is densely packed withinformation. Cornell Notes are a structure thathelps students pull out the key ideas and details.76 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 83. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________TopicCORNELLNOTESQuestions/key points NotesSummary__________________________________________Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 77
  • 84. 35 Three-Column NotesEasyMediumHard. Grades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsThis strategy should be used as a during reading or after reading activity.For a during reading activity, you and students complete the organizertogether. The first column is used to record the topic of the text ordiscussion. In the second column, students should record what they learnedfrom reading the text or from discussion. In the third column, the studentswill write their ideas and opinions as they reflect on the information aboutthe topic. Make sure that you model the strategy and explain how touse the column note structure.Topic from text orclass discussionWhat did you learnabout this topic fromthe text or class discussion?Record your ideas,thoughts, and opinionsTHREE-COLUMNNOTESOliviaFebruary 30, 2008John Adams • Died the same dayas Thomas Jefferson;his wife, AbigailAdams was a verybig feminist;he was the 2ndpresident and thevice president twice.• He wasn’t givenenough credit.• He was very obnoxious.• People may havedisliked him.Topic from text orclass discussionWhat did you learnabout this topic fromthe text or class discussion?Record your ideas,thoughts, and opinionsTHREE-COLUMNNOTESJohn McQuadeDec 1, 2008Global warming Caused by Co2emissions. Globalwarming includesglobal cooling.It is depleting ourozone layer.It is a very seriousmatter, it is affectingeverything.We need to stop itfrom moving forward.As the students progress from the first column to the 3rd, explain that they are carefully narrowing the topic. The first columnwill have the main topic recorded and as they progress to the second and third document, there will be more details andtext. The third column should be visually ‘‘packed’’ with details and information. For some students, offering a visual likesand passing through a funnel, this can aid their understanding.78 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 85. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Topic from text orclass discussionWhat did you learnabout this topic fromthe text or class discussion?Record your ideas,thoughts, and opinionsTHREE-COLUMNNOTESGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 79
  • 86. 36 T NotesGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer facilitates students’ ability to compare ideas andconcepts. Use the space at the bottom of the organizer page for studentsto record their opinions about the ideas and to summarize the recordedinformation. The students identify key ideas and concepts, and as theyrecord this information, they begin to develop language for the comparisonof ideas. Students also learn how to extend ideas and information as theyrecord parallels on each side of the graphic organizer. For example, when a statement or fact is recordedin the left-hand column, a parallel is required in the right-hand column. The students’ experience increating notes with the T Notes graphic organizer prepares them to write compare-contrast compositions.T NOTESJoe Brown12/1/08Global WarmingProblems Solutions- Kills animals- Melting ice- Messes up environment- Rising sea-level- Hole in ozone layer- Conserve habitats- Diminish greenhouse gases- Plants, trees, etc.- Conserve energy- Don’t fish a lotYou should model this graphic organizer forthe students. Using different colored markersor pens for each area of the graphic organizeris an effective way to emphasize the differentkinds of information.80 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 87. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.T NOTESName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 81
  • 88. 37 Analysis NotesGrades 5—12EnglishEasyMediumHardOne of the greatest obstacles for struggling readers is the ability to pull outmain ideas and details from a narrative text. Plot analysis notes prompt thereader to identify important information while applying elements of plot.Plot analysis notes are quite different from a multiple-choice assessmentin that students need to know and apply literary elements to a narrativetext.Categories:Traits/CharacteristicsName __________________________Date __________________________ANALYSISNOTESAmbitious and wants powerRelated to MacbethMacbeth’s friendSees the Three Weird SistersMember of Scottish RoyaltyRelated to King DuncanMacbeth Lady Macbeth Banquo King Duncan MalcolmYou will need to model this graphicorganizer. Instruct the studentsthat they must determine what isimportant from the text. Let thestudents know that there may beinstances when all the plot ele-ments cannot be applied. This isan effective tool for assessing stu-dents’ reading comprehension. Ingeneral terms, the more the stu-dents are able to add detail andpersonal comments to their notes,the greater their comprehension ofthe text.Review with the students the ele-ments of plot:Exposition: Usually reveals thetime, setting, and c introduce thecharacters.Rising Action: An inciting eventand foreshadowing are often inthe rising action and ends with theclimax.Climax: The turning point of thestory.Falling Action: The events after theclimax that leads to the end of thestory (resolution).Resolution: Concludes the actionof the story.82 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 89. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Categories:Traits/CharacteristicsName__________________________Date__________________________ANALYSISNOTESGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 83
  • 90. 38 Summary OrganizerGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, healthEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer prompts students to create main categories, sup-ply relevant details, and write a summary. The organizer develops thestudents’ skills in identifying key information and providing details thatfacilitate comprehension.SUMMARYORGANIZERMain idea Main idea Main ideaDIRECTIONS: Write down the main points and ideas from the reading andrelevant corresponding details. Write a summary of the main ideas and details in thecorresponding area.SupportingdetailsSummaryDon’t getcarried awayKinowasprotectingthepearlmorethanhisfamily.Thepearldealersweregreedyb/ctheydidn’twanttogiveKinomoneyforthepearl.JuanawastheonewhowasalwaysthereforKino.For “don’t get carried away” you always need to remember who you areand where you come from. For “greed” you always need to know what isthe most important thing. For “you will always need a friend”, you alwaysneed to have a friend in hard times.GreedThe PearlYou will alwaysneed a friendKinowantedthingsheknewhecould’thave.Kinogotcarriedawaywithhisprideofthepearl.Kinowasgreedybynotacceptingthepearldealeroffers.Thedoctorwasgreedyformoneyandpower.Kinodidn’tknowbutJuanawastheonlyonewhoseideawascorrect.Kinowenttohisolderbrotherforadvice.Natalie Palmert21-Oct-09You will need to model this graphic orga-nizer for students and explain how it preparesthem for assignments like quizzes and tests.Summarizing plays an important role inlearning. On one level, by asking students tosummarize important ideas, information, ortext, you are checking to make sure that theyunderstand content. Yet on another level, bysummarizing what they have learned, studentsare also opening the door to reflection. Whenstudents reflect on what they have learned,they begin to understand why the newlyacquired information is so meaningful. Thisorganizer maps out the details that lead stu-dents to reflect and to create a summarizingstatement.84 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 91. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.SUMMARYORGANIZERName __________________________Date __________________________Main idea Main idea Main ideaDIRECTIONS: Write down the main points and ideas from the reading andrelevant corresponding details. Write a summary of the main ideas and details in thecorresponding area.SupportingdetailsSummaryGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 85
  • 92. 39 Journalist Graphic OrganizerGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, healthEasyMediumHardIn their writing, journalists answer the five Ws: Who, What, Where, When,and Why. These questions are essential for writing and for reading text. Byanswering the five Ws, students will better comprehend texts and be ableto articulate what they know and understand through their own writing.WH0WHATWHEREWHENWHYJOURNALISTGRAPHICORGANIZERJustice SotomayorMario BolosonCongress holds hearing to confirm her as a U.S.Supreme Court JusticeCapitol Hill, Washington D.C.July 2009To approve the nomination of SotomayorYou will need to model this graphic organizer.After they have filled out the organizer, askingstudents the additional questions ‘‘What do youknow now?’’ and ‘‘Why is it important?’’ fosterspersonal response and greater comprehension.I love to ask my students these two questions. Ilearn a great deal about their thinking and whatI need to do next as their teacher. It is throughreflection, as prompted by these two questions,that students are more likely to synthesize whatthey are learning.86 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 93. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________WH0WHATWHEREWHENWHYJOURNALISTGRAPHICORGANIZERGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 87
  • 94. 40 Story Board Notes: Three FrameGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardWhen students visually represent what they are learning, they increasetheir understanding and comprehension, and the Story Board graphicorganizer facilitates this process. The boxes prompt the student to createvisual images of an episode, event, or scene. Each box represents a scene,main event, step, or stage. The three-frame story board prompts studentsto focus on the beginning, middle, or end of a story or the situation,problem, and solution for a history lesson or science experiment, for example. These story frames are alsoapplicable for problem solving in mathematics. The three boxes can present the problem, the approach to solvingthe problem, and then the final solution. The line in each box prompts students to use words to explain whatthey are portraying. This graphic organizer prompts students to think in both words and pictures. By identifyingkey information, students develop their skills in academic literacy and critical thinking. You can use it to assessthe students’ understanding of newly acquired material.STORY BOARDNOTESTopic Story Board Notes: Three FrameDIRECTIONS: For each box, write a short description of the scene anddraw a picture for the scene.Michael Phillips2/29/08Twilight: Edward is staring at Bella (thirsty) butBella has no clue to why he is acting hostile.Twilight: Edward saves Bella’s life with vampirespeed!Twilight: Bella and Edward realize the difficultjourney ahead to live together happily.You will need to model how to use this graphicorganizer. Encourage students to put as muchdetail as possible into their visualizations.Although story boards appear to be a simplisticactivity, they aren’t. We know that having stu-dents visually represent what they read helps themcomprehend the text. We also know that whenactivities incorporate several intelligences, stu-dents have improved comprehension. Story Boardsincorporate visual, kinesthetic, artistic, and, if thestudents are working in pairs or groups, social-emotional learning. I witnessed this in my ownclassroom as well as that of my friend Mary Green,who teaches seventh graders in Chicago. Mary’sstudents were clearly developing their compre-hension skills as we observed how the students’story boards contained an increasing amount ofdetail as they read novels in literature circles.88 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 95. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.STORY BOARDNOTESName __________________________Date __________________________Topic Story Board Notes: Three FrameDIRECTIONS: For each box, write a short description of the scene anddraw a picture for the scene.Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 89
  • 96. 41 Story Board Notes: Six FrameSee the description for graphic organizer 40, Story Board Notes: Three Frame.STORY BOARDNOTESTopic Story Board Notes: Six FrameDIRECTIONS: For each box, write a short description of the scene anddraw a picture for the scene.Susan HopesJuliet Dove Queen of LoveWhen Juliet gets the amulet of love. When she meets the rats.She talks to Athena. When she unlocks the amulet.When Eris is being mean to her. When Cupid is released.21-Oct-0990 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 97. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.STORY BOARDNOTESName __________________________Date __________________________Topic Story Board Notes: Six FrameDIRECTIONS: For each box, write a short description of the scene anddraw a picture for the scene.Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 91
  • 98. 42 Outline NotesGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsEasyMediumHardI remember when I learned how to take notes in outline form during myfreshman year of high school. Even today, I still take notes using thismethod of organization. Although a traditional strategy for taking notes,it is still quite helpful and an effective strategy for organizing informationand generating ideas. Outline note taking is particularly effective withtextbooks, as they are themselves structured in outline form.Ellie McKnight18-Sep-09You should model this graphic organizer forthe students. It is also important to notethat the most recent versions of word process-ing programs are especially useful for outlining.You could draw on these programs to teach out-lining. However, not all students have access tothis technology in the classroom, and a ‘‘hardcopy’’ provides a great introduction to thisstrategy.92 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 99. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.OUTLINENOTESName __________________________Date __________________________Outline notesI.A.1.2.B.1.2.II.A.1.2.B.1.2.III.A.1.2.B.1.2.Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 93
  • 100. 43 The Five SensesEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12Social studies, English, science, healthUsing the five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) facilitatesstudents’ ability to identify and comprehend new information, as wellas prompts them to extend what they know and understand about theinformation. Model this graphic organizer for students.DIRECTIONS: Record the title of the text and the character or scene in thespace provided. Write down details about the character or as it correspondsto the five senses.Sight: What do you see?Touch: What does it feel like?Hearing: What sounds do you hear?Smell: What do you smell?Taste: How does it taste like?THE FIVESENSESTitle ________________________________________________Dead peoplewith yellow eyesDirty, grimy, heatCarriages, horses,people cryingGarbageHorsesSour and bitterJack McCawSeptember 20, 2008Fever 179394 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 101. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Record the title of the text and the character or scene in thespace provided. Write down details about the character or as it correspondsto the five senses.Sight: What do you see?Touch: What does it feel like?Hearing: What sounds do you hear?Smell: What do you smell?Taste: How does it taste like?THE FIVESENSESTitle ________________________________________________Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 95
  • 102. 44 Cycle or Food ChainEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, mathematicsThis graphic organizer prompts students to identify important and criticalinformation in a sequence. It is especially useful for creating a plot chartfor a narrative text, illustrating a scientific sequence, identifying the stepsto solve a math equation, or identifying important facts of an historicalevent. Model this graphic organizer for the students when you introduce it.CYCLE OR FOODCHAINSun, carbondioxide, andwaterOxygenis releasedChlorophyllin plantsGlucose isformedPhotosynthesisOlivia Doe14-Nov-0996 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 103. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________CYCLE OR FOODCHAINGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 97
  • 104. 45–48 BookmarksGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceI have always found bookmarks to be one of the most helpful tools for active reading. They allow students torecord important information while they are reading, and can be used for• Keeping track of important characters or information• Logging the reader’s questions, ideas, and opinions during reading• Identifying vocabulary words that the reader may not knowBOOKMARKFOR READINGFICTIONName __________________________Date __________________________List the charactersthat you encounterin your reading:List the charactersthat you encounterin your reading:Literary termsConflictSettingIronyPoint of viewProtagonistThemeLiterary termsConflictSettingIronyPoint of viewProtagonistThemeWalter Hagstrom04/01/10John AdamsSamuel AdamsGeorge WashingtonThomas JeffersonBenjamin FranklinJiroIsakoKinshiYoshidaHanjiModel the use of bookmarks during readingthrough an in-class read-aloud. Tell the stu-dents that bookmarks will help them keep trackof important information while they are readingand studying.There are two copies of each bookmark on apage to reduce photocopying. I like to laminatethe bookmarks for the students so that theycan be used for the entire school year. Alsoencourage the students to use diagrams andcharts on the bookmarks so that it is easierto visually track characters or important plotevents.98 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 105. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.BOOKMARKFOR READINGFICTIONName __________________________Date __________________________List the charactersthat you encounterin your reading:List the charactersthat you encounterin your reading:Literary termsConflictSettingIronyPoint of viewProtagonistThemeLiterary termsConflictSettingIronyPoint of viewProtagonistThemeGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 99
  • 106. READING REMINDERSBOOKMARKName ______________________Date ______________________This bookmark reminds students of important strategiesto use while they are reading.Reading reminders• Ask questions while you arereading.• Make personal questions aboutwhat you’re reading to yourown experiences and whatyou know about the world.• Preview and scan the textbefore you begin readingso that you have an ideaabout what the readingis about.• Use a variety of strategieswhile you are reading.After you read ask yourself thesequestions to determine how wellyou have read the text:• Did you read for at least20 minutes?• Did you use a variety ofstrategies while you werereading?• Did you ask questions whileyou were reading?• Did you make personalconnections with your reading?• Did you understand what youread?What questions do youhave about the reading?Reading reminders• Ask questions while you arereading.• Make personal questions aboutwhat you’re reading to yourown experiences and whatyou know about the world.• Preview and scan the textbefore you begin readingso that you have an ideaabout what the readingis about.• Use a variety of strategieswhile you are reading.After you read ask yourself thesequestions to determine how wellyou have read the text:• Did you read for at least20 minutes?• Did you use a variety ofstrategies while you werereading?• Did you ask questions whileyou were reading?• Did you make personalconnections with your reading?• Did you understand what youread?What questions do youhave about the reading?100 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 107. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.BOOKMARKFOR QUESTIONSDURING READINGName ________________________Date ________________________Questions during reading• Why does the character ...• The main character wants to ...• The author’s writing remindsme of ...• I predict that _____will happen.• I was surprised by ...• If I could ask the characteror author a question, it wouldbe ...• The following quote_____________________________________________________________________________________p.___is interesting to me because ...________________________________________________________________________________.• The main conflict is ...• I wonder why ...Questions during reading• Why does the character ...• The main character wants to ...• The author’s writing remindsme of ...• I predict that _____will happen.• I was surprised by ...• If I could ask the characteror author a question, it wouldbe ...• The following quote_____________________________________________________________________________________p.___is interesting to me because ...________________________________________________________________________________.• The main conflict is ...• I wonder why ...Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 101
  • 108. TEXTBOOKREMINDERSBOOKMARKName __________________________Date __________________________Textbook remindersbookmarkLook at the chapter or section thatyou are about to read. Whatkinds of documents and texts willyou read (i.e. maps, charts,graphs, vocabulary...)?What kind of information is in thepull-out sections and side bars?Are there different colors or fontsin the text? Why?Does the textbook use color tomake specific information moreclear?Look at the graphics and photos.What information do these visualsreveal and represent?Textbook remindersbookmarkLook at the chapter or section thatyou are about to read. Whatkinds of documents and texts willyou read (i.e. maps, charts,graphs, vocabulary...)?What kind of information is in thepull-out sections and side bars?Are there different colors or fontsin the text? Why?Does the textbook use color tomake specific information moreclear?Look at the graphics and photos.What information do these visualsreveal and represent?102 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 109. Graphic organizers 49–53 are tools that facilitate students’independent evaluation of their own progress and their moni-toring of assignments and homework.Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 103
  • 110. 49 Individual Performance in a CooperativeGroupGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer encourages students to reflect on their learning andevaluate their individual performance in a cooperative group. It drawsattention to their role in the success of that group in completing anassigned task.2 3 4 Yourscore1How didI work inmy group?I didn’t focus onthe group and theassigned work.I sometimeslistened to groupmembers andsometimes paidattention.I worked in mygroup and helpedto get our workfinished.I worked in mygroup and helpedget our workfinished byhelping othermembers andsolved problems.How preparedwas I for mygroup?I forgot to bringmy work for thegroup.I had my workand my materialsmost of the time.I had my workand materialsevery time mygroup met.I had my workand materialsevery time mygroup met andI helped othergroup membersif they needed it.How well didI cooperate inmy group?I didn’t help mygroup members.I sometimeshelped my groupmembers.I shared my workand helped mygroup members ifthey asked.I willingly sharedmy work andhelped my groupmembers.How much didyou help yourgroup to solveproblems?I didn’t help tosolve problems.I had some ideasbut I didn’t sharethem.I had some ideasbut didn’t alwaysshare them.I shared ideasand often askedmy groupmembers forsuggestions andideas to solveproblems.TotalTopic Individual Performance in a Cooperative GroupCOOPERATIVEGROUPDIRECTIONS: Look at the following categories and decide what description bestrepresents your individual participation. Add the points for your total score.Name __________________________Date __________________________Ruby McClain10/10/10334212Working in groups often takes practice. Themore students work in groups, they better theybecome at working with their peers. Honestlyevaluating peers is particularly challenging. Asthe students consider the role that their class-mates played in their group, they also reflecton their individual performance. When stu-dents reflect on their own work, they are morelikely to internalize new skills and information.Discovering how each student can individuallycontribute or detract from a group’s task isessential for successful collaborative learningexperiences.104 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 111. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.2 3 4 Yourscore1How didI work inmy group?I didn’t focus onthe group and theassigned work.I sometimeslistened to groupmembers andsometimes paidattention.I worked in mygroup and helpedto get our workfinished.I worked in mygroup and helpedget our workfinished byhelping othermembers andsolved problems.How preparedwas I for mygroup?I forgot to bringmy work for thegroup.I had my workand my materialsmost of the time.I had my workand materialsevery time mygroup met.I had my workand materialsevery time mygroup met andI helped othergroup membersif they needed it.How well didI cooperate inmy group?I didn’t help mygroup members.I sometimeshelped my groupmembers.I shared my workand helped mygroup members ifthey asked.I willingly sharedmy work andhelped my groupmembers.How much didyou help yourgroup to solveproblems?I didn’t help tosolve problems.I had some ideasbut I didn’t sharethem.I had some ideasbut didn’t alwaysshare them.I shared ideasand often askedmy groupmembers forsuggestions andideas to solveproblems.TotalTopic Individual Performance in a Cooperative GroupCOOPERATIVEGROUPDIRECTIONS: Look at the following categories and decide what description bestrepresents your individual participation. Add the points for your total score.Name __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 105
  • 112. 50 Cooperative Group PlannerEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12All subjectsThis organizer helps students plan the activities and jobs of individualmembers of a group. It is used to describe the activities and expectationsfor each group member.DIRECTIONS: Use this planner to help you and your fellow groupmembers work collaboratively on the assignment/project.COOPERATIVE GROUPPLANNERTopic Cooperative Group Work PlannerOlivia Doe14-Nov-09How many times have we heard our studentssay, ‘‘Well (insert name) was supposedto do that?’’ When a collaborative assign-ment is due, oftentimes unsuccessful groupsbegin to blame each other. I believe that thesource of most of the students’ lack of successcomes from poor planning. This cooperativegroup planner, prompts students to organizethe tasks and goals for the group. If the stu-dents write down the plan for the cooperativegroup activity, it is been my experience thatthe blame game dissipates. Writing down theplan is akin to a contract and the studentsmaintain a stronger commitment to the work.Teachers can also use the cooperative groupplanner to monitor the students’ initial organi-zation of the group’s work.106 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 113. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.DIRECTIONS: Use this planner to help you and your fellow groupmembers work collaboratively on the assignment/project.COOPERATIVE GROUPPLANNER1. Does everyone know each other? Write down the names of yourgroup members and one thing that you know about them.2. Groups work well together when they have strategies for talking about ideasand material. Write down at least two strategies that your group will use inyour discussions.3. Be positive. List some ways in which you will contribute to a positivegroup dynamic.4. Assigning tasks. Groups work better when individual members have assignedtasks to complete. What will each group member do for this project?Name _____________________Date _____________________Topic Cooperative Group Work PlannerGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 107
  • 114. 51 Portfolio TrackerGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardPortfolios are a collection of student work. Designed to demonstratestudents’ development of knowledge and skills, they can be a substantiveand rewarding form of assessment. In order for portfolio assessment tobe effective, students must actively participate in keeping track of theirportfolio contents.PORTFOLIO TRACKERDIRECTIONS: Use this form to log the contents of your portfolio.Attach this to your portfolio.CompletiondateTitle of work Why was this workselected?PORTFOLIOTRACKERPaul PlatesNov. 16th.Feb. 3rd.Mar. 19th.Dec. 5th.Oct. 31st.My neighborhoodmapAncient Egyptian testLatin America videoworksheetEurope map projectAfrica powerpointI did a good job on thisand it was fine.I learned a lot and even thoughI did poorly on it I learned a lot.The video was well doneand I learned a lot.I learned about all ofthe countries in Europe.I learned the different typesof governments in Africa.21-Apr-09When you introduce portfolios to your students,explain that they document their journeysas learners. The portfolios should containexamples of their best work and examples thatdemonstrate their journeys. Both you and theindividual student should determine what toinclude in the portfolio.108 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 115. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________PORTFOLIO TRACKERDIRECTIONS: Use this form to log the contents of your portfolio.Attach this to your portfolio.CompletiondateTitle of work Why was this workselected?PORTFOLIOTRACKERGraphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 109
  • 116. 52 Independent Reading LogGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardReading books independently is integral to students’ literacy development.A reading log is a place for students to record their reading selections.It also assists students in identifying patterns—for example, preferredgenres or authors.PORTFOLIO TRACKERDate Titleand authorCommentsINDEPENDENTREADING LOGGenre (realistic fiction, comedy,fantasy, mystery, biography, poetry,adventure, nonfiction, science fiction,reference, folk or fairy tale)DIRECTIONS: Each time that you finish a book, record the information in thisindependent reading log.Julie Flecher3/14/094/06/095/19/096/12/097/9/09Juliet Dove, Queen of loveby Bruce covillePercy Jackson and theOlympians. The LastOlympian by Rick RiordanTwilightby Stephanie MeyerMy 30 Years Backstairsat the White House byLillian Rogers parksHarry Potter and theDeathly HallowsIt was really good and it held myattention through the whole book.It was fun to read and had a lotof action.It had action, romance, and holdsyour attentiion.This book reminds you of the littlepeople that kept American going.This book kept you reading and itwas filled with action.FantasyFantasyFantasyFantasyBiography11-Feb-09Introduce the reading log to the stu-dents and explain that they are torecord the author, title, and genreof the book, and to include com-ments. Explain to the students thatin the comments section they areto write down any questions theymight have about the book, discusswhat was interesting and what theyliked about the book, and whetheror not they would recommend thebook.110 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 117. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.PORTFOLIOTRACKERDateTitleandauthorCommentsINDEPENDENTREADINGLOGGenre(realisticfiction,comedy,fantasy,mystery,biography,poetry,adventure,nonfiction,sciencefiction,reference,folkorfairytale)Name__________________________Date__________________________DIRECTIONS:Eachtimethatyoufinishabook,recordtheinformationinthisindependentreadinglog.Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 111
  • 118. 53 Assignment TrackerGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardStaying organized and keeping track of assignments are integral to studentsuccess. Through regular use of the assignment tracker, students candevelop a sense of control of their academic work.WEEKLY RECORDASSIGNMENTTRACKERDIRECTIONS: Record weekly assignments and return with parent signature.Parent signature _____________________________________________________________________________Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday FridayLong-term projects Things I need to turn inMai Penso2/21/09Readchapters 1-4Math HW 32Vocab. pgs. 26-31Design afuture carFinish car projectGov. reportCompare andcontrastworksheetCar presentationsMake compareand contrast intoparagraphsRead ch 5-7Fever 1793Human DNA diagramReportsVocab pgs.ProjectsFever 1793Allow students to take some timeon Mondays to complete the assign-ment tracker. Remind them of duedates for the weekly assignments.The requirement of a parent sig-nature can remind the studentsto communicate with their parentsabout assignments. The parents canalso help in monitoring the comple-tion of assignments.112 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 119. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.WEEKLYRECORDASSIGNMENTTRACKERDIRECTIONS:Recordweeklyassignmentsandreturnwithparentsignature.Parentsignature_____________________________________________________________________________MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridayLong-termprojectsThingsIneedtoturninName__________________________Date__________________________Graphic Organizers for Note Taking and Study Skills 113
  • 120. CHAPTER FIVEGraphic Organizers for SupportingReading Comprehension54: Questioning the Author55: Question-Answer-Relationship (QAR)56: Gist57: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R)58: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, Reflect (SQ4R)59: Fix-Up Strategies60: Reading Connections61: ReQuest62: Story Trails and History Trails63: Text-Think-Connect (TTC)64: REAP65: PLAN66: PACA67: DRTA68: Text Structures69: Reference Frames70: Prior Knowledge71: Inference Prompter72: List-Group-Label73: Think-Pair-Share74: The Five WsThis chapter focuses on graphic organizers and reading strategies that sup-port students’ reading comprehension. As we know, effective readers use awide variety of strategies that include• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Visualizing• Monitoring• Making inferencesEach graphic organizer and strategy in this chapter will refer to this list ofsuccessful reading strategies.115
  • 121. 54 Questioning the AuthorGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Making inferencesThis is a strategy in which students use a series of questions to determine the author’s purpose and the extent towhich the author was successful; through these questions, the students must make an effort to fully comprehendthe text. This strategy was originally developed by McKeown, Beck, and Worthy (1993).DIRECTIONS: Once you have read an assigned passage, respond to the followingquestions and respond in the same way that you think that the author would.QUESTIONINGTHE AUTHORWhat is the author tryingto tell you?Why is the author tellingyou that?What would you sayinstead?How could the authorhave said things moreclearly?Does the author sayit clearly?There is Another Sky By: Emily DickinsonBilly JohnsonHow beautiful the earth is andthe sky is.That it shows you how toobserve the world.By taking out some of thenames.Yes, she does.To show you how beautiful theearth is and we must takecare of it.12-0ct-09This is a challenging content reading strategyand one of the most important. It has beenmy experience that when students question theauthor and take on a different point of viewor perspective, they begin to develop morecomplex and deeper comprehension of text.The Directed Reading and Thinking Activitydevelops the students purpose for reading aselected text. This activity helps students tobecome more active readers as questions areconsidered during their reading. When studentsuse this activity, especially when they are read-ing textbooks, they are better able to focus onthe content and main ideas and concepts.116 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 122. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Once you have read an assigned passage, respond to the followingquestions and respond in the same way that you think that the author would.QUESTIONINGTHE AUTHORWhat is the author tryingto tell you?Why is the author tellingyou that?What would you sayinstead?How could the authorhave said things moreclearly?Does the author sayit clearly?Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 117
  • 123. 55 Question-Answer-Relationship (QAR)Grades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Visualizing• Monitoring• Making inferencesThis reading strategy, developed by Taffy Raphael (1982), requires students to create questions of specifictypes, enabling them to become more strategic in their comprehension because they will understand where theinformation that is needed to answer the question will come from.DIRECTIONS: Once you have read the assigned passage, create a questionfor each of the listed categories.QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIPRight thereThink and searchAuthor and youOn my ownAnnie Hawthorne4-20-09What were the dates of theAmerican Revolution?Who fought in the AmericanRevolution?1764-Beginnings of Colonial oppositionwith the sugar act.1782-Peace negotiations in Paris.British American colonists.This is an overview of the AmericanRevolution.I think the Native Americans would havebeen happy to see everyone leave.I think they hoped that the conflictwould lead to the colonists’ departure.The British would have stayed and ourcountry would be part of the UnitedKingdom.The passage is one point of view.What would the Native Americansthink about the Amer. Rev.?The main idea of this textbookpassage ...What would have happened to theAmerican Colonies if the colonists lost?This is one of the most challenging contentreading strategies. Begin teaching this strat-egy by helping students understand that theirquestions will come from the text or their pre-vious knowledge. Raphael refers to these asthe core categories: In the Book and In MyHead.As the students become proficient with thesetwo categories, Raphael suggests that thestudents move to the next level of compre-hension question. In the Book becomes thetwo organizer sections Right There and Thinkand Search. The In My Head category becomesthe sections Author and You and On My Own.Be sure to explain the different kinds ofquestions:Right There. The answer is in the text.Think and Search. The answer is in the text,but you might have to look in several dif-ferent sentences to find it.Author and You. The answer is not in the text.However, you will use information from thetext and what you may already know torespond to this type of question.On My Own. The answer is not in the text.The answer comes from you.I often found that my students had the mostdifficult differentiating between the Authorand You and On My Own sections. Give thestudents many examples and model questionsthat you, as a reader, would create for thosesections.118 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 124. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________DIRECTIONS: Once you have read the assigned passage, create a questionfor each of the listed categories.QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIPRight thereThink and searchAuthor and youOn my ownGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 119
  • 125. 56 GistGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Monitoring• Making inferencesThe students will also develop their ability to summarize text.DIRECTIONS: Preview the reading selection and write down the keywords andphrases in the space, Keywords and phrases.Write a 20-word sentence summary using as many of the keywords as you can.Keywords and phrases20-word sentence summaryGISTMarvin PhelpsNefertiti was the great royal wife of Akhenaten,an Egyptian Pharaoh.• She and her husband believed in the God, Aten.• She is famous for her beauty.NefertitiNefertiti was the wifeof Akhenaten a PharaohShe believed in Atenthe sun God Shealso was a bust12-Feb-09Follow these directions when teaching the giststrategy and accompanying graphic organizer.1. Students will preview the text, paying par-ticular attention to headings, subheadings,and bolded vocabulary.2. Both you and the students will create a firstdraft outline using an overhead projector,chalkboard, or LCD computer projector.3. The students will read the text and use theoutline as a guide for understanding thetext.4. When the students complete their reading,they will create main idea statements andadd important details. You should provideguidance and modeling for this step.5. The students will create a summarizingstatement for the entire text passage. Theymust use the exact number of words asprompted in the graphic organizer.My students positively responded to this strat-egy. There is a competitive element in thatthe students had to create a summary with theexact number of required words.120 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 126. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________DIRECTIONS: Preview the reading selection and write down the key words andphrases in the space, Key words and phrases.Write a 20-word sentence summary using as many of the key words as you can.Title of reading selection ______________________________________Key words and phrases20-word sentence summaryGISTGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 121
  • 127. 57 Survey, Question, Read, Recite,Review (SQ3R)EasyMediumHard. Grades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceSQ3R is effective in supporting students in developing independentstrategic reading skills.Students will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesSURVEY Look at the headings and vocabulary. Make some predictions aboutwhat you will learn.SQ3RQuestions and vocabulary AnswersTake the headings and turn them into questions. Also write down vocabulary words.READ the text and write down the answers to your questions.RECITE and check your answers with a partner.Erik WattertonI will learn about the causes and the effects of the American Revolution.There were also a lot of legislative acts that provoked the colonists torebel against British rule.What were the different acts?What act was the worst one to thecolonists?What event started the fighting?How did the revolution finally end?Sugar Act, Townshend Act,Quartering Act.The Quartering Act was the worstbecause the colonists had to givehousing and food to British soldiers.Maybe the Boston Tea Party. Therewere actually several things thatstarted the fighting.The peace talks in Paris.30-Jan-09Causes of the American RevolusionExplain the steps that students are to followwhen using the SQ3R graphic organizer:1. Survey. Survey the chapter prior to reading.Look at the headings and subheadings, andskim the introduction and conclusion.2. Question. Once you have identified theheadings, turn them into questions.3. Read. Read the selection and work onanswering the created questions.4. Recite. Once you have completed the read-ing, close the text and orally summarizewhat you just read. You should take notesin your own words.5. Review. Study the notes and use them toremember what the reading was about.The students will need numerous opportunitiesto practice this strategy in order to becomemore active and independent.122 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 128. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (cont’d)Topic ______________________________________SURVEY Look at the headings and vocabulary. Make some predictions aboutwhat you will learn.SQ3RQuestions and vocabulary AnswersTake the headings and turn them into questions. Also write down vocabulary words.READ the text and write down the answers to your questions.RECITE and check your answers with a partner.Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 123
  • 129. Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (cont’d)REVIEW the answers to the questions and the vocabulary word definitionswith a classmate.SQ3RSUMMARYWrite a short summary of the text.The textbook section provides an overview of the event and legislativeacts that the British imposed on the American colonists. Therewere several years of these kinds of events and it took some time forthe American colonists to get annoyed enough to go to war. Not all ofthe colonists fought in the revolution. There were Tories. These wereAmerican colonists who were loyal to the British government and didn’twant a revolution.I didn’t know what a Tory was when I started to read the passage,I also learned about the Townshend Acts and what quartering means.124 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 130. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (cont’d)REVIEW the answers to the questions and the vocabulary word definitionswith a classmate.SQ3RSUMMARYWrite a short summary of the text.Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 125
  • 131. 58 Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review,Reflect (SQ4R)EasyMediumHard. Grades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceSimilar to SQ3R, this organizer has an additional step that supportsstudents in reading text strategically.Students will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesTitle Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, ReflectTopic ______________________________________SURVEY: Look at the headings and vocabulary. Make some predictions aboutwhat you will learn.Questions and vocabulary AnswersTake the headings and turn them into questions. Also write down vocabulary words.READ the text and write down the answers to your questions.RECITE and check your answers with a partner.SQ4RAmerican RevolutionI will learn about the causes and the effects of the AmericanRevolution. There were also a lot of legislative acts that provokedthe colonists to rebel against British rule.What were the different acts?What act was the worst one tothe colonists?What event started the fighting?How did the revolution finally end?Sugar Act, Townshend Act,Quartering Act.The Quartering Act was the worstbecause the colonists had to givehousing and food to British soldiers.Maybe the Boston Tea Party.There were actually several thingsthat ended the fighting.Ellie McKnight30-Jan-09Explain the steps that students are to followwhen using the SQ4R graphic organizer:1. Survey. Survey the chapter prior to reading.Look at the headings and subheadings, andskim the introduction and conclusion.2. Question. Once you have identified theheadings, turn them into questions.3. Read. Read the selection and work onanswering the created questions.4. Recite. Once you have completed the read-ing, close the text and orally summarizewhat you just read. You should take notesin your own words.5. Review. Study the notes and use them toremember what the reading was about.6. Reflect. Write down what this informationmeans to you and how it contributes to yourunderstanding of the text.As with SQ3R, students will need numerousopportunities to practice this strategy in orderto become more active and independent.126 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 132. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, ReflectTopic ______________________________________SURVEY: Look at the headings and vocabulary. Make some predictions aboutwhat you will learn.Questions and vocabulary AnswersTake the headings and turn them into questions. Also write down vocabulary words.READ the text and write down the answers to your questions.RECITE and check your answers with a partner.SQ4RGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 127
  • 133. Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, Reflect (cont’d)SUMMARYWrite a short summary of the text.REVIEW the answers to the questions and the vocabulary word definitionswith a classmate.REFLECTWhat did you learn about the topic and why is this important?SQ4R128 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 134. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________Title Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, Reflect (cont’d)SUMMARYWrite a short summary of the text.REVIEW the answers to the questions and the vocabulary word definitionswith a classmate.REFLECTWhat did you learn about the topic and why is this important?SQ4RGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 129
  • 135. 59 Fix-Up StrategiesGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardAs students read, they may run into difficulty comprehending a text. Thisgraphic organizer reminds students of key strategies that can help themunderstand text when they are struggling.PREVIEWGet a sense of a text before reading.PREDICTGuess what will happen.SET A PURPOSEDecide why you are reading.VISUALIZECreate a mental picture.CONNECTRelate personally to what you read.MONITORCheck your comprehension as you read.USE PRIOR KNOWLEDGEThink of what you already know aboutthe topic.MAKE INFERENCESDevelop logical guesses based on thetext and your own experiences.FIX-UPSTRATEGIESName __________________________Date __________________________Eric Stiles12/15/10I think this book is about teenageboys in gangs.Theyll fight with the otherboys and win.For fun.To learn more about high school kids.A bunch of boys, greased hair,standing around a cool old car.Ponyboy reminds me of my cousin, Ben.Johnny is like my friend, Tony.Boys in gangs usually havebad home lives.I bet Cherry will switch gangs to bewith the greasers.Explain each of the fix-up strategies and modelit for your students. You and your students canalso add strategies. The students can create abookmark with these strategies or paste theminside their notebooks for an easily accessiblereference.130 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 136. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.PREVIEWGet a sense of a text before reading.PREDICTGuess what will happen.SET A PURPOSEDecide why you are reading.VISUALIZECreate a mental picture.CONNECTRelate personally to what you read.MONITORCheck your comprehension as you read.USE PRIOR KNOWLEDGEThink of what you already know aboutthe topic.MAKE INFERENCESDevelop logical guesses based on thetext and your own experiences.FIX-UPSTRATEGIESName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 131
  • 137. 60 Reading ConnectionsGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Monitoring• Making inferencesWhen students connect to a text, they are personally responding to it. This organizer prompts students to makefour types of personal connections: to personal experiences, current events and prior knowledge, other subjects,and other texts.Personal experiences Current events and priorknowledgeOther subjects Other textsTitle of the textREADINGCONNECTIONSChristine Da’ae1/6/09I’ve read many GreekMyths before.Brain vs. BrawnBrain always wins• Greek Mythology• Percy Jackson series• Harry PotterWhen you avoiddodgeballs, you haveto be quick likeArtemis was.Artemisand theGiantsBe sure to explain to the students that thepersonal connections they make during theirreading will help them with their understandingof the text. Discuss the four types of per-sonal connections that we can make with texts.Remember, effective and successful readersmake connections both to their personal livesand to the ‘‘real world.’’132 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 138. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Personal experiences Current events and priorknowledgeOther subjects Other textsTitle of the textREADINGCONNECTIONSGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 133
  • 139. 61 ReQuestGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesReQuest (Manzo, Manzo, & Estes, 2001) is a reading strategy that gives students the opportunity to ask questionsof the teacher.DIRECTIONS: Read the assigned text and stop reading as requested by your teacher.At each stopping point, you will create questions to ask your teacher. Write down asmany questions as you can. Do this for each stopping point.REQUESTStopping point 1Stopping point 2Stopping point 3Stopping point 4QuestionsQuestionsQuestionsQuestionsHelenReQuestBastet (Egyptian Goddess)Why was she a cat? Why a solar and war Goddess?Who is Sekhment?Why did she have a cult? Why was she the protectorof lower Egypt? Why was a town named after her?Who were the 2 solar Gods? Why was she known aseye of Ra? Who was God of fire?Why did the Greeks change her name? Why did theychange her from a lion to a cat?12-Oct-09Use the following procedures when introduc-ing this strategy and using the accompanyinggraphic organizer.1. Choose a text that has easily identifiablestopping points for discussion and predic-tion. Prepare high-level (inferential, syn-thesis, and response) questions for eachsection of the text.2. Preview the text prior to reading. Discussbackground information and vocabulary.3. Inform the students that they, not you, willask questions about the text.4. Have the students read to a predeterminedpoint. Next instruct the students to writedown and ask as many questions as theycan. You respond to the students withoutlooking at the text.5. Once the students have asked their ques-tions, everyone will close his or her book,and now you will ask students your preparedhigher-level questions. At this point, you areserving as a role model for the students byasking these kinds of questions.6. Repeat the reading-questioning cycle foreach preselected stopping point for thetext.134 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 140. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Read the assigned text and stop reading as requested by your teacher.At each stopping point, you will create questions to ask your teacher. Write down asmany questions as you can. Do this for each stopping point.REQUESTStopping point 1Stopping point 2Stopping point 3Stopping point 4QuestionsQuestionsQuestionsQuestionsGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 135
  • 141. 62 Story Trails and History TrailsGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Visualizing• Making inferencesThis graphic organizer offers a structure for students to put events from a story or the stages of an historicalevent into chronological order. An understanding of the key events facilitates greater exploration into thestructure of the story.Are the events related by cause and effect, do they connect as situation-problem-solution, or is the story simplyone of beginning-middle-end? Recording the text and visual images of the key events also enhances students’comprehension.STORY TRAILSAND HISTORYTRAILSDIRECTIONS: Write down and illustrate the key events in chronological order.1 2 34 5 6Katie SullivanSugar Act 1764Key events that started the American Revolution1765-Stamp Act1767-TownshendRevenue Acts1770 Boston Massacre 1773 Boston Tea Party1774 First ContinentalCongress12-Oct-09When you first introduce students to story trails,select the key events through a large groupdiscussion. As the students recall the events,arrange them in chronological order and instructthe students to reexamine these events for spe-cific details that can be illustrated.136 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 142. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _____________________Date _____________________STORY TRAILSAND HISTORYTRAILSDIRECTIONS: Write down and illustrate the key events in chronological order.1 2 34 5 6Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 137
  • 143. 63 Text-Think-Connect (TTC)Grades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesThis reading tool graphically represents the student’s response to learning.Text factsConnectionsHow does this information connectto what you already know?What do you thinkabout the text?TTCTopic Text, Think, Connect (TTC)DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to record information from your reading andhow this information connects to your personal experiences.Amphibian in theSalamandridae familyfound in North AmericaEurope, and Asia.They have 3 distinctdevelopmental life stageslizard-like bodies,either fully aquatic orsemi-aquatic.It was a very informativearticle about newts andabout what they are.It connects by-I knewthat they can live onland or water, and theylive all over the world.Sarah Smith“Newts”1-Dec-09Explain the three columns of the graphic orga-nizer and their purpose.Text facts. In this column, students recordimportant information. This informationcould include direct quotes or words andphrases that interest the reader.What do you think about the text? In this col-umn, students record what they think aboutthe text and the author’s message. The stu-dents should record their impressions andmake efforts to interpret the text.Connections. When we read, we make personalconnections with the text. We connect thetext to our personal experiences, knowledge,and beliefs. In this column, students recordwhat this text reminds them of in their per-sonal lives.138 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 144. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Text factsConnectionsHow does this information connectto what you already know?What do you thinkabout the text?TTCTopic Text, Think, Connect (TTC)DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to record information from your reading andhow this information connects to your personal experiences.Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 139
  • 145. 64 REAPGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, mathematics, and healthEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferences• Point of viewThis hierarchical strategy is similar to Gist. REAP is an acronym forRead the text.Encode into your own language.Annotate by writing the message. (The annotations can be personal connections, questions, notes, or a personal reaction tothe text.)Ponder the meaning of the text.Read the textEncode into your ownlanguage (summarizethe passage in your ownwords)Annotate: Write downany connections, questions,or notes about the text.Ponder—What is thispassage about?REAPBob Michelson“The Lady or the Tiger”2/3/08A barbaric princess falls in love with aman, but her father hates this. Thedad puts the man on trial where he hasa choice of two doors, one with a lady(a reward) and a tiger (punishment)and the princess points to the one shewants the prince to open.It is interesting to look at the storybecause of your beliefs in human nature.I really wanted to believe the princesswould save her beloved.It shows how good and bad humanscan be.Writing effective summaries and notes takespractice. Students should have several opportu-nities to develop this skill.140 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 146. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________Read the textEncode into your ownlanguage (summarizethe passage in your ownwords)Annotate: Write downany connections, questions,or notes about the text.Ponder—What is thispassage about?REAPGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 141
  • 147. 65 PLANGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesPLAN is an acronym for predict, locate, add, and note. The PLAN strategy and accompanying graphic organizerhelp students visualize their reading.PLANP L A NPredict what youthink the text mightbe about.As you read the text,locate importantinformation.Add informationand detail from yourreading.Note what youhave learned fromthe text.Wildfires andhow they arehazards tothe environment.Article on wildfiresEthel Robertson6/4/09• Destroy animalshabitats andpeoples’homes.• Can be beneficialto certain plants.• Can cause landslides.• Can changewater quality.• Usually causecommunities torebuild.• Can coverlarge distances.• U. S. ForestService providesinformationabout the risksand how toprevent them.I have learnedthat forest firescan be helpfulto certain plantsand animals.Discuss the following directions and model thestrategy for the students using a think-aloud.Predict what you might learn from reading thetext.Locate important information as you read, usingthe following code: (?) for questions aboutthe reading and (+) for what you think youlearned from the text.Add details and information to the graphic orga-nizer from your reading.Note and reflect on what you’ve learned.142 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 148. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________PLANP L A NPredict what youthink the text mightbe about.As you read the text,locate importantinformation.Add informationand detail from yourreading.Note what youhave learned fromthe text.Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 143
  • 149. 66 PACAGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesPACA stands for predicting and confirming activity. Active readers make predictions as they read a text. Thisstrategy prompts students to make predictions and seek confirmation in the text.PACAPrediction Support(+) if predictionis confirmed(−) if predictionis not confirmedTopic Predicting And Confirming ActivityComplicated forhumansMarco Jolien“Mars, Meet Life”May be able to livethereScience is coming upwith improvementsMany problemsSome solutionsTake 2+ years to get toMars, very cold (-60˚°c)Can make it warmerUse solar-poweredengines (saves $)No water; only ice.Release the carbondioxide to creategreenhouseeffect = warmerNov. 5, 2008+++++When you introduce this strategy, have the stu-dents predict what they might learn from thetext. Students should think about what theyalready know and record that information onthe PACA organizer.Next, the students should read the text andconfirm their predictions. If the prediction isconfirmed, they should mark it with an (+); ifthe prediction is not confirmed, they should usea (−) sign. Students also record the text thatsupports their prediction.144 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 150. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________PACAPrediction Support(؉) if predictionis confirmed(؊) if predictionis not confirmedTopic Predicting And Confirming ActivityGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 145
  • 151. 67 DRTAGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, healthEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesDRTA stands for directed reading and thinking activity. This organizer prompts students to preview the text andmake predictions. As the students read the text, they should take notes that can provide support and evidencefor their predictions.Topic Generation with 6 ideas - Linear ModelDRTAPreview Take notes ReviewJim KatineyEgyptian Pyramids1-4-09Article talks about...-what the pyramidsare-How many pyramidsthere are-Oldest pyramid-Where the best arelocated-Pyramids are pyramid-shaped masonrystructures in Egypt-138 pyramids-Oldest pyramid isPyramid of Djoser-Best pyramids atGiza-Giza is the locationof Pyramid of KhufuPyramids are ancientpyramid-shapedmasonry stuctureslocated in Egypt.There are 138pyramids and theoldest one isPyramid of Djoser.The best pyramids arelocated in Giza,one of the pyramidsthere is Pyramid ofKhufu.It is helpful to conduct a think-aloud and modelthe strategy before the students use the orga-nizer independently.146 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 152. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Topic Generation with 6 Ideas – Linear ModelName __________________________Date __________________________DRTAPreview Take notes ReviewGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 147
  • 153. 68 Text StructuresGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesUse this organizer for students to examine the format and structure of a text; doing so supports readingcomprehension.TEXTSTRUCTURESWhat does thetitle reveal?What do youknow about the author?Look at the artworkon the cover? Whatdo you think this is about?Look at thejacket cover or theback of the book? Arethere interesting facts, orcan you make anypredictions about the text?Look at the table ofcontents.What do thechapter titles tell youabout the book?Lizzie WindsorThe Lightning ThiefMaybe someonesteals lightning andit’s a mystery.He has one son.The author is male.Medusa is on the coverand so is the Minotaur.Maybe the book isabout GreekMythology.It tells me the book isvery funny/weird.The main character is PercyJackson. The Greek Godshave children with mortals.The children train atcamp Half Blood alsothere’s a war withthe Gods.Dec. 12, 2008Model this organizer for the students. They canuse it individually or in cooperative groups.When readers understand how text structurescan develop and impact an author’s message, itsupports comprehension.148 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 154. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________TEXTSTRUCTURESWhat does thetitle reveal?What do youknow about the author?Look at the artworkon the cover. Whatdo you think this is about?Look at thejacket cover or theback of the book. Arethere interesting facts, orcan you make anypredictions about the text?Look at the table ofcontents.What do thechapter titles tell youabout the book?Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 149
  • 155. 69 Reference FramesGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Visualizing• Monitoring• Making inferencesThis graphic organizer incorporates students’ personal knowledge and experience along with new information.The rectangles facilitate the connections between previous and newly acquired information.Now I know...What I already know about the topic is...TopicREFERENCEFRAMESSally Tomlinsoncalled “fire fox” or “lesser panda”, mostly herbivoresmammal, bamboo feeder, slightly larger thana domestic cat.Red PandasEndemictoHimalayasinBhutan,SouthernChina,Pakistan,India,Lagos,Nepal,andBurma.Estimatedpopulationoffewer2,500matureindividuals.Habitatisstilldeclining.They are more related to theracoonthanthegiantpanda.Theyareendangeredmammals.Theyeatbamboo.14-Oct-09After filling out the Reference Frames orga-nizer, the students can create questions forhomework and compare their questions inclass, either in pairs or through whole groupdiscussion.Once the students have discussed their ques-tions, they can develop them even more andcreate a thesis statement to generate writing.150 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 156. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Now I know...What I already know about the topic is...TopicREFERENCEFRAMESGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 151
  • 157. 70 Prior KnowledgeGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• PredictingThis graphic organizer prompts readers to think about that they already know about a topic and then apply it tothe reading.What I already knowabout this topic.What I learned fromreading about the topic.PRIORKNOWLEDGELuanneArtemisRon LeadbetterMay 29, 2009• Goddess of the hunt• Daughter of Leto and Zeus• Twin of Apollo• Goddess of the moon• Symbol is a deer• Magical• Never without arrows• Depicted with crescentmoon• Identified with night• Virgin goddess• Lived in a uncivilised land• Helped in protecting wildlife• Weapon of choice: Bow• Goddess of contradictions• Goddess of healingRemind students that they know about manydifferent things and that this knowledge andinformation can help them with their reading.As a whole class, complete a sample graphicorganizer as a model.152 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 158. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Title ______________________________________Author ___________________________________What I already knowabout this topic.What I learned fromreading about the topic.PRIORKNOWLEDGEGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 153
  • 159. 71 Inference PrompterGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Predicting• Making inferencesStruggling readers usually have great difficulty in making inferences. Inferencesare logical guesses that are based on what is not directly stated in a text.Details fromthe storyAfter readingI know. . .InferenceINFERENCEPROMPTERRobert Jones2/9/08“ The Lady and the Tiger”• The people weresemi-barbaric.• The princess is inlove with a servantand when the Kingfinds out, he puts theservant on trial.• The king iscontrolling and wantsto know everything.• The trial was wherethe man chose between2 doors with a womanbehind one and a hungrytiger behind theother.• In the end, theauthor did not tell youwhich of the princesstold him where to look.• These people aresavage and mean.• Choices are notalways easy.• Life has difficultchoices.Make sure that students understand the differ-ence between making inferences and drawingconclusions. An inference is a step toward mak-ing a conclusion about a text.154 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 160. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Details fromthe storyAfter readingI know . . .InferenceName __________________________Date __________________________INFERENCEPROMPTERGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 155
  • 161. 72 List-Group-LabelGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, healthEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Making inferencesList-Group-Label is a prereading strategy. Substantial research into the ways in which human beings learn hasshown that the brain possesses a natural tendency to group and label new information, to categorize andsynthesize new information with what we already know. This graphic organizer draws on these innate brainfunctions.Write down the words that were brainstormed and words that youalready know.CATEGORIESLIST-GROUP-LABELSam CooperJune 1, 2009OceanWater pollution ice shrimp salt turtlespenguins sailing fish level rising (temp.) islandswalrus blue whales sushi sail boats coralwaves seaweed lobster trash surfers seafoodFood / Animals. Fish. Walrus. Coral. Turtles. Surfers. Penguins. Whales. Shrimp. Lobster. sushiEnvironment. water. Pollution. Temperature/levels risingwavesInanimate objects. Salt. Trash. Blue. Ice. seaweed. Seafood. Sailing. sail boats. IslandsIntroduce the topic of the text that you areabout to read. Through a whole class discussion,brainstorm any words that the students canrelate to the topic. Next, the students shouldscan the text and look for words that they know.The students can work on the next step in pairs.Taking the word list, the student pairs groupthe words and then label the categories.156 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 162. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________Write down the words that were brainstormed and words that youalready know.CATEGORIESLIST-GROUP-LABELGraphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 157
  • 163. 73 Think-Pair-ShareGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Previewing• Setting a purpose• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesIn this strategy, students will draw on their prior knowledge and share it with others. Active listening is alsorequired. Structured discussion activities like Think-Pair-Share develop students’ skills in being able to relateand discuss ideas.THINK-PAIR–SHARETOPICPartner 1 knows. . . Partner 2 knows. . .Darrius FoxgroverApril 28, 2009FractionsThey can be top heavy orimproper, numerator, denominator,two numbers that can bedivided, translate into decimalsand percents, part to part, arelike ratios, are divided by ahorizontal slash, they sometimescan be reduced. They can bemultiplied, divided, added, orsubtracted, part of math.The numerator is thenumber above the line, thedenominator is the numberbelow the line. The linestands for division so is3÷÷4. that is also how tofind the decimal equivalent.Top-heavy fractions arewhen the numerator is ofgreater value than thedenominator. Some fractionscan be reduced. Mixedfractions are that numbertimes the denominator.3-4Pair the students and have each student recallall that he or she may already know aboutan assigned topic. As the students share infor-mation, encourage them to ask questions andask for additional details. Students enjoy beingable to share ideas and information as they arelearning.158 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 164. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.THINK-PAIR–SHARETOPICName __________________________Date __________________________Partner 1 knows. . . Partner 2 knows. . .Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 159
  • 165. 74 The Five WsGrades 5—12Social studies, English, scienceEasyMediumHardStudents will develop the following reading strategies:• Connecting• Using prior knowledge• Predicting• Monitoring• Making inferencesAsking the five W questions is essential to any kind of inquiry. These are the five W questions:1. What happened?2. Who was there?3. Why did it happen?4. When did it happen?5. Where did it happen?These questions prompt students to explore the different elements of their reading. Through these questions,students will be able to identify the character and plot elements that will lead them to determine the author’smajor themes and ideas.DIRECTIONS: Respond to the following questions in the spaces provided.THE FIVEWsWhat happened?Who was there?Why did it happen?When did it happen?Where did it happen?Bob SmithJan 11, 2008“The Lady and the Tiger”A King has 2 doors 1 = tiger, 1+ = marriage.A man flirts with his daughter & is punished,the princess tells him to open a door,story stops unfinished.Princess / Lady behind the doorLoverKingBecause the King found his daughterand a lover together.Medieval times / Ancient timesIn a semi-barbaric countryModel how to answer the five W questions through aread-aloud with the students. This graphic organizercan be used by students individually, in pairs, or ingroups.160 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 166. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Respond to the following questions in the spaces provided.THE FIVEWsWhat happened?Who was there?Why did it happen?When did it happen?Where did it happen?Graphic Organizers for Supporting Reading Comprehension 161
  • 167. CHAPTER SIXGraphic Organizers for Writing75: Autobiographical Poem76: Historical Bio Poem77: Inquiry Chart78: Peer Review79: Entrance Slip80: Exit Slip81: Writer Checklist82: Sensory Starter83: Story Map I84: Story Map II85: Chain of Events86: Beginning-Middle-End87: Climax Ladder88–91: Persuasive Writing Organizers92: Writing Revision Organizer93: Prewriting Organizer94: What Happens?95: Character Creator96: Conflict and Solution Organizer97: Getting Ready to Write98: Writing Process99: Story Pyramid100: RAFT163
  • 168. 75 Autobiographical PoemGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis kind of writing is usually assigned at the beginning of the school yearas a way for the students and teacher to get to know each other.AUTOBIOGRAPHICALPOEMAUTOBIOGRAPHICAL POEMDIRECTIONS: Write your responses and create a poem using this organizer.Your first nameFour adjectives that describe youResident of...Son or daughter of...Brother or sister of...Lover of... (3 terms)Who likes to... (2 items)Who hates to... (2 things)Who would like to... (3 things)Your last nameLine 1Line 2Line 3Line 4Line 5Line 6Line 7Line 8Line 9Line 10Ellie McKnightEllieeccentric, creative, funnyChicago, ILKatie and JimColintheater, books, learninghave fun, actplay sports, fight with friendsbecome an actress, athlete, orteacherMcKnight2/2/09EllieEccentric, creative, funnyResident of ChicagoDaughter of Katie and JimSister of ColinLover of theater, books, and learningWho likes to have fun and actWho hates to play sports and fight with friendsWho would like to be an actress, athlete, or teacherMcKnightModel the autobiographical poem for your stu-dents. Write your responses and create a poemusing the graphic organizer. Students enjoysharing these poems, and you may want tocreate a classroom book of the students’ auto-biographical poems.164 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 169. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name _______________________Date _______________________AUTOBIOGRAPHICALPOEMAUTOBIOGRAPHICAL POEMDIRECTIONS: Write your responses and create a poem using this organizer.Your first nameFour adjectivesthat describe youResident of ...Son or daughter of ...Brother or sister of ...Lover of ...(3 terms)Who likes to ...(2 items)Who hates to ...(2 things)Who would like to ...(3 things)Your last nameLine 1Line 2Line 3Line 4Line 5Line 6Line 7Line 8Line 9Line 10Graphic Organizers for Writing 165
  • 170. 76 Historical Bio PoemGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis biographical poem is adapted to include facts and concepts that focuson particular people, subjects, places, or events in all content areas.HISTORICALBIO POEMHISTORICAL BIO POEMDIRECTIONS: Write your responses and create a poem using this organizer.First name of subjectFour adjectives thatdescribe the subjectResident of...Lover of... (3 people,places, or things)Who believed...Who used...(3 methods or things)Who wanted... (3 things)Who said...(give a quote)Line 1Line 2Line 3Line 4Line 5Line 6Line 7Line 8Bob FranklinBenjamin Franklinsmart, persuasive, wise, andinventivePhiladelphia, PennsylvaniaAmerica, science, writingthat the states should be freepersuasion, science, and writinga strong, independent, andfree nation.“fish and guests are similar. Theybegin to smell after 3 days”3/13/09Benjamin Franklinsmart, persuasive, wise, and inventiveResident of PhiladelphiaLover of America, science, writingWho believed the states should be freeWho used persuasion, science, and writingWho wanted a strong, independent, and free nationWho said, “Fish and guests are similar.They both begin to smell after three days.”Model the bio poem for the students. Studentscan create their bio poems individually or ingroups.166 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 171. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________HISTORICALBIO POEMHISTORICAL BIO POEMDIRECTIONS: Write your responses and create a poem using this organizer.First name of subjectFour adjectives thatdescribe the subjectResident of...Lover of...(3 people, places,or things)Who believed...Who used...(3 methods or things)Who wanted...(3 things)Who said...(give a quote)Line 1Line 2Line 3Line 4Line 5Line 6Line 7Line 8Graphic Organizers for Writing 167
  • 172. 77 Inquiry ChartGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, and scienceEasyMediumHardAn inquiry chart prompts students to record what they already know abouta particular topic.Topic __________________________________________Subtopic __________________________________________INQUIRYCHARTNew questions to researchKeywordsInteresting related factsResource Important ideasWhat I already know...Lilly Robertson4/16/09Civil WarGettysburgGettysburg was 3 battlesThe statistics of the warThey were north of D.C.General Lee was offered to join the Union before the Confederacy.Also Gettysburg was the turning point of the war.Little Round TopBig Round TopGettysburgAbe LincolnGeneral LeeSlaveryGettysburg (the movie)www.civilwar.comwww.gettysburg.comLawrence ChamberlainHow did the Civil War start?Why didn’t Lee just turn and take D.C.?How many troops did each side have?Inquiry charts can be used individually, in smallcooperative learning groups, or with the wholeclass. Students list their topic and any informa-tion that they already know about the topic.Next, they consult resources and note biblio-graphical information.The limited amount of note-taking space isdeliberate. It encourages students to selec-tively summarize important information. Thereis space on the organizer to record key wordsand questions that students might have whileconducting their research.168 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 173. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Topic __________________________________________Subtopic __________________________________________INQUIRYCHARTNew questions to researchKey wordsInteresting related factsResource Important ideasWhat I already know...Graphic Organizers for Writing 169
  • 174. 78 Peer ReviewGrades 5—12Social studies, English, science, health, and scienceEasyMediumHardPeer collaboration is an important part of today’s classroom, and it playsa role in the teaching of writing. Exchanging writing drafts helps studentsdevelop their ideas and gain important peer feedback. When students arerequired to offer peer feedback, they often have a difficult time structuringtheir comments; this graphic organizer supplies that structure.PEERREVIEWWhat are the strengths of thewriting?What questions do you havefor the author?If you had to limit your suggestions to just one, what would it be?In one sentence summarize what the author is trying to say in his or her writing.What words or phrases do you like or enjoy?DIRECTIONS: Read the writer’s draft and complete the following information.Remember to be positive and helpful to the writer.Sarah PetersonLilly RobertsonHair of FireMy memory sneaks back like a wild serpent in the grass ready to attack.Her hair was a threatening red.Her lips soft as rose petals begging to be kissed.You can’t always trust what you see.The author uses many differentforms of writing.Why did you write this story?What inspired you?How did you choose your title?Maybe you could have made the story a bit longer.Here are two additional suggestions when usingthe Peer Review organizer:• Remind the students to be positive about thewriting that they are evaluating.• Students should write comments and sugges-tions that will be helpful when the writercomposes a subsequent draft.170 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 175. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Writer ____________________Peer Reviewer ____________________PEERREVIEWWhat are the strengths of thewriting?What questions do you havefor the author?If you had to limit your suggestions to just one, what would it be?In one sentence summarize what the author is trying to say in his or her writing.What words or phrases do you like or enjoy?Topic/Title ____________________________________DIRECTIONS: Read the writer’s draft and complete the following information.Remember to be positive and helpful to the writer.Graphic Organizers for Writing 171
  • 176. 79 Entrance SlipGrades 5—12All subjectsEasy HardThis graphic organizer prompts students to tap into their prior knowledgeand serves as an introduction to a new unit or topic. Entrance slips areone of the most frequently used content literacy strategies because theyare so adaptable. They are effective tools for previewing content at thebeginning of a class period. This activity helps students focus on the topicof the lesson and what they will be learning.I know...I think...ENTRANCESLIPVolcanoes• They spew lava.• They are shaped like triangles with the tops cut off.• They also spew ash.• The lava is really hot.• Lava smoke from the volcanoes kills people.• The dinosaurs became extinct after a volcano erupted.• Magma is when the lava forms magma rivers around the volcano.Sydney Lawson3-Dec-09Distribute the entrance slip at the beginning ofclass and give students about three minutes torecord their responses.172 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 177. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________I know...I think...ENTRANCESLIPGraphic Organizers for Writing 173
  • 178. 80 Exit SlipGrades 5—12All subjectsEasy HardThis graphic organizer prompts students to think about what they havelearned. When students think about their learning, it is more likely tobecome part of their long-term memory and personal knowledge.What did you learn today and why is it important?EXITSLIPToday I learned how volcanic islands wereformed. They are formed when the volcanoexplodes. The lava cools on the water and hardensto form an island.This is important because I have a betterunderstanding of how some islands are madeand world geology.Olivia Doe15-Mar-09For a closure activity, distribute the exit slipsand instruct students to think about what theyhave learned and why it is important. Exit slipsare one of the most commonly used contentliteracy strategies and are an effective meansof assessment. Many teachers use exit slips todetermine how well students understand coursecontent. Exit slips also make students account-able for what they have learned.174 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 179. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________What did you learn today and why is it important?EXITSLIPGraphic Organizers for Writing 175
  • 180. 81 Writer ChecklistEasy Hard.Grades 5—12All subjectsPrior to an individual teacher conference, the students should completea checklist that guides them through the writing of their drafts. This writerchecklist also fosters student independence and responsibility. Model theuse of the checklist as needed.WRITERCHECKLISTWRITER CHECKLISTI have solid paragraphs that contain a main idea.Grammar is correct.Punctuation is correct.I have periods at the end of each sentence.I have quotation marks to indicate dialogue.My spelling is correct.I have sentence variety.My sentences make sense.I used transitions.My sentences are complete.There are no run-ons.There are no sentence fragments.I have an introduction that draws the reader in to my writing.I have correctly capitalized titles.My ideas are written in my own words.I have details that help the reader to understand my topic.My ideas and information are related to each other.I have listened to feedback from my teacher and peers on earlier draftsand applied it to my final draft.Title of pieceYes NoBob HughsHair of Fire12/2/09When students reflect on their individual work,they are more likely to retain what they havelearned. In countless instances, I have dis-tributed the Writer Checklist to students whenthey claim that they are ‘‘ready to submit’’ thedraft. I hand them the checklist and the studentwill often say, ‘‘I need to go back and revisesome more’’ when they see that they have notmet all of the expectations on the Writer’sChecklist. It is more valuable when studentscan critically examine their own work and makecorrections and revisions as needed.176 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 181. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.WRITERCHECKLISTWRITER CHECKLISTI have solid paragraphs that contain a main idea.Grammar is correct.Punctuation is correct.I have periods at the end of each sentence.I have quotation marks to indicate dialogue.My spelling is correct.I have sentence variety.My sentences make sense.I used transitions.My sentences are complete.There are no run-ons.There are no sentence fragments.I have an introduction that draws the reader in to my writing.I have correctly capitalized titles.My ideas are written in my own words.I have details that help the reader to understand my topic.My ideas and information are related to each other.I have listened to feedback from my teacher and peers on earlier draftsand applied it to my final draft.Name __________________________Date __________________________Title of pieceYes NoGraphic Organizers for Writing 177
  • 182. 82 Sensory StarterEasy Hard.Grades 5—12All subjectsGood writers use rich sensory details that facilitate the reader’s abilityto visualize the events in a text. This graphic organizer prompts stu-dents to compile sensory details as a prewriting activity. Model for thestudents how to use this graphic organizer as a prewriting tool.SENSORY STARTERSENSORYSTARTERTopicSee Smell Taste HearTouchCharlieMarch 30Medieval PeasantsCropsCattlePorridgeDungSkyTreesHousesRough dirtSlipperySoft bedsRoughwallsSweetflowersStinkydirtBitterfoodAwfulSweetBitterSaltyBirdsCallingCryingLoudQuietBusyTalkingGruntingAs a prewriting tool, the Sensory Starterprompts students to record details that canenhance a student’s writing. When I give stu-dents a prompt, I will always have at leastone students who claims, ‘‘I can’t think of any-thing.’’ The Sensory Starter can provide supportfor a student to cobble details and being tovisualize what they will write about. If studentscan ‘‘see’’ and picture what they will writeabout, it facilitates the drafting process. Sen-sory details are especially important for studentwriters because they help the reader to ‘‘see’’what the writer ‘‘sees’’.178 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 183. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.SENSORY STARTERSENSORYSTARTERTopicSee Smell Taste HearTouchName __________________________Date __________________________Graphic Organizers for Writing 179
  • 184. 83 Story Map IEasy Hard.Grades 5—12All subjectsUnderstanding the elements of a good story is critical for student writers.This graphic organizer reminds students of the essential elements of storystructure. Model how to use this prewriting graphic organizer during wholegroup instruction.Setting (include the time and place)CharactersProblemResolutionPlot/eventsSTORYMAP IDIRECTIONS: Write down key information for the story elements below.Colin Mc AndersThe PearlAn IslandJuana, Kino, CoyotitoKino becomes obsessed with a pearl he finds to the point wherehe beats his wife.• Kino finds the pearl• Juana begs kino to throw the pearl away• Kino beats Juana• Kino accidently kills Coyotito toprotect the pearlKino is so devastated at his son’s death that he throws the pearl away.3-Apr-09Howard Gardner was one of the pioneers in iden-tifying the needs of different kinds of learners.Essentially, the more modalities we integratein our lessons, the more likely our studentswill internalize new information and skills. TheStory Map facilitates the students’ organization,analysis, and understanding of a story. In otherwords, it helps students to keep the informationstraight. The kind of information that is usedto complete a story map is often conveyed bythe teacher in a large group discussion. Imaginehow difficult this might be for student who hassome difficulty in processing information orally.Before the story is discussed in a large groupdiscussion, have the students work individuallyor in pairs to complete the Story Map. Thisshould only take 5–7 minutes and then conducta large group discussion. Most likely, more stu-dents will participate and there will be greaterdepth to the large group discussion. Once thestudents have mastered Story Map I, they areready for the more complex Story Map II.180 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 185. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Setting (include the time and place)CharactersProblemResolutionPlot/eventsSTORYMAP IDIRECTIONS: Write down key information for the story elements below.Graphic Organizers for Writing 181
  • 186. 84 Story Map IIEasy Hard.Grades 5—12All subjectsThis is a somewhat more detailed version of Story Map I. Model how to usethis prewriting graphic organizer during whole group instruction.SettingWhereWhenMajor charactersProblemResolutionEvent Event EventSTORYMAP IIDIRECTIONS: Write down key information for the story elements below.Major charactersFiona WalshIn the middle of an old forest next to a small river.The 500thyear of the dark Elves rule.Draython the dark Elf leader took over the light Elf domainand Arion the light Elf king, and Synthrin the Queen Elf needto get their realm back.ArionSynthrinDraythonNytherSutherEytherDraython takesover the lightElves domain.The Queen the more magically gifted battles Draython to thedeath with blade and bow.The king and Queenof light go tobattle Draython.King/Queen getto police.5-Apr-09(See comments for Graphic Organizer 83)Once the students have mastered Story Map I(graphic organizer 83) they are ready for thismore complex version. This version requires thestudents to be more detailed in their analysis ofthe text. Characters and major events must beidentified and related to the major plot points.The students can visualize how the events andcharacters are related in this visual represen-tation. When I use Story Maps, I remind thestudents that they can always make adjust-ments to the graphic organizers. For example,the students can use highlighters and differentcolors to connect information that is relatedto a particular character or event. I find it veryhelpful for the students to complete this graphicorganizer in pairs prior to a large group discus-sion. It usually takes the students 7–10 minutesto complete this organizer.182 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 187. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________SettingWhereWhenMajor charactersProblemResolutionEvent Event EventSTORYMAP IIDIRECTIONS: Write down key information for the story elements below.Major charactersGraphic Organizers for Writing 183
  • 188. 85 Chain of EventsGrades 5—12All subjectsEasy HardThe Chain of Events organizer is used to describe the actions of a characteror the stages of events. In a science class, it is useful for organizing theelements of a phenomenon; in social studies, it can document a seriesof events; and in analyzing literature, it can be used to outline key plotpoints.First eventSecond eventFinal eventBeginningCHAIN OFEVENTSChloe AndersonXanaduWhen the 4 muses save a promising artist from killing himself.Clio falls in love with the marital Sunny.Clio tells Sunny she is a muse, then she goes to Mt. Olympus& is granted Xanadu, which is love.10/4/08Model the graphic organizer for the students.As you model, ask students for the first event,then the second, and so on.184 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 189. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________First eventSecond eventFinal eventBeginningCHAIN OFEVENTSGraphic Organizers for Writing 185
  • 190. 86 Beginning-Middle-EndGrades 5—12All subjectsEasy HardThis graphic organizer helps students organize story ideas and details intothe fundamental story sequence of beginning, middle, and end.Beginning-Middle-EndBEGINNING-MIDDLE-ENDBeginningMiddleEndJenny ParkerPenny Karkeris prepping forthe showNow she’s 8years older-now 13- andeveryonehates herbecause shehates everyoneShe runs awayto the circusOn a plane tothe circusWhen she getsto the circusher father isfurious,but happy shecame back, thecircus wasnothing withoutherShe stretches &then goes onthe trapezeShe falls off,get booed, &father tells herto go back toschool12-3-09Use a story with which the students are alreadyfamiliar to model this organizer. Have the stu-dents use the organizer as a prewriting activity.It allows them to sketch the basic outline ofthe story.186 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 191. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Beginning-Middle-EndBEGINNING-MIDDLE-ENDBeginningMiddleEndGraphic Organizers for Writing 187
  • 192. 87 Climax LadderGrades 5—12All subjectsEasy HardCreating a chain of events that lead toward the climax of the story ischallenging for a writer.CLIMAXLADDERElliot McDonald4/4/09A man goesto jail forlifeHe finds a pieceof paper withinstructions toescapeThe prisonerdecides to goin the escapetunnel.The prisonerfalls downthe tunnel andcan’t turn back...Use a story with which the students are alreadyfamiliar to model this graphic organizer. As stu-dents are drafting their story, they can use theorganizer to create a coherent string of eventsthat will lead to an effective story climax.188 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 193. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________CLIMAXLADDERGraphic Organizers for Writing 189
  • 194. 88–91 Persuasive Writing OrganizersGrades 5—12All subjectsPersuasive writing is most commonly assigned in the upper grades and high school. These tools help studentsorganize their ideas into cogent arguments.Model the four different organizers during large group instruction.Thesis statementSupportingevidence 1Supportingevidence 1Supportingevidence 1PERSUASIVEWRITING IIIArthur Boatwright11/1/09School should not be year round.Maintaining schoolyear round isexpensive.Teachers andstudents won’t bewilling to giveup theirvacation.Kids will loseinterest aftera while.PERSUASIVEWRITING IVThesisSupportingevidence #1Supportingevidence #2Supportingevidence #3DetailDetailDetailDetailDetailDetailDetailDetailDetailTanish SmithWe must save thered pandasThey are very cuteThey are importantto our eco-systemThey are rareYou need to savecute thingsYou must save rarethingsCreatures are rareand cuteThey eat somebugsThey eat things thatothers don’tThey are pickyeatersThey are veryhard to findVery little habitatsleftThey are a part ofan ecosystem6-May-09190 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 195. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Topic __________________________Name __________________________Date __________________________PERSUASIVEWRITING IOpening sentencesConclusionTransition (word or phrase)Transition (word or phrase)Transition (word or phrase)Support #1 topic sentenceSupporting evidence and detailsSupport #2 topic sentenceSupporting evidence and detailsSupport #3 topic sentenceSupporting evidence and detailsGraphic Organizers for Writing 191
  • 196. Topic __________________________Name __________________________Date __________________________PERSUASIVEWRITING IIIntroductionMain idea thesis statementSupporting evidence:#1#2#3Conclusion sentenceConcluding paragraphRestate Main Idea:Restate supporting reasons:Recommendations and/or predictions:Evidence #1Detail/Example 1Detail/Example 2Detail/Example 3Concluding sentenceEvidence #2Detail/Example 1Detail/Example 2Detail/Example 3Concluding sentenceEvidence #3Detail/Example 1Detail/Example 2Detail/Example 3Concluding sentence192 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 197. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________Thesis statementSupportingevidence 1Supportingevidence 1Supportingevidence 1PERSUASIVEWRITING IIIGraphic Organizers for Writing 193
  • 198. Name __________________________Date __________________________PERSUASIVEWRITING IVThesisSupportingevidence #1DetailDetailDetailSupportingevidence #2DetailDetailDetailSupportingevidence #3DetailDetailDetail194 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 199. 92 Writing Revision OrganizerGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer helps students compare a writing draft to an assess-ment rubric they have already received. Once they make this comparison,they have a plan for revision with specific details and ideas. This orga-nizer promotes students’ independence in developing a systematic planfor revising their writing.WRITING REVISION ORGANIZERDIRECTIONS: Look at the rubric that you received for this writing assignment. Look atyour writing draft and determine how your draft meets the rubric requirements and howit is different from the rubric requirements.My writing issimilar to the rubricMy writing is differentfrom the rubricWRITINGREVISIONORGANIZERContentOrganizationSpelling,grammar,punctuationSupport anddetailsIn my revision, I will. . .Wesley KarlonScience lab report: Pig dissectionAll of the pig parts werelabeled as describedI have met this criteria.I spelled most words right. I misspelled a few words.I described all of the pigparts.I could’ve described themwith more detail.Check all of the spelling and descriptive words.I could’ve separatedthe results in three s.I have organized theconclusion and resultswere organized in two s.1-Feb-09Model how to use this graphic organizer. Thestudents can work in pairs to analyze writingdrafts.196 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 200. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________WRITING REVISION ORGANIZERDIRECTIONS: Look at the rubric that you received for this writing assignment. Look atyour writing draft and determine how your draft meets the rubric requirements and howit is different from the rubric requirements.My writing issimilar to the rubricMy writing is differentfrom the rubricWRITINGREVISIONORGANIZERContentOrganizationSpelling,grammar,punctuationSupport anddetailsIn my revision, I will ...Graphic Organizers for Writing 197
  • 201. 93 Prewriting OrganizerGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer helps students determine the topic, audience, andpurpose for a particular piece of writing.PREWRITINGORGANIZERTOPIC AUDIENCE PURPOSEWhat am I going to writeabout?What do I know about thistopic?What information do I needto write about this topic?Where will I be able tofind this information?Who will read my writing?What could my audiencealready know about thistopic?How could my writinginfluence what my audiencethinks about the topic?What reaction or responsedo I want my writing toprompt?What should this writingaccomplish?Sarah ParkerElves/WarElves and their war. Ineed to know aboutElves’ swords,bows/arrows, and magic.I know about Elves andbows/arrows. I can findthis info in books andonline.My teachers and class.Almost nothing at all.By how they learn whatthey look likeand how they act.I want my writing toprompt questioning andunderstandingabout magical beings.20-Sep-09The students, through whole class instruction,can complete the graphic organizer so thatthere are several models to which the stu-dents can refer. This is also a useful homeworkactivity.198 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 202. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.PREWRITINGORGANIZERTOPIC AUDIENCE PURPOSEName __________________________Date __________________________What am I going to writeabout?What do I know about thistopic?What information do I needto write about this topic?Where will I be able tofind this information?Who will read my writing?What could my audiencealready know about thistopic?How could my writinginfluence what my audiencethinks about the topic?What reaction or responsedo I want my writing toprompt?What should this writingaccomplish?Graphic Organizers for Writing 199
  • 203. 94 What Happens?Grades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardThis graphic organizer supports students in outlining a narrative story.DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to organize the events that will take placein your story.WHATHAPPENS?Draw a picture of the setting for your story. Make sure that you includeWHO,WHAT, and WHERE.What is the firstevent?What is the nextevent?What is the lastmain event?ConclusionEmily FordJan 8th.Ana sneaks aboard thepirate ship and is foundby pirates and is takento the barge. She teaches John how toread (John is the bargewatcher) and the ship istaken by anotherpirate ship.They rescue the shipand she becomescaptain.John and Ana escape andJohn has a treasuremap.Model how to use this organizer; you mightwant to use a story that is the familiar to thestudents.200 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 204. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to organize the events that will take placein your story.Draw a picture of the setting for your story. Make sure that you include WHO, WHAT, and WHERE.WHATHAPPENS?What is the firstevent?What is the nextevent?What is the lastmain event?ConclusionGraphic Organizers for Writing 201
  • 205. 95 Character CreatorGrades 5—12EnglishEasyMediumHardStudents can use this graphic organizer to help them create a maincharacter for a narrative story.DIRECTIONS: Note the requested information to help you build a main character foryour story.Main character’s name:Main character’smemoriesMain character’s feelingsor attitudesThis character decides to...This character wants...CHARACTERCREATORJenny ParkerPenny KarkerChildhood at the circus,being on a trapeze.Spunky, friendly, misses thecircus.Rejoin her father’s circus, runaway from home.To be famous.Dec. 3 ‘09Model how to use this graphic organizer forthe students, perhaps using a character withwhom they are familiar. The students can workin pairs or as individuals. Students also enjoysharing their characters with one another.202 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 206. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Note the requested information to help you build a main character foryour story.Main character’s name:Main character’smemoriesMain character’s feelingsor attitudesThis character decides to...This character wants...CHARACTERCREATORGraphic Organizers for Writing 203
  • 207. 96 Conflict and Solution OrganizerGrades 5—12EnglishEasyMediumHardEvery good piece of narrative writing has a conflict and a solution.This organizer reminds student writers of this important fundamentalcomponent of narrative writing.DIRECTIONS: Note the requested information to create an effective conflict and solution inyour story.EventsthatbuildtheconflictEventsthatleadtothesolutionCONFLICT AND SOLUTIONORGANIZERWhat is the mainconflict?SolutionFred JohnsonThe dragon is found and thetown is leading a mob todestroy it.The green dragon hatchesThe farmer’s son finds thedragonThe dragon is discoveredThe boy defends thedragonThe boy convinces the townthe dragon is good by flyingon it.The boy rides the dragonto get awayThe boy shows the townhow nice he isThe dragon is a vegetarian20-Sep-09Model how to use this graphic organizer for thestudents. The students can work in pairs or asindividuals.204 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 208. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________DIRECTIONS: Note the requested information to create an effective conflict and solution inyour story.EventsthatbuildtheconflictEventsthatleadtothesolutionCONFLICT AND SOLUTIONORGANIZERWhat is the mainconflict?SolutionGraphic Organizers for Writing 205
  • 209. 97 Getting Ready to WriteEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12EnglishThis graphic organizer supports students during the prewriting stage of thewriting process. Demonstrate how to use this graphic organizer throughwhole group discussion.The Five WsWhoWhatWhereWhenWhyIntroductionGETTINGREADY TOWRITEThalia11/6/08For funEllie, Celia, Laura, OliviaPlaying around in the clay pitsSummer camp at the clay pits2009 summerOver the 2009 summer Ellie, Celia, Laura, and Olivia were atcamp and they went into the clay pits. They had lots of fun andgot dirty.I often tell students that the prewriting phasein the writing process is probably the mostimportant. It is in this phase that the studentsmust harvest their ideas and begin to committhem to paper. The Five W’s are foundationalfor any journalist. This organizer prompts stu-dents to identify the Five Ws. It has been myexperience that students are often stumbledby ‘‘Why’’ they are writing about this partic-ular event. Once the student writer is able toidentify the ‘‘why’’ it springboards them intowriting because they have identified the pur-pose/importance of the story.206 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 210. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name __________________________Date __________________________The Five WsWhoWhatWhereWhyWhenIntroductionGETTINGREADY TOWRITEGraphic Organizers for Writing 207
  • 211. 98 Writing ProcessEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12All subjectsStudents can use this graphic organizer either as a review of or introductionto the writing process.DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to document your progress throughthe writing process.WRITINGPROCESSPUBLISHINGEDITINGREVISINGWRITINGPREWRITINGMaria StrattI typed my essay.I rewrote my essay with all correctedmistakes.I corrected all spelling mistakes, and I addedsome more details.I decided to write a pursuasive essay stating myopinion that “Athens was better than Sparta.”I wrote my ideas down in a diagram and started writingdown examples to support them.5/4/09For lack of a better term, this graphic organizermakes students accountable for their writing.As students document what they have accom-plished in their writing at each stage of thewriting process, they reflect on what they havedone and consider next steps. This kind offocused reflection fosters ownership of a stu-dent’s work since they must document whatthey have accomplished in their work.208 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 212. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________DIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to document your progress throughthe writing process.WRITINGPROCESSPUBLISHINGEDITINGREVISINGWRITINGPREWRITINGGraphic Organizers for Writing 209
  • 213. 99 Story PyramidEasyMediumHard.Grades 5—12EnglishThis graphic organizer helps students organize story components, whichmakes it a useful prewriting tool. Model it through whole-group instruction.DIRECTIONS: Write the requested information in the spaces below.Main character’s nameTwo words describing this personThree words describing the setting or placeFour words describing an important eventFive words describing the main idea or the importance of this eventSTORYPYRAMIDMary Brown11/11/09Susie CrowShallow PrettySmall Quiet BoringCruel Unexpected Simple DevastatingMetamorphosis Realization Happy Selflessness GreatSometimes, documenting one’s understandingwith fewer words is far more challenging. WhenI ask students to summarize or identify theirunderstanding with fewer words they often pro-claim that they are ‘‘stuck’’. When I challengethem to go back and keep revising until theiranalysis is expressed exactly with the numberof words requested, I notice that they are moreprecise and critical in the analysis. The StoryPyramid prompts students to precise and eco-nomical as possible in the character analysis.210 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 214. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________DIRECTIONS: Write the requested information in the spaces below.Main character’s nameTwo words describing this personThree words describing the setting or placeFour words describing an important eventFive words describing the main idea or the importance of this eventSTORYPYRAMIDGraphic Organizers for Writing 211
  • 215. 100 RAFTGrades 5—12All subjectsEasyMediumHardRAFT stands for role, audience, format, and topic. This organizer helpsstudents plan successful writing.Role(Who are you?)Audience(Who are youwritingfor or to?)Format(Is this a poem,script, adventure,fantasy...)Topic(What will youwrite about?)RAFTDIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to plan your RAFT.William StaffordFrederick DouglassSlave holdersEditorialTo convince slave holdersto abolish slavery16-Apr-09Explain each of the organizer elements.Role. Students can take on any role they like,such as that of a scientist or a specific histor-ical figure.Audience. This could be another author, theU.S. Congress, or any real or imaginary group.Format. Students can choose any format. Hereare some suggestions:Journal or diary Play Science fictionLetter Newspaper article FantasyJob description Editorial Fairy taleResume Advertisement AdventureInterview Cartoon BrochureScience report Travelogue Children’s bookMemo Song How-to bookPoem Picture book Television scriptTopic. This could be one that you assign, or stu-dents can select one from assigned material.212 The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers
  • 216. Copyright©2010byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Name ______________________Date ______________________Role(Who are you?)Audience(Who are youwritingfor or to?)Format(Is this a poem,script, adventure,fantasy...)Topic(What will youwrite about?)RAFTDIRECTIONS: Use this graphic organizer to plan your RAFT.Graphic Organizers for Writing 213
  • 217. REFERENCESBeck, I., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach forenhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Cassidy, J. (1991). Using graphic organizers to develop critical thinking. Gifted Child Today, 12(6),34–36.Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. New York: Basic Books.Manzo, A., Manzo, V., & Estes, T. (2001). Content area literacy: Interactive teaching for interactive learning(2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Materna, L. (2007). Jump-start the adult learner: How to engage and motivate adults using brain-compatiblestrategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Worthy, M. J. (1993). Grappling with text ideas: Questioning theauthor. Reading Teacher, 46, 560–566.Ogle, D. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. ReadingTeacher, 39, 563–570.Piaget, J. (1974). The thought and language of the child ( M. Gabain, Trans.). New York: New AmericanLibrary.Raphael, T. (1982). Question-answering strategies for children. Reading Teacher, 36, 186–191.Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.214
  • 218. www.josseybass.com$22.95 U.S. | $27.95 CanadaCover design by Michael CookEDUCATIONReproducible Organizers thatHelp Kids with Reading, Writing,and the Content AreasTheTeacher’sBIG BOOKofGraphic OrganizersJOSSEY-BASS TEACHER GRADES K–12HANDMODELTopic Generator: Hand ModelName __________________________Date __________________________Lake Eriesmallest of theGreat Lakes involume(119 cubicmiles).The Great LakesContain 95%of US freshwater.Lake Huron2ndlargestof theGreatLakes.Lake MichiganThe only one of theGreat Lakes that isentirely within theUnited States.LakeSuperiorThe largestanddeepest.Lake OntarioSmallestof theGreatLakes.Penny SanersDecember 1, 2009Name __________________________Date __________________________SPIDERMacbethLady MacbethMacbethBanquoBattlefieldCharacters SettingKing Duncan’s CastleUpon the HeathWitches makepredictions aboutMacbeth.The first prediction comestrue which motivatesMacbeth to make theothers come true.Macbeth becomes a tyrantand rules Scotland with great cruelty.Fate can influence future.Ruthless ambition.Forfeiting moral standingfor power.Plot ThemeMary RogersApril 28, 2009TopiNameDateDERSTORY TRAILSAND HISTORYTRAILSDIRECTIONS: Write down and illustrate the key events in chronological order.123456Katie SullivanSugar Act 1764Key events that started the American Revolution1765-Stamp Act1767-TownshendRevenue Acts1770 Boston Massacre1773 Boston Tea Party 1774 First ContinentalCongressOctober 12, 20095–12Katherine S. McKnight100Research has shown that visually organizinginformation helps students better comprehendnewly acquired material. Graphic organizerscreate a strong visual picture for students andsupport their ability to learn facts, information,and terms. Students are literally able to seeconnections and relationships between facts,terms, and ideas.In this value-packed resource, veteran educa-tor Katherine McKnight shows teachers how totap into the power of graphic organizers, andoffers 100 organizers—more than any otherbook on the market—that support successin the classroom. All the graphic organizersoffered in this book promote active learning,which is central to effective learning. Using theorganizers as guides, students are promptedto ask questions and are encouraged to applycritical thinking skills.The book’s graphic organizers help teachers• Support teaching and studentcomprehension in learningnew material• Develop vibrant curriculum plans• Assess classroom achievement• Build students’ learning skillsThe book is filled with dynamic graphicorganizers that can be used before,during, and after learning activities acrossthe content areas and contains easy-to-follow instructions on how to apply andadapt each organizer. In addition, theauthor has included helpful strategiesfor teachers who want to create theirown graphic organizers for differentgrade levels.TheTeacher’s BIG BOOKBIG BOOKof Graphic OrganizersBattlefieldSettingKing Duncan’s Castleon the Heathn influence future.hless ambition.Forfeiting moral standingfor power.ThemeBBBKiKingKKingonon tn in influ n fnfluence futuutuiinflu nnfluence urure.ess ambition.hless amForfeiting moral standingral standingr powerer.f pfor powefor powerf ppgJOSSEY-BASS TEACHERB ttl fBattlefBattlefi ldieldieldS ttiSettingDg Du ’ncan’s C tlCastleehe Heaththe HeathTheTeacher’sBIGBOOKBIGBOOKofGraphicOrganizersGRADES5–12With Easy-to-Copy, Lay-Flat PagesMcKNIGHTEasy-to-CopyPagesTeacherKatherine S. McKnight, Ph.D., has been an educator for over 20 years.A former high school English teacher, she currently works as associateprofessor of Secondary Education at National-Louis University. She alsotrains educators regularly as a professional development consultant forthe National Council of Teachers of English, and presents at educationalconferences. She is the coauthor of The Second City Guide to Improv in theClassroom, Teaching the Classics in the Inclusive Classroom, and TeachingWriting in the Inclusive Classroom.Includes access to freedownloadable PDF versionsof the graphic organizersincluded in this book