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# Converging Mirror And Diverging Mirror

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### Converging Mirror And Diverging Mirror

1. 1. Converging mirror and Diverging mirror
2. 2. Converging Mirro / Concave Mirror Cermin Cekung <ul><li>A converging mirror has a concave reflecting surface </li></ul><ul><li>Sebuah Cermin cekung memiliki permukaan pantul berbentuk cekung. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertex ( V ) is geometric centre of the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Vertex ( V ) adalah pusat bidang cermn. </li></ul><ul><li>C is Centre of curvature </li></ul><ul><li>The principal axis is a construction line drawn on a ray diagram. The principal axis passes through </li></ul><ul><li>the vertex and the centre of curvature, and is perpendicular to the focal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>The radius of curvature ( R ) is the distance from the centre of curvature to the mirror. </li></ul><ul><li>The Focal length ( f ) is The distance between the principal focus ( F ) and the vertex . </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between the focal length and the radius of curvature is: R = 2f </li></ul><ul><li>The principal focus ( F ) is a point on the principal axis on which incident rays parallel to the </li></ul><ul><li>principal axis either converge towards, or appear to be diverging from. </li></ul>V   C F R f
3. 3. Rules for drawing ray diagrams for converging mirrors Menggambarkan diagram sinar pada cermin cekung <ul><li>An incident ray that is parallel to the principal axis is reflected such that it passes through the principal focus ( F ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sinar datang yang sejajar dengan sumbu utama dipantulkan melalui titik fokus utama ( F ) </li></ul>2. An incident ray passing through the principal focus ( F ) is reflected such that it travels parallel to the principal axis. Sinar datang melalui titik fokus utama ( F ) dipantulkan sejajar dengan sumbu utama. 3. An incident ray passing through the centre of curvature ( C )reflects back along the same path. Sinar datang melalui pusat kelengkungan cermin( C ) dipantulkan kembali melalui jalan yang sama.   C F V 1   C F V 2   C F V 3
4. 4. Images formed by a converging mirror. Bayangan-bayangan yang dibentuk cermin cekung <ul><li>Distant Object / Benda Jauh </li></ul>2. Object beyond C / Benda lebih jauh dari C   C F V Real / Nyata Inverted/ terbalik Smaller than object/ diperkecil Between C and F/ diantara C dan F O I   C F V Characteristics of the Image Sifat bayangan Real / Nyata Inverted/ terbalik Smaller than object/ diperkecil At F / di F I
5. 5. 3. Object at C / Benda di C 4. Object between C and F Benda di antara C dan F  F  C V O I Real / Nyata Inverted / terbalik Same size as object/ sama besar At C / di C  C V  F Real / Nyata Inverted / terbalik Larger than object / Lebih besar Beyond C/ Lebih jauh dari C O I
6. 6. 5. Object at F / Benda di F 6. Object between F and V / Benda di antara F dan V  C V  F No image Tidak ada bayangan Reflected rays are parallel Sinar yang dipantulkan sejajar.  C V  F Virtual maya, semu Upright tegak Larger than object lebih besar dari bendanya Behind mirror di belakang cermin
7. 7. Summary table of characteristics of images formed by a concave mirror The images are formed by placing objects in different positions relative to a convave mirror. Rangkuman dari sifat-sifat bayangan yang dibentuk oleh sebuah cermin cekung. Bayangan-bayangan yang dibentuk dengan menempatkan benda pada posisi yang berbeda. at the vertex M = 1 Upright Virtual at the vertex between the vertex and infinity (-) M > 1 Upright Virtual between F and the vertex at infinity infinitely large indeterminate none at F between infinity and C M > 1 Inverted Real between C and F at C M = 1 Inverted Real at C between F and C M < 1 Inverted Real between infinity and C at the focal point infinitely small indeterminate Real at infinity (-) Position Size Attitude (orientation) Type (principle points) Image characteristics Object position
8. 8. Diverging Mirror/ Convex Mirror Cermin Cembung <ul><li>A diverging mirror has a convex reflecting surface </li></ul>  V F C R
9. 9. Rules for drawing ray diagrams for diverging mirrors Menggambarkan diagram sinar pada cermin cembung 1. An incident ray that is parallel to the principal axis is reflected such that it appears to have originated at the principal focus ( F ) Sinar datang sejajar sumbu utama dipantulkan seakan-akan datang dari titik fokus ( F ) 2. An incident ray heading toward the principal focus( F ) is reflected such that it travels parallel to the principal axis. Sinar datang menuju ke titik fokus ( F ) dipantulkan sejajar sumbu utama. 3. An incident ray heading toward the centre of curvature ( C ) reflects back along the same path. Sinar datang menuju ke titik pusat kelengkungan cermin ( C ) dipantulkan kembali melalui jalan yang sama. V F C 1 V F C 2 V F C 3
10. 10. Images formed by a diverging mirror. Bayangan-bayangan yang dibentuk cermin cembung <ul><li>Characteristics of the Image </li></ul><ul><li>Sifat bayangan </li></ul><ul><li>Virtuil / Maya , semu </li></ul><ul><li>Upright / tegak </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than object / lebih kecil dari bendanya. </li></ul><ul><li>Behind mirror / di belakang cermin </li></ul>  F C
11. 11. Equations for Curved Mirrors Persamaan untuk cermin lengkung. Mirror Equation <ul><li>Where - s is the distance from the object to the mirror (vertex) - s adalah jarak benda ke cermin ( vertex) </li></ul><ul><li>- s’ is the distance from the image to the mirror - s’ adalah jarak bayangan ke cermin. </li></ul><ul><li>- f is the focal length. </li></ul><ul><li>- f adalah jarak fokus </li></ul><ul><li>- h is the height of the object. </li></ul><ul><li>- h adalah tinggi benda. </li></ul><ul><li>- h’ is the height of the image. </li></ul><ul><li>- h’ adalah tinggi bayangan </li></ul><ul><li>- M is magnification of the image </li></ul><ul><li>- M adalah perbesaran bayangan </li></ul><ul><li>Sign Convention / Perjanjian tanda </li></ul><ul><li>All distances are measured from V/ Semua jarak diukur dari permukaan cermin (V) </li></ul><ul><li>Distances of real objects and images are positive (+). </li></ul><ul><li>Jarak bayangan dan benda nyata bertanda positif ( + ) </li></ul><ul><li>Distances of virtual objects and images are negative ( - ). </li></ul><ul><li>Jarak bayangan dan benda maya bertanda negatif ( - ). </li></ul><ul><li>The focal length for converging mirrors is positive but negative for diverging mirrors. </li></ul>
12. 12. Converging Mirror Practice Problems Latihan soal-soal cermin cekung <ul><li>A converging mirror has a focal length of 15 cm. What is the image distance if the object is: </li></ul><ul><li>a. 40.0 cm from the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>b. 10.0 cm from the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><li>a. f = 15 cm , s = 40 cm </li></ul>b. s = 10 cm
13. 13. <ul><li>2. A candle 3.0 cm high is 30. cm from a converging mirror </li></ul><ul><li>that has a focal length of 20. cm. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Where is the image located? </li></ul><ul><li>b. What is the height of the image? </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><li>a. h = 3 cm , s = 30 cm , f = 20 cm </li></ul>b. h’ = ? s’ = 60 cm in front of the mirror
14. 14. Diverging Mirror Practice Problems Latihan soal-soal cermin cembung <ul><li>3. A diverging mirror has a focal </li></ul><ul><li>length of - 10 cm. What is the </li></ul><ul><li>image distance if the object is: </li></ul><ul><li>a. 30.0 cm from the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>b. 10.0 cm from the mirror </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f = - 10 cm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S = 30 cm </li></ul></ul>b. S = 10 cm