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Bibliographic Control and Oclc

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A presentation covering the concept of bibliographic control as well as OCLC

A presentation covering the concept of bibliographic control as well as OCLC

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  • 1. Bibliographic control, library automation, and OCLC IST 603 October 25, 2006 Denise A. Garofalo
  • 2. Bibliographic control and library automation
    • Using a controlled vocabulary and following established rules for providing access to materials using technology was a natural progression
    • The standardized MARC record and the move towards using bibliographic utilities for processing helped the success of technology in libraries
  • 3. Processing
    • Automation and computerization have changed traditional methods of cataloging processing materials
      • Most libraries have centralized technical services or are a part of a cooperative network
      • Libraries purchase processing from vendors and suppliers
      • Processing is centralized, cooperative, and/or commercial (and generally automated)
  • 4. Bibliographic data sources
    • The Library of Congress has supplied bibliographic data to the majority of American libraries during this century
    • Automation has seen the development of large databases by vendors, networks and libraries (based on LC’s records)
  • 5. Cataloging operations
    • Libraries do two types of cataloging
      • copy cataloging
      • original cataloging
    • Cataloging and processing are tied together
      • both can be purchased from vendors
      • both are no longer isolated procedures
  • 6. Centralized processing
    • Centralized processing is any consolidated effort to bring under one control the operations necessary to prepare library materials for access and use at different service locations
  • 7. Centralized processing
    • A central office is responsible for the acquisition and processing of materials for all branches/members
    • Revisions are sent back to the central office for processing
  • 8. Processing centers
    • Different types include those responsible for task groups such as:
      • acquisitions and complete technical processing
      • ordering, cataloging, classifying but not physical processing
      • cataloging and classifying only
      • Online db maintenance
  • 9. Why a processing center?
    • Centralization and simplification of routines
    • Higher quality of cataloging
    • Creation of a union catalog
    • Opportunity to use more sophisticated tools (bib sources, equipment)
    • Greater level of efficiency (lower cost due to higher volume, staff specialization)
  • 10. Processing center problems
    • Compromises
      • traditional local practices may be eliminated for the “good of the whole”
      • sacrifice local control and flexibility
    • Cost analysis is needed to determine if cost savings is being achieved
  • 11. Cooperative systems
    • Cooperative systems involve independent libraries
    • Each library continues to perform some technical services tasks
    • Cooperation can involve sharing access to a bibliographic utility, discounts on bulk purchases and processing, some exchange of data, etc.
  • 12. Union catalogs
    • Generally developed to support resource sharing (ILL) in a specific geographic area
    • Union catalogs may be specialized (newspapers, serials)
    • Online union catalogs include those of the bibliographic utilities, regional and state networks, and those of individual libraries and their branches
  • 13. Purchased commercial processing
    • LC sold printed catalog cards in 1901
    • Commercial cataloging is usually described as centralized cataloging which is performed and sold by a non-library for-profit agency
      • Baker and Taylor, Brodart (jobbers)
      • The Library Corp (Bibliophile)
  • 14. Library automation
    • With MARC records easily available and library automation more accessible to all types of libraries, the arduous process of converting records and becoming automated is much less a hardship today than it was 10, 20 or 30 years ago
  • 15. Questions?
  • 16. Break time
  • 17. LC’s bibliographic services
    • Cataloging records
      • The Card Division sold printed catalog cards for materials, foreign and domestic, for which LC had performed cataloging
      • The Card Division became the CDS ( C ataloging D istribution S ervice) in 1975 to reflect change in product from mostly printed cards to mostly MARC records
  • 18. LC’s bibliographic services
    • Print services
      • Printed cards
      • CIP ( C ataloging- i n- P ublication)
      • Publishing book catalogs
        • NUC ( N ational U nion C atalog)
        • bibliographies
        • LC Classification Schedules
        • LCSH
        • New Serial Titles, etc.
  • 19. LC’s bibliographic services
    • Non-print formats
      • Many of LC’s bibliographic tools are no longer available in print format
      • The NUC is only on microfiche (1983)
      • Name authority records and subject authority records are now available for free online
  • 20. LC’s bibliographic services
    • Print order process
      • CDS has The Complete Catalog, which provides information on establishing an account, pricing and completing an order form
      • Ordering is best accomplished through the use of the LCCN ( L ibrary of C ongress c ard n umber)
      • The LCCN is found in CBI ( C umulative B ook I ndex), WR ( W eekly R ecord), the BPR (American B ook P ublishing R ecord), LJ ( L ibrary J ournal), and in CIP
  • 21. LC’s bibliographic services
    • CDS Alert Service
      • Issues subject selections of bib records produced at LC
      • Sent weekly
      • Subscribers complete profile and receive full LC cataloging for those subject areas selected
  • 22. LC’s bibliographic services
    • CIP
      • Started in 1971
      • Based on preliminary data provided by publishers
      • CIP is replaced by a full record when made available (i.e. when fully cataloged by LC)
      • http://cip.loc.gov/
  • 23. LC’s bibliographic services
    • MARC http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/
      • The MARC Distribution Service began in 1964
      • Started with English-language monographs
      • Formats for other materials developed over time
      • Format integration (one format for all) was implemented in 1993
  • 24. Other bibliographic services
    • The CONSER ( Con version of Ser ials) database
      • Sponsored by the Council on Library Resources
      • Used OCLC’s online facilities
      • Distributed through LC’s MARC Distribution Service--Serials
      • Began in 1976
      • After two-year pilot became a part of OCLC
  • 25. Other bibliographic services
    • REMARC
      • A retrospective conversion project to add MARC records for those materials previously cataloged on cards
      • Begun in 1980 by Carrollton Press
      • Goal was to convert the over 5 million titles cataloged by LC between 1897 and 1968
  • 26. Other bibliographic projects
    • NCCP ( N ational C ooperative C ataloging P roject)
      • Began in the early 1980s to create cataloging records in MARC format
      • Involved LC, Harvard and the University of Chicago
      • Data was input by Harvard and U of Chicago directly into LC’s database
  • 27. Other bibliographic projects
    • LSP ( L inked S ystem P roject)
      • Initiated by LC to link together the major bibliographic utilities in the US and LC
      • Involves the creation and maintenance of authority records
  • 28. Other bibliographic projects
    • NACO ( N ame A uthority Co operative Project)
      • All new names, series, uniform titles and subjects are entered into the LC database in MARC authorities format (established in the late 1970s)
      • Under the project cooperating libraries provide additional authority records through LSP
  • 29. MARC record types
    • LC creates USMARC records
    • Canada uses CANMARC
    • The United Kingdom uses UKMARC
    • Many countries use UNIMARC (established through the IFLA--the I nternational F ederation of L ibrary A ssociations and Institutions)
      • http://www.ifla.org/
  • 30. Online bibliographic records
    • To share such requires a network--those multilibrary entities established to facilitate resource sharing, reference, processing, etc.
    • These entities are also called bibliographic utilities
      • providers of computerized cataloging records
      • seek to make cataloging data widely and conveniently available, foster speed and efficiency, and facilitate resource sharing
  • 31. Online bibliographic records
    • Only one major online bibliographic network/utility today in the US
      • OCLC Online Computer Library Center
        • RLIN ( R esearch L ibraries I nformation N etwork)
        • WLN ( W ashington L ibrary N etwork)
        • Both now a part of OCLC
    • UTLAS used to be around
      • served some American libraries
      • was mainly used by Canadian libraries
  • 32. OCLC
    • Established in 1967
    • Is the oldest and the largest bib utility
    • Online operations began in 1971
    • Serves libraries through broker networks--NELINET, SYNY OCLC, SOLINET
  • 33. OCLC
    • Primary service is the OLUC ( O n l ine U nion C atalog), called WorldCat
    • WorldCat has over 68 million MARC records with close to 1 billion individual locations/holdings
    • http://www.oclc.org/worldcat/default.htm
  • 34. OCLC
    • You can search by:
      • browse search
      • names (personal, corporate, conference)
      • name and title
      • title
      • control numbers (LCCN, ISBN, ISSN, CODEN or OCLC control number)
  • 35. OCLC
    • Has authority files
    • The CJK system provides for cataloging Chinese, Japanese and Korean materials through this system and special terminals
  • 36. OCLC contributed cataloging
    • OCLC members can contribute cataloging to WorldCat (“bibliographic responsibility”)
    • New cataloging is entered in MARC format following OCLC rules
    • Members are obligated to follow AACR2, 2005 revised and check all name, uniform title and series headings in the NAF ( N ame A uthority F ile)
  • 37. OCLC’s other services
    • FirstSearch provides access to online informational databases
    • Serials control is available
    • The ILL subsystem is used by libraries worldwide to locate and request materials
  • 38. RLIN
    • RLG ( R esearch L ibraries G roup) was formed in 1974 with Columbia, Harvard, Yale and NYPL
    • RLG adopted BALLOTS ( B ibliographic A utomation of L arge L ibrary O pera t ion s , from Stanford University) and RLIN resulted
    • Harvard withdrew and Stanford replaced it
  • 39. RLIN
    • RLIN membership (at its largest members exceeded 100) was supposed to foster support of inter-institutional communication and instruction
    • Primary services were bib control and access, shared resources, collection management and cooperative development, and preservation of research materials
  • 40. RLIN
    • Main difference from OCLC—
      • OCLC attaches many holdings records to one bib record
      • RLIN preserves a separate bib record for every record cataloged and held by a library
    • Much smaller database than OCLC
    • All records were in MARC format
  • 41. WLN
    • Started in 1977 by the State of Washington
    • Involved 10 pilot libraries
    • Designed to give public and private libraries a comprehensive bib control system
    • WLN became a private, not-for-profit institution in 1988
  • 42. WLN
    • Bib records ere in MARC format
    • Authority database was much more sophisticated than RLIN or OCLC
    • Provided a high level of quality control
  • 43. Utlas
    • Began in 1983 as the University of Toronto Library Automation Systems
    • In 1983 became Utlas
    • Like RLIN there were separate records for each library’s holdings
  • 44. Bibliographic cooperation
    • OCLC began offering partial memberships in 1982
      • allowed for participation of all size libraries due to lower costs
      • also allowed members of other networks, such as RLIN, to access OCLC
      • tapeload members contribute holdings to OCLC and meet their “bibliographic responsibility” to share materials
  • 45. Online bib services
    • Use of an online bib utility does not necessarily result in change in the organization
    • Such participation should cause a reevaluation of policies and procedures
    • Generally the professional contribution to online cataloging is managerial--to organize policies and procedures for efficient use of the service
  • 46. Considerations
    • Utilization of all aspects of utility
      • pre-order verification
      • ILL
      • citation verification for reference
      • bib problem solving/cataloging
    • Placement of equipment
    • Scheduling of staff on equipment
    • Policy--review, update, modify
  • 47. Questions?
  • 48. Assignment
    • Wynar, Chapters 19, 20 and appendix
    • Cataloging homework assignments
    • Work on short paper

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