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Aristotles

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  • 1. Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. He was the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by modern physics. In the biological sciences, some of his observations were only confirmed to be accurate in the nineteenth century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which were incorporated in the late nineteenth century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially Eastern Orthodox theology, and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as quot;a river of goldquot;), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one third of the original works have survived.[1] Contents [hide] • 1 Life • 2 Logic o 2.1 History o 2.2 Analytics and the Organon • 3 Aristotle's scientific method • 4 Physics o 4.1 The five elements o 4.2 Causality, The Four Causes o 4.3 Chance and spontaneity • 5 Metaphysics o 5.1 Substance, potentiality and actuality o 5.2 Universals and particulars • 6 Biology and medicine o 6.1 Empirical research program o 6.2 Classification of living things o 6.3 Theory of biological forms and souls o 6.4 Aristotle's successor: Theophrastus o 6.5 Influence on Hellenistic medicine
  • 2. • 7 Practical Philosophy o 7.1 Ethics o 7.2 Politics o 7.3 Rhetoric and poetics • 8 The loss of his works • 9 Legacy • 10 List of Aristotle's works • 11 Notes and References • 12 Further reading • 13 See also • 14 External links o 14.1 Collections of Aristotle's works o 14.2 Articles on Aristotle Life Aristotle was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[2] His father, Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years, not leaving until after Plato's death in 347 BC. He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip of Macedon to become tutor to Alexander the Great in 343 B.C.[3] During his time as the head of Macedon's royal academy, Aristotle gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. In his Politics, Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together. Tactfully, he included the young prince and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'.[4] Near the end of Alexander's life he began to suspect plots, and threatened Aristotle in letters. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle's grand-nephew Callisthenes as a traitor. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence for this.[5] By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died, and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira, who bore him a son
  • 3. whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.[6] It is during this period in Athens from 335 B.C. to 323 B.C. when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.[7] Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, economics, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time.[8] Upon Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, explaining, quot;I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy,quot;[9] a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates. However, he died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.[10] Logic Main article: Term logic For more details on this topic, see Non-Aristotelian logic. Aristotle's conception of logic was the dominant form of logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic. Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference. History Aristotle quot;says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'quot;.[11] However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned by the correct use of words. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deduction system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic.[12] Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions
  • 4. would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method.[13] Analytics and the Organon Main article: Organon What we today call Aristotelian logic, Aristotle himself would have labeled quot;analyticsquot;. The term quot;logicquot; he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: 1. Categories 2. On Interpretation 3. Prior Analytics 4. Posterior Analytics 5. Topics 6. On Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon, namely the fourth book of Metaphysics.. [12] Aristotle's scientific method Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms. For more details on this topic, see Aristotle's theory of universals.
  • 5. Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle, however, found the universal in particular things, which he called the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar. For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these. For Aristotle, quot;formquot; still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is quot;instantiatedquot; in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars, below). In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive, while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles.[14] In Aristotle's terminology, quot;natural philosophyquot; is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role. Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as quot;sciencequot;. Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term quot;scientific methodquot;. For Aristotle, quot;all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoreticalquot; (Metaphysics 1025b25). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics. If logic (or quot;analyticsquot;) is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics, Mathematics, (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy. In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today. In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e.g., botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and several other sciences. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Beginning in the sixteenth century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers.
  • 6. A green and red Perseid meteor is striking the sky just below the Milky Way in August 2007. His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females.[15] In a similar vein, John Philoponus, and later Galileo, showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.[16] On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of quot;those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays,quot; pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given quot;current astronomical demonstrationsquot; that quot;the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then...the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them.quot;[17] In places, Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason. Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective, and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws. Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics, which was widely accepted up until the 1500s. From the 3rd century to the 1500s, the dominant view held that the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentrism). Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch.[18] However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields. For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants. Physics Main article: Physics (Aristotle) The five elements
  • 7. Main article: Classical element • Fire, which is hot and dry. • Earth, which is cold and dry. • Air, which is hot and wet. • Water, which is cold and wet. • Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets). Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place; the earth at the centre of the universe, then water, then air, then fire. When they are out of their natural place they have natural motion, requiring no external cause, which is towards that place; so bodies sink in water, air bubbles up, rain falls, flame rises in air. The heavenly element has perpetual circular motion. Causality, The Four Causes Main article: Four causes • The material cause is that from which a thing comes into existence as from its part, constituents, substratum or materials. This reduces the explanation of causes to the parts (factors, elements, constituents, ingredients) forming the whole (system, structure, compound, complex, composite, or combination), a relationship known as the part-whole causation. Simply put it is the influence of the material substances on the event. So imagine two dominos, the first of which is lighter. The first is knocked over into the second but does not have enough power to knock it over, this is Material cause. • The formal cause tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put it is the influence of the form (essence) of the things on the event. So take the two dominos again except this time the second is shaped to prevent it from falling *eg. triangular.* this is formal cause. • The efficient cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of quot;causequot; as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in motion. So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the second also to fall over. This is effectively efficient cause. • The final cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation, or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, all that gives purpose to behavior.
  • 8. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect). Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). Taking our two dominos, it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Essentially, causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect. All further investigations of causality will consist of imposing the favorite hierarchies on the order causes, such as final > efficient > material > formal (Thomas Aquinas), or of restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or to the efficient causality (deterministic or chance) or just to regular sequences and correlations of natural phenomena (the natural sciences describing how things happen instead of explaining the whys and wherefores). Chance and spontaneity Spontaneity and chance are causes of effects. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. It is quot;from what is spontaneousquot; (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of quot;chancequot; it might be better to think of quot;coincidencequot;: Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place. For example: A person seeks donations. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. It must be unusual that something happens by chance. In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance. There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names quot;luckquot;, that can only apply to human beings, since it is in the sphere of moral actions. According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice. quot;What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chancequot;.[19] Metaphysics Main article: Metaphysics (Aristotle)
  • 9. Aristotle defines metaphysics as quot;the knowledge of immaterial being,quot; or of quot;being in the highest degree of abstraction.quot; He refers to metaphysics as quot;first philosophyquot;, as well as quot;the theologic science.quot; Substance, potentiality and actuality Aristotle examines the concept of substance and essence (ousia) in his Metaphysics, Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. As he proceeds to the book VIII, he concludes that the matter of the substance is the substratum or the stuff of which it is composed, e.g. the matter of the house are the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house. While the form of the substance, is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables). The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.[20] With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1) growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; 2) locomotion, which is change in space; and 3) alteration, which is change in quality. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate - being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise - acting). Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that actuality is when the seed of the plant becomes a plant. quot; For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see.quot;[21] In conclusion, the matter of the house is its potentiality and the form is its actuality. The formal cause (aitia) then of that change from potential to actual house, is the reason (logos) of the house builder and the final cause is the end, namely the house itself. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality.
  • 10. With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, e.g., what is that makes the man one? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same thing.[22] Universals and particulars Main article: Aristotle's theory of universals Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but quot;goodquot; is still a proper universal form. Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher that agreed with Plato on the existence of quot;uninstantiated universalsquot;. Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated. Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist. One way for contemporary philosophers to justify this position is by asserting the eleatic principle. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms. Biology and medicine In Aristotelian science, most especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals, but not humans and his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded. Empirical research program
  • 11. Octopus swimming Torpedo fuscomaculata Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos, and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. The works that reflect this research, such as History of Animals, Generation of Animals, and Parts of Animals, contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on catfish, electric fish (Torpedo) and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods, namely, Octopus, Sepia (cuttlefish) and the paper nautilus (Argonauta argo). His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time, and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the nineteenth century. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selachē (selachians).[23] Leopard shark Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated. He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants' four-chambered fore-stomachs, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus.[24] Classification of living things
  • 12. Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the nineteenth century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates do make use of haemoglobin, but of a different kind from vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus, who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms). For Charles Singer, quot;Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturaequot;[23] Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical quot;Ladder of Lifequot; (scala naturae), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.[25] Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i.e., formal causes, guided all natural processes. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. Noting that quot;no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns,quot; and quot;a single- hooved animal with two horns I have never seen,quot; Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Noting that ruminants had a multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance.[26] In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.[27] His system had eleven grades, arranged according quot;to the degree to which they are infected with potentialityquot;, expressed in their form at birth. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs. Theory of biological forms and souls Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. Ideas like this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in modern times. He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed, asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection.[28] Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.[29] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.[30]
  • 13. His analysis of procreation is frequently criticized on the grounds that it presupposes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive, lumpen female element; it is on these grounds that Aristotle is considered by some feminist critics to have been a misogynist.[31] Aristotle's successor: Theophrastus Frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), which was originally written around 200 BC Main articles: Theophrastus and Historia Plantarum Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants—which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages. Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel. Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages.[32] Influence on Hellenistic medicine For more details on this topic, see Medicine in ancient Greece. After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.[33] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. The first medical teacher at Alexandria Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. [34] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr
  • 14. claimed that there was quot;nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance.quot;[35] Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.[36] Practical Philosophy Ethics Main article: Aristotelian ethics Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical science, i.e., one mastered by doing rather than merely reasoning. Further, Aristotle believed that ethical knowledge is not certain knowledge (such as metaphysics or epistemology) but is general knowledge. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, Nichomachean Ethics, in which he outlines what is commonly called virtue ethics. Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that man must have a function uncommon to anything else, and that this function must be an activity of the soul. Aristotle identified the best activity of the soul as eudaimonia: a happiness or joy that pervades the good life. Aristotle taught that to achieve the good life, one must live a balanced life and avoid excess. This balance, he taught, varies among different persons and situations, and exists as a golden mean between two vices - one an excess and one a deficiency. Politics Main article: Politics (Aristotle) In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.[37] Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, i.e., last in the order of becoming, but first in the order of being . He is also famous for his statement that quot;man is by nature a political animal.quot; Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. It should be noted that the modern understanding of a political community is that of the state. However, the state was foreign to Aristotle. He referred to political communities as cities. Aristotle understood a city as a political quot;partnershipquot; and not one of a social contract (or compact) or a political community as understood by Niccolò Machiavelli. Subsequently, a city is created not to avoid injustice or for economic stability , but rather to live a good life: quot;The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living togetherquot; . This can be distinguished from the social contract theory which individuals leave the state of nature because of quot;fear of violent deathquot; or its quot;inconveniences.quot;[38]
  • 15. Rhetoric and poetics Main articles: Rhetoric (Aristotle) and Poetics (Aristotle) Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative, each varying in imitation by media, object, and manner.[39] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation - through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.[40] Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.[41] While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books - one on comedy and one on tragedy - only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, spectacle, and lyric poetry.[42] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.[43] Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.[44] The loss of his works According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: the quot;exotericquot; and the quot;esotericquot;.[45] Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the more technical works (esoteric) intended for the narrower audience of Aristotle's students and other philosophers who were familiar with the jargon and issues typical of the Platonic and Aristotelian schools. Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant - that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form. (Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived.) Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as quot;a river of goldquot;;[46] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us.[47] However, some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works.[48] One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us?[49] The story of the original manuscripts
  • 16. of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives.[50] The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus, who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis, where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the first century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome, where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes. Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides quot;the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.C.quot;[51] Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story, however. First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair. Second, there is quot;incontrovertible evidence,quot; Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his. And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelean corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelean interpolations in the Politics, for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact. As the influence of the falsafa grew in the West, in part due to Gerard of Cremona's translations and the spread of Averroism, the demand for Aristotle's works grew. William of Moerbeke translated a number of them into Latin. When Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe, and ultimately revitalizing European thought through Muslim influence in Spain to fan the embers of the Renaissance. Legacy
  • 17. Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle Aristotle portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a 15th-century-A.D. scholar. Twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. He was the founder of formal logic, pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.[52][53] Despite these accolades, many of Aristotle's errors held back science considerably. Bertrand Russell notes that quot;almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrinequot;. Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as quot;repulsivequot;, and calls his logic quot;as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomyquot;. Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.[54] The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained quot;Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?quot;[55]
  • 18. Aristotle is referred to as quot;The Philosopherquot; by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. See Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3, etc. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having At his bedded hed Twenty books clothed in blake or red Of Aristotle and his philosophie The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell, I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.[56] However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue - or arete - of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. It is Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.[57] List of Aristotle's works Main article: Corpus Aristotelicum Notes and References 1. ^ Jonathan Barnes, quot;Life and Workquot; in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 9. 2. ^ McLeish, Kenneth (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0-415-92392-1. 3. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 4. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.58-59 5. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379,459 6. ^ William George Smith,Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88
  • 19. 7. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 8. ^ Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern. McGraw Hill. p. 488. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0070461929/. 9. ^ Jones, W.T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 216. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0155383124/., cf. Vita Marciana 41. 10. ^ Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang HaaseAristotle's Will 11. ^ Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 12. ^ a b Bocheński, 1951. 13. ^ Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 14. ^ Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore. 15. ^ Aristotle, History of Animals, 2.3. 16. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 17. ^ Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes. 18. ^ Burent, John. 1928. Platonism, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 61, 103-104. 19. ^ Aristotle, Physics 2.6 20. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1043a 10-30 21. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics IX 1050a 5-10 22. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b 23. ^ a b Singer, Charles. A short history of biology. Oxford 1931. 24. ^ Emily Kearns, quot;Animals, knowledge about,quot; in Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996, p. 92. 25. ^ Aristotle, of course, is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics. 26. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 43-44 27. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 201-202; see also: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being 28. ^ Aristotle, De Anima II 3 29. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 45 30. ^ Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 pp. 348 31. ^ Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 December 1999). Discovering Reality,: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Springer. p. 372. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/9027714967/. 32. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 90-91; Mason, A History of the Sciences, p 46 33. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252 34. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 56 35. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 90-94; quotation from p 91 36. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy, p 252 37. ^ Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p. 59. 38. ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomacean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) quot;Aristotle Discovers the Economyquot; in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78-115
  • 20. 39. ^ Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a 40. ^ Aristotle, Poetics III 41. ^ Aristotle, Poetics IV 42. ^ Aristotle, Poetics VI 43. ^ Aristotle, Poetics XXVI 44. ^ Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete Fables By Aesop Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. Introduction, pp. xi-xii. 45. ^ Jonathan Barnes, quot;Life and Workquot; in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 12; Aristotle himself: Nichomachean Ethics 1102a26-27. Aristotle himself never uses the term quot;esotericquot; or quot;acroamaticquot;. For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi logoi, see W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp. 408-410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to quot;discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic schoolquot;, rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. 46. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). quot;quot;flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristotelesquot;quot;. Academica. http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/1/4/9/7/14970/14970- h/14970-h.htm#BkII_119. Retrieved on 25 January 2007. 47. ^ Barnes, quot;Life and Workquot;, p. 12. 48. ^ Barnes, quot;Roman Aristotlequot;, in Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature, Routledge 2001, vol. 8, p. 174 n. 240. 49. ^ The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, quot;Roman Aristotlequot;. 50. ^ quot;Sulla.quot; 51. ^ Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. p. 11. 52. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/34560/Aristotle 53. ^ Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy. United States: Simon & Schuster, Inc.. p. 92. ISBN 9780671739164. 54. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 55. ^ Plutarch, Life of Alexander 56. ^ Durant, p. 86 57. ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy, Polity Press, 2007, passim. Further reading The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following references are only a small selection. • Ackrill J. L. 2001. Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA • Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle for Everybody. New York: Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader. • Bakalis Nikolaos. 2005. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 • Barnes J. 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge University Press • Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
  • 21. • Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. • Burnyeat, M. F. et al. 1979. Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub- faculty of Philosophy • Chappell, V. 1973. Aristotle's Conception of Matter, Journal of Philosophy 70: 679-696 • Code, Alan. 1995. Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 • Frede, Michael. 1987. Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press • Gill, Mary Louise. 1989. Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press • Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. • Halper, Edward C. (2007) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha — Delta, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6 • Halper, Edward C. (2005) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6 • Irwin, T. H. 1988. Aristotle's First Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Jori, Alberto. 2003. Aristotele, Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the quot;International Academy of the History of Sciencequot;) ISBN 88-424-9737-1 • Knight, Kelvin. 2007. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre, Polity Press. • Lewis, Frank A. 1991. Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Lloyd, G. E. R. 1968. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9. • Lord, Carnes. 1984. Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. • Loux, Michael J. 1991. Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press • Owen, G. E. L. 1965c. The Platonism of Aristotle, Proceedings of the British Academy 50 125-150. Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R. R. K. Sorabji (eds.), Articles on Aristotle, Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth (1975). 14-34 • Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship. • Reeve, C. D. C. 2000. Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett. • Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. • Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6th ed. ed.). London: Routledge. An classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators, in print since 1923. • Scaltsas, T. 1994. Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. • Strauss, Leo. quot;On Aristotle's Politicsquot; (1964), in The City and Man, Chicago; Rand McNally.
  • 22. • Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). quot;Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biologyquot;. Greek Biology and Medicine. http://web.archive.org/web/20060327222953/http://www.ancientlibrary.com/medicine/00 51.html. • Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. For the general reader. • Woods, M. J. 1991b. quot;Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics.quot; Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy supplement. 41-56 Terjemah Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs) (384 SM - 322 SM) adalah seorang filsuf Yunani, seorang pelajar dari Plato dan guru dari Alexander the Great. He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics , poetry , theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. Dia menulis di banyak mata pelajaran, termasuk fisika, metafisika, puisi, teater, musik, logika, retorika, politik, pemerintahan, etika, biologi dan zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy . Bersama dengan Plato dan Socrates (guru Plato), Aristotle adalah salah satu yang paling penting dalam mendirikan tokoh filsafat Barat. He was the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Dia adalah yang pertama untuk membuat suatu sistem filsafat Barat, meliputi moralitas dan estetika, logika dan ilmu pengetahuan, politik dan metafisika. Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance , although they were ultimately replaced by modern physics . Aristotle's dilihat pada fisik ilmu profoundly abad berbentuk beasiswa, dan pengaruh mereka diperpanjang baik ke Renaisans, meskipun mereka akhirnya digantikan oleh fisika modern. In the biological sciences, some of his observations were only confirmed to be accurate in the nineteenth century. Dalam ilmu biologi, beberapa orang hanya pengamatan dikonfirmasi menjadi akurat dalam abad kesembilanbelas. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which were incorporated in the late nineteenth century into modern formal logic . Karya-karyanya mengandung paling awal formal dikenal ilmu logika, yang tergabung pada akhir abad ke sembilan belas modern formal logika. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages , and it continues to influence Christian theology , especially Eastern Orthodox theology , and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church . Dalam metafisika, Aristotelianism memiliki pengaruh besar pada pemikiran filosofis dan teologi dalam tradisi Islam dan Yahudi di abad pertengahan, dan terus mempengaruhi teologi Kristen, khususnya teologi Ortodoks Timur, dan sekolah dari tradisi Gereja Katolik Roma. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Semua aspek filosofi Aristotel terus menjadi objek studi akademis aktif hari ini.
  • 23. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues ( Cicero described his literary style as quot;a river of goldquot;), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one third of the original works have survived. [ 1 ] Walaupun Aristotle menulis banyak treatises elegan dan dialog (Cicero dijelaskan kepada sastra gaya sebagai quot;sungai emasquot;), ia berpikir bahwa sebagian besar tulisannya telah hilang dan hanya sekitar sepertiga dari karya asli yang bertahan hidup. [1] Contents Isi [hide] • 1 Life 1 Hidup • 2 Logic 2 Logic o 2.1 History Sejarah 2,1 o 2.2 Analytics and the Organon 2,2 Analytics dan Organon • 3 Aristotle's scientific method 3 Aristotle's metode ilmiah • 4 Physics 4 Fisika o 4.1 The five elements 4.1 lima elemen o 4.2 Causality, The Four Causes 4,2 hubungan sebab dan akibat, Empat Penyebab o 4.3 Chance and spontaneity Kemungkinan 4,3 dan spontanitas • 5 Metaphysics 5 metafisika o 5.1 Substance, potentiality and actuality 5,1 Substansi, potensi dan actuality o 5.2 Universals and particulars 5,2 Universals dan fakta-fakta • 6 Biology and medicine 6 Biologi dan Obat o 6.1 Empirical research program 6,1 empiris program penelitian o 6.2 Classification of living things 6,2 Klasifikasi hidup hal o 6.3 Theory of biological forms and souls 6,3 Theory of biologi bentuk dan jiwa o 6.4 Aristotle's successor: Theophrastus 6,4 Aristotle's penerus: Theophrastus o 6.5 Influence on Hellenistic medicine Pengaruh 6,5 pada Helenistik obat • 7 Practical Philosophy 7 Praktis Filosofi o 7.1 Ethics 7,1 Kode Etik o 7.2 Politics 7,2 Politik o 7.3 Rhetoric and poetics 7,3 retorika dan poetics • 8 The loss of his works 8 Hilangnya karya-karyanya • 9 Legacy 9 Legacy • 10 List of Aristotle's works 10 Daftar Aristotle's works • 11 Notes and References 11 Catatan dan Referensi • 12 Further reading 12 Lebih lanjut membaca • 13 See also 13 Lihat juga • 14 External links 14 Pranala luar o 14.1 Collections of Aristotle's works Koleksi dari 14,1 Aristotle's works o 14.2 Articles on Aristotle Artikel pada 14,2 Aristotel Life Kehidupan
  • 24. Aristotle was born in Stageira , Chalcidice , in 384 BC, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki . [ 2 ] His father, Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon . Aristotle lahir di Stageira, Chalcidice, pada 384 SM, sekitar 55 kilometer sebelah timur modern hari Thessaloniki. [2] Ayahnya, Nicomachus adalah dokter pribadi ke Raja Amyntas dari Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy . Aristotel telah dididik dan dilatih sebagai anggota dari aristokrasi. At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy . Pada usia sekitar delapan belas, dia pergi ke Jakarta untuk melanjutkan pendidikan di Akademi Plato's. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years, not leaving until after Plato's death in 347 BC. Aristotel tetap di akademi selama hampir dua puluh tahun, tidak meninggalkan Plato sampai setelah kematian di 347 SM. He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. Kemudian dia bepergian dengan Xenocrates ke pengadilan kepada teman Hermias dari Atarneus di Asia Minor. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos , where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Sementara di Asia, Aristotle bepergian dengan Theophrastus ke pulau Lesbos, di mana mereka bersama-sama dengan penelitian botani dan zoology dari pulau itu. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias . Aristotel menikah Hermias's adoptive putri (atau keponakan) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Dia membosankan seorang anak perempuan, yang bernama Pythias mereka. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip of Macedon to become tutor to Alexander the Great in 343 BC [ 3 ] Segera setelah Hermias' kematian, Aristotle diundang oleh Philip dari Macedon menjadi tutor untuk Alexander the Great pada 343 SM [3] During his time as the head of Macedon's royal academy, Aristotle gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander . Selama waktu sebagai kepala Macedon dari akademi kerajaan, Aristotle memberi pelajaran tidak hanya untuk Alexander, tetapi juga untuk masa depan dua raja: Ptolemy dan Cassander. In his Politics , Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together. Dalam Politik, Aristotle menyatakan bahwa hanya satu hal yang dapat membenarkan monarki, dan yang jika kebaikan raja dan keluarganya yang lebih besar daripada kebaikan sisanya warga kota mengumpulkan. Tactfully, he included the young prince and his father in that category. Dgn bijaksana, dia termasuk anak raja dan ayahnya dalam kategori tersebut. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. Aristotel didorong ke arah timur penaklukan Alexander, dan sikap terhadap Persia telah unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'. [ 4 ] Near the end of Alexander's life he began to suspect plots, and threatened Aristotle in letters. Dalam satu contoh terkenal, Alexander counsels ia akan menjadi 'pemimpin ke Yunani dan orang lalim kepada barbarians, untuk memelihara setelah mantan sebagai teman dan keluarga, dan untuk menangani dengan kedua sebagai dengan binatang atau tanaman. [4] dekat akhir Alexander kehidupan dia mulai mencurigai plots, dan terancam di Aristotel huruf. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle's grand-nephew Callisthenes as a traitor. Aristotel telah dibuat tidak rahasia orang hina untuk Alexander dari tuntutan dari keilahian, dan raja telah dijalankan Aristotle's grand-keponakan Callisthenes
  • 25. sebagai pengkhianat. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence for this. [ 5 ] J luas dalam tradisi jaman dahulu dari diputar Aristotel diduga berperan dalam Alexander kematian, tetapi ada sedikit bukti untuk ini. [5] By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum . 335 SM oleh dia kembali ke Jakarta, mendirikan sekolah itu sendiri dikenal sebagai kamar bacaan. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. Aristotel kursus dilakukan di sekolah selama dua belas tahun. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died, and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira , who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus . Sedangkan di Jakarta, istrinya Pythias meninggal, Aristotle dan menjadi terlibat dengan Herpyllis dari Stageira, yang membosankan dia seorang anak laki-laki yang dinamakannya setelah ayahnya, Nicomachus. According to the Suda , he also had an eromenos , Palaephatus of Abydus . [ 6 ] Menurut Suda, dia juga memiliki eromenos, Palaephatus dari Abydus. [6] It is during this period in Athens from 335 BC to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works. [ 7 ] Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. Adalah selama periode ini di Athena dari 335 SM ke 323 SM ketika Aristotel diyakini memiliki banyak terdiri dari karya-karyanya. [7] Aristotle menulis banyak dialog, hanya fragmen yang selamat. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. Pekerjaan yang telah bertahan dalam risalah formulir dan tidak, sebagian besar, yang dimaksudkan untuk publikasi luas, karena biasanya pemikiran untuk kuliah bantu untuk siswa. His most important treatises include Physics , Metaphysics , Nicomachean Ethics , Politics , De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics . His paling penting termasuk treatises Fisika, metaphysics, Nicomachean Etika, Politik, De anima (On the Soul) dan Poetics. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. Aristotle tidak hanya belajar mata pelajaran yang mungkin hampir setiap saat, tetapi kontribusi yang signifikan kebanyakan mereka. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, economics, embryology , geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. Dalam ilmu fisik, Aristotle mempelajari anatomi, astronomi, ekonomi, embriologi, geografi, geologi, meteorologi, fisika dan zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. Dalam filsafat, dia wrote estetika, etika, pemerintah, metafisika, politik, psikologi, retorika dan teologi. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. Dia juga belajar pendidikan, adat asing, sastra dan puisi. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. Ia bekerja merupakan gabungan virtual ensiklopedia pengetahuan dari Yunani. It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time. [ 8 ] Telah menyarankan bahwa Aristotle mungkin terakhir orang mengetahui segala sesuatu ada dikenal dalam waktu sendiri. [8] Upon Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Setelah kematian Alexander, sentimen anti-Macedonia di Jakarta sekali lagi flared. Eurymedon yang hierophant denounced Aristotle untuk tidak memegang allah dalam kehormatan. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's
  • 26. family estate in Chalcis , explaining, quot;I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy ,quot; [ 9 ] a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates. Aristotel melarikan diri ke kota ibunya keluarga estate di Chalcis, menjelaskan, quot;Saya tidak akan mengizinkan Athenians berdosa dua kali terhadap filsafat,quot; [9] referensi sebelumnya dari Jakarta ke pengadilan dan pelaksanaan Socrates. However, he died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Namun, ia meninggal di Euboea penyebab dari alam dalam tahun (pada 322 sebelum masehi). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife. [ 10 ] Aristotel bernama ketua pelaksana his siswa Antipater dan kiri yang akan di mana ia harus dikubur di samping istrinya. [10] Logic Logika Main article: Term logic Artikel utama: Istilah logika For more details on this topic, see Non-Aristotelian logic . Untuk informasi lebih rinci tentang topik ini, lihat Non-Aristotel logika. Aristotle's conception of logic was the dominant form of logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic . Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference. Aristotle's konsep dari logika dominan adalah bentuk logika sampai abad ke-19 kemajuan dalam logika matematika. Kant dalam Critique of Pure Reason yang Aristotle's teori logika sepenuhnya merupakan inti dari kesimpulan deduktif. History Sejarah Aristotle quot;says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'quot;. [ 11 ] However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos , who was concerned by the correct use of words. Aristotle quot;mengatakan bahwa 'pada subyek reasoning' dia 'sudah tidak ada lagi pada tanggal yang lebih awal untuk berbicara tentang'quot;. [11] Namun, Plato laporan bahwa sintaks telah dibuat sebelum dia, oleh Prodicus dari Ceos, yang bersangkutan dengan benar menggunakan kata-kata. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics ; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications. Logika tampaknya telah muncul dari dialektika, yang sebelumnya dilakukan filosof sering menggunakan konsep seperti reductio iklan absurdum dalam diskusi mereka, tetapi tidak pernah benar-benar memahami implikasi logis. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deduction system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic . [ 12 ] Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises , hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Plato bahkan pernah kesulitan dengan logika, walaupun ia memiliki konsep yang wajar deduction sistem, ia tidak pernah benar-benar dapat membangun dan diandalkan, bukan pada dialectic. [12] Plato percaya bahwa deduction akan cukup ikuti dari lokasi, maka ia fokus pada pemeliharaan solid lokasi sehingga kesimpulan logis akan mengikuti. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. Akibatnya, Plato menyadari bahwa metode untuk memperoleh kesimpulan akan paling bermanfaat. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist , where he introduced his division
  • 27. method. [ 13 ] Ia tidak pernah berhasil dalam suatu metode devising, tapi ia mencoba terbaik dimuat dalam bukunya pandangannya, di mana dia diperkenalkan kepada divisi metode. [13] Analytics and the Organon Analisis dan Organon Main article: Organon Artikel utama: Organon What we today call Aristotelian logic , Aristotle himself would have labeled quot;analyticsquot;. Apa yang kita panggil hari ini Aristotel logika, Aristotle dirinya akan berlabel quot;analisisquot;. The term quot;logicquot; he reserved to mean dialectics . Istilah quot;logikaquot; berarti ia reserved dialektika. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. Sebagian besar dari pekerjaan Aristotle mungkin tidak dalam bentuk aslinya, karena kemungkinan besar diedit oleh mahasiswa dan dosen nantinya. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: Yang logis dari Aristotle telah dikompilasi ke dalam enam buku sekitar awal abad 1. AD: 1. Categories Kategori 2. On Interpretation Pada Interpretation 3. Prior Analytics Sebelum Analytics 4. Posterior Analytics Posterior Analytics 5. Topics Topik 6. On Sophistical Refutations Pada Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. Pesanan buku-buku (atau ajaran dari mereka yang terdiri) tidak pasti, namun daftar ini adalah berasal dari analisis dari tulisan-tulisan Aristotle. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). It goes dari dasar, analisis sederhana istilah dalam Kategori, untuk studi yang lebih kompleks bentuk, yaitu, syllogisms (dalam Analytics) dan dialektika (dalam Topik dan Sophistical Refutations). There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon , namely the fourth book of Metaphysics. . [ 12 ] Ada satu volume Aristotle's tentang logika tidak ditemukan di Organon, yaitu empat buku metafisika.. [12] Aristotle's scientific method Aristotle's metode ilmiah
  • 28. Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens , a fresco by Raphael . Plato (kiri) dan Aristotle (kanan), sebuah detail di School of Athens, sebuah lukisan dinding oleh Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms . Aristotel gerak-gerik ke bumi, yang merupakan kepercayaan kepada pengetahuan melalui pengamatan dan pengalaman empiris, sementara memegang salinan nya Nicomachean Etika di tangannya, sementara gerak- gerik Plato ke langit, ia mewakili kepercayaan di Formulir. For more details on this topic, see Aristotle's theory of universals . Untuk informasi lebih rinci tentang topik ini, lihat dari teori Aristotle universals. Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal . Seperti itu guru Plato, Aristotle filosofi bertujuan yang universal. Aristotle, however, found the universal in particular things, which he called the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar . Aristotel Namun, menemukan universal khususnya hal-hal yang ia disebut inti dari sesuatu, sedangkan Plato menemukan bahwa ada yang universal selain dari hal-hal tertentu, dan berhubungan dengan mereka sebagai prototipe atau contoh. For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these. Aristotel Untuk itu, metode filosofis yang menunjukkan kenaikan dari studi khusus untuk fenomena pengetahuan essences, sedangkan untuk metode filosofis Plato berarti keturunan dari pengetahuan tentang universal Formulir (atau gagasan) ke kontemplasi tertentu imitations ini. For Aristotle, quot;formquot; still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is quot;instantiatedquot; in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars , below). Untuk Aristotel, quot;bentukquot; masih merujuk pada tak bersyarat dasar fenomena tetapi quot;instantiatedquot; dalam substansi tertentu (lihat Universals dan fakta-fakta, di bawah). In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive , while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles. [ 14 ] Dalam beberapa hal, Aristotle dari kedua metode induktif dan deduktif, sementara pada dasarnya adalah Plato's deduktif dari priori prinsip. [14] In Aristotle's terminology, quot;natural philosophyquot; is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. Dalam terminologi Aristotle's, quot;filosofi alamquot; adalah cabang filosofi yang meneliti fenomena alam di dunia, dan mencakup bidang yang akan hari ini dianggap sebagai fisika, biologi dan ilmu alam lainnya. In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role. Dalam modern, lingkup filsafat telah menjadi terbatas untuk lebih umum atau abstrak inquiries, seperti etika dan metafisika, dimana logika memainkan peran utama. Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method . Today filosofi cenderung mengecualikan empiris ilmu alam dunia dengan cara yang metode ilmiah. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. Sebaliknya, Aristotle's filosofis berusaha mencakup hampir semua aspek dari penyelidikan intelektual.
  • 29. In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as quot;sciencequot;. Lebih besar dalam arti kata, menjadikan filosofi Aristotel coextensive dengan alasan, dia juga yang akan menjelaskan sebagai quot;ilmuquot;. Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term quot; scientific method quot;. Namun, perlu diketahui bahwa penggunaan istilah ilmu membawa makna yang berbeda dari yang tercakup dalam istilah quot;metode ilmiahquot;. For Aristotle, quot;all science ( dianoia ) is either practical, poetical or theoreticalquot; ( Metaphysics 1025b25). Untuk Aristotel, quot;semua ilmu (dianoia) adalah salah satu praktis, puitis atau teoritisquot; (metaphysics 1025b25). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics. Praktis oleh ilmu pengetahuan, berarti ia etika dan politik; puitis oleh ilmu pengetahuan, berarti ia belajar puisi dan seni rupa yang lain; oleh teori ilmu pengetahuan, berarti ia fisika, matematika dan metafisika. If logic (or quot;analyticsquot;) is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic ; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics, Mathematics, (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy. Jika logika (atau quot;analisisquot;) yang dianggap sebagai sebuah awal untuk belajar filsafat, maka divisi dari filosofi Aristotel akan terdiri dari: (1) Logika; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, termasuk metafisika, Fisika, Matematika, (3) praktis dan Filosofi (4) Filosofi puitis. In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today. Pada periode antara dua tetap di Jakarta, antara nya kali di Akademi dan kamar bacaan, Aristotle dilakukan sebagian besar berpikir dan penelitian ilmiah yang ia terkenal hari ini. In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Bahkan, sebagian besar dari Aristotle Hidup dikhususkan untuk ilmu obyek dari ilmu alam. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. Aristotle's metaphysics berisi observasi pada sifat nomor tetapi ia tidak asli kontribusi kepada matematika. He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, eg, botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and several other sciences. Dia, bagaimanapun, melakukan penelitian asli dalam ilmu alam, misalnya, botani, zoology, fisika, astronomi, kimia, meteorologi, dan beberapa ilmu lainnya. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Aristotel dari tulisan-tulisan tentang ilmu pengetahuan yang sangat kualitatif, karena bertentangan dengan kuantitatif. Beginning in the sixteenth century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. Pada awal abad keenambelas, ilmuwan matematika untuk mulai menerapkan ilmu yang fisik, dan Aristotle's bekerja di daerah ini hopelessly dianggap kurang memadai. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. His failings yang sebagian besar disebabkan oleh tidak adanya konsep seperti massa, kecepatan, kekuatan dan suhu. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers. Dia memiliki konsep dari kecepatan dan suhu, tapi tidak ada kuantitatif pemahaman mereka, yang sebagian karena tidak adanya dasar eksperimental perangkat, seperti jam dan termometer.
  • 30. A green and red Perseid meteor is striking the sky just below the Milky Way in August 2007. J hijau dan merah Perseid meteor mengesankan adalah tepat di bawah langit yang Bimasakti pada bulan Agustus 2007. His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. Tulisannya memberikan banyak rekening ilmiah observasi, campuran sebelum waktunya curious akurasi dan kesalahan. For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females. [ 15 ] In a similar vein, John Philoponus , and later Galileo , showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect. [ 16 ] On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus 's claim that the Milky Way was made up of quot;those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays,quot; pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given quot;current astronomical demonstrationsquot; that quot;the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then...the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them.quot; [ 17 ] Misalnya, dalam Sejarah Binatang ia menyatakan bahwa manusia laki-laki memiliki lebih dari gigi perempuan. [15] Dalam nada yang sama, John Philoponus, dan kemudian Galileo, menunjukkan bahwa percobaan sederhana oleh Aristotle's teori bahwa benda berat jatuh lebih cepat dari yang ringan objek tidak benar. [16] Di sisi lain, Aristotle refuted Democritus' s klaim bahwa Bimasakti dibuat dari quot;orang-bintang yang berbayang dari oleh bumi dari sinar matahari,quot; pointing out (dengan benar, bahkan jika reasoning telah terikat akan diberhentikan untuk waktu yang lama) itu, diberikan quot;sekarang astronomi demonstrasiquot; yang quot;ukuran matahari lebih besar daripada yang di bumi dan jarak dari bintang-bintang dari bumi berkali-kali lebih besar dari yang matahari, maka ... matahari bersinar di seluruh bumi dan bintang layar none of them. quot;[17] In places, Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason . Di tempat, Aristotle pergi terlalu jauh dalam deriving 'hukum alam semesta' dari pengamatan sederhana dan over-stretched alasan. Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective, and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws. Hari metode ilmiah dengan menganggap bahwa tanpa memikirkan fakta-fakta yang cukup efektif, dan yang cerdas validitas satu dari hipotesa memerlukan eksperimentasi jauh lebih ketat daripada yang Aristotel digunakan untuk mendukung undang-undang. Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. Aristotle juga mempunyai beberapa ilmiah buta tempat itu. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics , which was widely accepted up until the 1500s. Dia posited yang geocentric
  • 31. kosmologi bahwa kami dapat memahami dalam pilihan dari metafisika, yang diterima secara luas sampai 1500s. From the 3rd century to the 1500s, the dominant view held that the Earth was the center of the universe ( geocentrism ). 3. Dari abad ke 1500s, yang dominan diselenggarakan melihat bahwa Bumi adalah pusat alam semesta (geocentrism). Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch. [ 18 ] However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields. Sejak dia mungkin filsuf yang paling dihormati oleh pemikir Eropa selama dan setelah Renaissance, pemikir ini sering mengambil Aristotle's salah posisi seperti yang diberikan, yang diselenggarakan kembali sains di masa ini. [18] Namun, Aristotle's ilmiah kekurangan seharusnya tidak menyesatkan satu menjadi melupakan dia kemajuan besar dalam berbagai bidang ilmu. For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Sebagai contoh, ia didirikan sebagai logika formal sains dan membuat yayasan untuk biologi yang tidak superseded selama dua ribuan tahun. Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants. Selain itu, dia memperkenalkan mendasar bahwa alam terdiri dari hal-hal yang berubah dan perubahan yang belajar seperti itu dapat memberikan pengetahuan yang berguna konstan. Physics Fisika Main article: Physics (Aristotle) Artikel utama: Fisika (Aristotle) The five elements Lima elemen Main article: Classical element Artikel utama: Klasik elemen • Fire , which is hot and dry. Api, yang panas dan kering. • Earth , which is cold and dry. Bumi, yang dingin dan kering. • Air , which is hot and wet. Udara yang panas dan basah. • Water , which is cold and wet. Air yang dingin dan basah. • Aether , which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets). Aether, yang merupakan substansi ilahi yang membuat sampai di langit spheres dan badan-badan langit (bintang dan planets). Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place; the earth at the centre of the universe, then water, then air, then fire. Masing-masing dari empat elemen dunia memiliki tempat alam; bumi di pusat alam semesta, maka air, maka udara, maka api. When they are out of their natural place they have natural motion, requiring no external cause, which is towards that place; so bodies sink in water, air bubbles up, rain falls, flame rises in air. Apabila mereka dari tempat mereka alami alam gerakan mereka, tidak memerlukan penyebab eksternal, yang menuju tempat itu, maka tubuh masuk ke dalam air, sampai gelembung udara, hujan, api di udara meningkat. The heavenly element has perpetual circular motion. Di langit yang terus-elemen gerakan melingkar.
  • 32. Causality, The Four Causes Hubungan sebab dan akibat, Empat Penyebab Main article: Four causes Artikel utama: Empat menyebabkan • The material cause is that from which a thing comes into existence as from its part, constituents, substratum or materials. Materi yang menyebabkan adalah sebuah hal yang datang ke dalam keberadaan sebagai bagian dari, konstituen, atau bahan-bahan dasar. This reduces the explanation of causes to the parts (factors, elements, constituents, ingredients) forming the whole (system, structure, compound, complex, composite, or combination), a relationship known as the part-whole causation. Ini akan mengurangi penjelasan tentang penyebab ke bagian (faktor, elemen, konstituen, bahan) membentuk keseluruhan (sistem, struktur, kompleks, rumit, komposit, atau kombinasi), sebuah hubungan yang dikenal sebagai bagian-hal menyebabkan seluruh. Simply put it is the influence of the material substances on the event. Simply put it is pengaruh materi bahan pada acara tersebut. So imagine two dominos, the first of which is lighter. Jadi bayangkan dua dominos, pertama yang lebih ringan. The first is knocked over into the second but does not have enough power to knock it over, this is Material cause. Yang pertama adalah knocked over menjadi yang kedua tetapi tidak memiliki cukup kuasa untuk merobohkan lebih dari itu, hal ini menyebabkan Bahan. • The formal cause tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. Formal menyebabkan memberitahu kami apa yang hal itu, bahwa hal itu ditentukan oleh definisi, bentuk, pola, inti, seluruh, sintesis atau pola dasar. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (ie, macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. It meliputi rekening penyebab dari segi prinsip-prinsip umum atau undang-undang, sebagai keseluruhan (yakni, macrostructure) adalah penyebab komponen, yang dikenal sebagai hubungan seluruh bagian-hal menyebabkan. Plainly put it is the influence of the form (essence) of the things on the event. Terangnya menaruhnya adalah pengaruh dalam bentuk (inti) dari hal-hal di acara itu. So take the two dominos again except this time the second is shaped to prevent it from falling *eg. Jadi mengambil dua dominos lagi kecuali kali ini adalah yang kedua berbentuk untuk mencegah dari jatuh * misalnya. triangular.* this is formal cause. segitiga .* ini menyebabkan formal. • The efficient cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. Yang efisien adalah bahwa dari mana perubahan atau akhir dari perubahan pertama dimulai. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. It mengenalpasti 'apa yang membuat apa yang dilakukan dan apa yang menyebabkan perubahan apa yang berubah' dan menyarankan agar semua jenis agen, yg tdk hidup atau hidup, yang bertindak sebagai sumber perubahan atau gerakan atau beristirahat. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of quot;causequot; as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. Mewakili saat ini pemahaman tentang hubungan sebab dan akibat sebagai hubungan yang menyebabkan dan efek, yang modern ini mencakup definisi quot;menyebabkanquot; sebagai salah satu agen atau agen atau peristiwa tertentu atau urusan negara. More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in
  • 33. motion. Dengan kata lain lagi yang segera menentukan hal dalam gerakan. So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the second also to fall over. Jadi mengambil dua dominos ini waktu sama bobot, yang pertama adalah melalui knocked menyebabkan kedua juga jatuh. This is effectively efficient cause. Hal ini menyebabkan secara efektif efisien. • The final cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. Akhir adalah bahwa untuk kepentingan apapun yang ada atau dilakukan, termasuk kedua sengaja dan tindakan instrumental dan kegiatan. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. Akhir menyebabkan atau telos adalah tujuan akhir atau sesuatu yang digunakan untuk melayani, atau adalah bahwa dari mana dan ke mana perubahan itu. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation, or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, all that gives purpose to behavior. Ini juga mencakup ide-ide modern dari hal menyebabkan mental melibatkan sebagai penyebab psikologis seperti kemauan, kebutuhan, motivasi, atau motif, rasional, irasional, etika, yang tujuannya untuk memberikan perilaku. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal. Selain itu, hal ini dapat menyebabkan dari satu sama lain, sehingga satu sama lain begitu, kerja keras sebagai penyebab kebugaran dan sebaliknya, walaupun tidak dengan cara yang sama atau fungsi, yang satu adalah sebagai awal dari perubahan, yang lain sebagai tujuan. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect). (Oleh karena itu disarankan Aristotel pertama yang timbal atau surat edaran hubungan sebab dan akibat sebagai hubungan yang saling ketergantungan atau pengaruh atas menimbulkan efek). Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Selain itu, Aristotle menunjukkan bahwa hal yang sama yang dapat menyebabkan efek yang berlawanan; kehadiran dan ketidakhadiran yang dapat menyebabkan hasil yang berbeda. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). Cukup adalah tujuan atau tujuan yang membawa tentang aktivitas (mental yang belum tentu tujuan). Taking our two dominos, it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves. Mengambil dua dominos, ia memerlukan seseorang untuk sengaja membuat dominos atas karena mereka tidak bisa jatuh sendiri. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. Aristotel ditandai dari dua hal menyebabkan mode: tepat (sebelumnya) dan hal menyebabkan kebetulan (kemungkinan) hal menyebabkan. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. Semua penyebab, tepat dan insidentil, dapat digunakan sebagai potensi atau sebenarnya, khusus atau umum. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Bahasa yang sama merujuk pada efek dari penyebab, sehingga efek yang ditugaskan untuk umum penyebab umum, khususnya menyebabkan efek tertentu, operasi untuk menyebabkan efek yang sebenarnya. Essentially,
  • 34. causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect. Pada dasarnya, hubungan sebab dan akibat tidak menyarankan sementara hubungan antara penyebab dan efek. All further investigations of causality will consist of imposing the favorite hierarchies on the order causes, such as final > efficient > material > formal ( Thomas Aquinas ), or of restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or to the efficient causality (deterministic or chance) or just to regular sequences and correlations of natural phenomena (the natural sciences describing how things happen instead of explaining the whys and wherefores). Semua penyelidikan lebih lanjut tentang hubungan sebab dan akibat akan terdiri dari mengesankan favorit hirarki pada urutan penyebab, seperti akhir> efisien> bahan> formal (Thomas Aquinas), atau untuk membatasi hubungan sebab dan akibat semua bahan dan efisien menyebabkan atau hubungan sebab dan akibat yang efisien (deterministic atau kesempatan) atau hanya untuk reguler dan sequence correlations fenomena alam (yang menjelaskan bagaimana ilmu alam terjadi, bukan sesuatu yang menjelaskan sebab-musabab wherefores). Chance and spontaneity Kesempatan dan spontanitas Spontaneity and chance are causes of effects. Spontanitas dan kesempatan adalah penyebab efek. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things . Kesempatan sebagai insidentil menyebabkan terletak pada bidang kebetulan sesuatu. It is quot;from what is spontaneousquot; (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). It is quot;dari apa yang spontanquot; (tetapi dicatat bahwa apa yang spontan tidak datang dari kesempatan). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of quot;chancequot; it might be better to think of quot;coincidencequot;: Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place. Untuk lebih memahami konsep dari Aristotle's quot;kesempatanquot; mungkin lebih baik untuk berpikir tentang quot;kebetulanquot;: Something dilakukan oleh chance jika seseorang menetapkan dengan sungguh-sungguh satu hal yang harus dilakukan, namun dengan hasil yang lain ( tidak) mengambil tempat. For example: A person seeks donations. Sebagai contoh: Seseorang mencari sumbangan. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. Orang yang mungkin merasa orang lain akan menyumbangkan jumlah yang besar. However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. Namun, jika orang yang memerlukan sumbangan sumbangan bertemu dengan orang, bukan untuk tujuan mengumpulkan sumbangan, namun untuk beberapa tujuan lainnya, Aristotle akan memanggil mengumpulkan sumbangan dari donator tertentu yang oleh hasil dari kesempatan. It must be unusual that something happens by chance. Harus ada sesuatu yang tidak biasa terjadi oleh chance. In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance. Dengan kata lain, jika terjadi sesuatu semua atau sebagian besar waktu, kami tidak dapat berkata bahwa kebenaran. There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names quot;luckquot;, that can only apply to human beings, since it is in the sphere of moral actions. Ada juga yang lebih spesifik jenis kesempatan yang Aristotel nama quot;luckquot;, yang hanya dapat diterapkan pada manusia, karena dalam bidang moral dan tindakan. According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice. Menurut Aristotel, luck
  • 35. harus melibatkan pilihan (sehingga musyawarah), dan hanya manusia mampu bermusyawarah dan pilihan. quot;What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chancequot;. [ 19 ] quot;Apa yang tidak mampu tidak dapat melakukan tindakan apapun oleh chancequot;. [19] Metaphysics Metafisika Main article: Metaphysics (Aristotle) Artikel utama: metafisika (Aristotle) Aristotle defines metaphysics as quot;the knowledge of immaterial being,quot; or of quot;being in the highest degree of abstraction.quot; Aristotle mendefinisikan metafisika sebagai quot;pengetahuan tdk penting ini,quot; atau quot;berada di tingkat tertinggi abstak.quot; He refers to metaphysics as quot;first philosophyquot;, as well as quot;the theologic science.quot; Dia merujuk kepada metafisika sebagai quot;filsafat pertamaquot;, juga sebagai quot;ilmu agama.quot; Substance, potentiality and actuality Substansi, dan potensi actuality Aristotle examines the concept of substance and essence ( ousia ) in his Metaphysics , Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. Aristotel meneliti konsep substansi dan hakikat (ousia) di metafisika, Buku VII dan ia menyimpulkan bahwa tertentu substansi adalah kombinasi dari kedua hal dan bentuk. As he proceeds to the book VIII, he concludes that the matter of the substance is the substratum or the stuff of which it is composed, eg the matter of the house are the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house. Karena dia melanjutkan ke buku VIII, ia menyimpulkan bahwa soal substansi adalah landas atau barang yang terdiri, misalnya soal rumah adalah batu bata, batu, dll timbers, atau apapun yang merupakan potensi rumah . While the form of the substance, is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables ). Sedangkan bentuk substansi, yang sebenarnya adalah rumah, yakni 'untuk menutupi badan dan bergerak' atau differentia (lihat juga predicables). The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form. [ 20 ] Rumus yang memberikan komponen adalah tentang masalah, dan formula yang memberikan differentia adalah account dalam bentuk. [20] With regard to the change ( kinesis ) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1) growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; 2) locomotion, which is change in space; and 3) alteration, which is change in quality. Berkaitan dengan perubahan (kinesis) dan menyebabkan sekarang, karena ia mendefinisikan di Fisika dan Pada Generasi dan Korupsi 319b-320a, dia membedakan yang akan datang dari: 1) pertumbuhan dan pengurangan yang perubahan kuantitas; 2) daya, yang di ruang ganti, dan 3) perubahan, yang berubah dalam kualitas. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. Yang akan datang adalah perubahan yang berlangsung di mana tidak ada yang dihasilkan adalah properti. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality ( dynamis ) and actuality ( entelecheia ) in association with the matter and the form. Dalam perubahan itu dia memperkenalkan konsep potensi (dynamis) dan actuality (entelecheia) berkaitan dengan masalah dan bentuk.
  • 36. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if it is not prevented by something else. Merujuk kepada potensi, ini adalah sesuatu yang mampu melakukan, atau yang bertindak atas, jika tidak dicegah oleh yang lain. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially ( dynamei ) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Sebagai contoh, benih tanaman di tanah yang berpotensi (dynamei) tanaman, dan jika tidak dicegah oleh sesuatu, ia akan menjadi tanaman. Potentially beings can either 'act' ( poiein ) or 'be acted upon' ( paschein ), which can be either innate or learned. Berpotensi makhluk dapat 'bertindak' (poiein) atau 'akan bertindak atas' (paschein), yang dapat berupa asli atau belajar. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate - being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise - acting). Misalnya, mata memiliki potensi pandangan (lahir - yang bertindak atas), sementara kemampuan bermain seruling yang dapat dimiliki oleh belajar (latihan - acting). Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Actuality adalah pemenuhan dari potensi akhir. Because the end ( telos ) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Karena akhir (telos) adalah prinsip setiap perubahan, dan untuk kepentingan akhir ada potensi, karena itu adalah bagian akhir actuality. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that actuality is when the seed of the plant becomes a plant. Kemudian merujuk ke contoh kami sebelumnya, kami dapat mengatakan bahwa bila actuality adalah bibit tanaman yang menjadi tanaman. quot; For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see.quot; [ 21 ] quot;Untuk itu untuk kepentingan yang satu hal itu, adalah prinsip dan menjadi adalah untuk kepentingan akhir, dan actuality adalah akhir, dan itu adalah untuk kepentingan ini adalah potensi yang diperoleh. Untuk hewan tidak melihat, agar mereka dapat melihat, namun mereka memiliki pandangan bahwa mereka dapat melihat. quot;[21] In conclusion, the matter of the house is its potentiality and the form is its actuality. Kesimpulannya, hal ini di rumah adalah potensi dan formulir adalah actuality. The formal cause ( aitia ) then of that change from potential to actual house, is the reason ( logos ) of the house builder and the final cause is the end, namely the house itself. Formal menyebabkan (aitia) yang kemudian berubah dari potensi ke rumah yang sebenarnya, adalah alasan (logo) dari rumah dan bangunan yang terakhir adalah bagian akhir, yaitu rumah sendiri. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality. Kemudian hasil Aristotle dan menyimpulkan bahwa sebelum actuality adalah potensi dalam rumus, dalam waktu dan kekukuhan. With this definition of the particular substance (ie, matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, eg , what is that makes the man one? Dengan definisi ini dari zat tertentu (misalnya, masalah dan bentuk), Aristotle mencoba untuk memecahkan masalah dari kesatuan dari makhluk, misalnya, apa yang membuat orang itu satu? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? Karena, menurut Plato terdapat dua Ideas: dan binatang berkaki dua, bagaimana manusia itu adalah sebuah kesatuan? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the
  • 37. same thing. [ 22 ] Namun, menurut Aristotle, potensi yang (hal) dan sebenarnya satu (form) dan merupakan salah satu hal yang sama. [22] Universals and particulars Universals dan fakta-fakta Main article: Aristotle's theory of universals Artikel utama: Aristotel dari teori universals Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. Aristotel dari pendahulunya, Plato, berpendapat bahwa segala sesuatu yang universal formulir, yang dapat dilakukan secara properti, atau hal lainnya. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. Ketika kita melihat sebuah apel, misalnya, kita melihat sebuah apel, dan kami juga dapat menganalisis bentuk apel. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Dalam ini, ada khususnya apel dan universal bentuk apel. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Selain itu, kami dapat meletakkan apel di samping buku, sehingga kami dapat berbicara dari kedua buku dan apel sebagai berikut satu sama lain. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. Plato berpendapat bahwa ada beberapa bentuk universal yang tidak merupakan bagian dari hal-hal tertentu. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but quot;goodquot; is still a proper universal form. Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher that agreed with Plato on the existence of quot;uninstantiated universalsquot;. Misalnya, ada kemungkinan bahwa tidak ada wujud tertentu baik, tapi quot;baikquot; masih benar universal formulir. Bertrand Russell adalah seorang filsuf kontemporer yang setuju dengan Plato pada keberadaan quot;uninstantiated universalsquot;. Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated. Aristotle tidak setuju dengan Plato pada titik ini, argumentasi bahwa semua universals adalah instantiated. Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. Aristotle berpendapat bahwa tidak ada yang tdk terikat universals untuk hal-hal yang ada. According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. Menurut Aristotel, jika ada yang universal, baik sebagai tertentu atau hubungan, maka harus sudah ada, harus saat ini, atau harus di masa depan, sesuatu yang universal dapat predicated. Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist. Akibatnya, menurut Aristotle, jika tidak ada hal yang universal dapat predicated ke obyek yang ada di beberapa waktu, maka tidak ada. One way for contemporary philosophers to justify this position is by asserting the eleatic principle. Salah satu cara untuk kontemporer filosof untuk membenarkan posisi ini adalah dengan asserting yang eleatic prinsip.
  • 38. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. Selain itu, Aristotle tidak setuju dengan Plato mengenai lokasi universals. As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. Seperti Plato berbicara tentang dunia bentuk-bentuk, lokasi di mana semua bentuk persekot universal, Aristotle dipelihara universals yang ada di dalam setiap hal yang universal adalah setiap predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms. Jadi, menurut Aristotle, bentuk apel yang ada di dalam setiap apel, bukan di dunia bentuk-bentuk. Biology and medicine Biologi dan obat-obatan In Aristotelian science, most especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. Aristotel dalam sains, sebagian besar terutama di biologi, ia melihat dirinya telah berdiri ujian waktu itu lebih baik daripada retelling dari laporan orang lain, yang mengandung kesalahan dan takhyul. He dissected animals, but not humans and his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded. Dia dissected hewan, tetapi tidak manusia dan ide-ide tentang bagaimana tubuh manusia bekerja hampir seluruhnya telah superseded. Empirical research program Empiris program penelitian Octopus swimming Kolam ikan gurita Torpedo fuscomaculata Torpedo fuscomaculata Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. Aristotel adalah awal sejarah alam yang telah bekerja selamat dalam beberapa detail. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos , and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. Aristotel pasti melakukan penelitian mengenai sejarah alam Lesbos, dan sekitarnya laut dan daerah tetangga. The works that reflect this research, such as History of Animals , Generation of
  • 39. Animals , and Parts of Animals , contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes. Karya-karya yang mencerminkan penelitian ini, seperti Sejarah Hewan, Generasi dari Binatang, dan Bagian dari Hewan, berisi beberapa observasi dan interpretasi, bersama dengan berbagai mitos dan kesalahan. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. Yang paling mengesankan adalah petikan tentang kehidupan laut terlihat dari pengamatan di Lesbos dan tersedia dari menangkap dari nelayan. His observations on catfish , electric fish ( Torpedo ) and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods , namely, Octopus , Sepia ( cuttlefish ) and the paper nautilus ( Argonauta argo ). Nya observasi pada catfish, ikan listrik (Torpedo) dan angler-ikan yang rinci, seperti yang tertulis di cephalopods, yaitu, gurita, Sepia (sotong) dan karya nautilus (Argonauta Argo). His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time, and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the nineteenth century. Nya keterangan hectocotyl lengan adalah sekitar dua ribu tahun dari waktu ke depan, dan banyak kafir hingga rediscovery di abad kesembilanbelas. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selachē ( selachians ). [ 23 ] Ia memisah-misah mamalia air dari ikan, dan mengetahui bahwa hiu dan sinar adalah bagian dari grup tersebut dia Selachē (selachians). [23] Leopard shark Leopard shark Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated. Satu lagi contoh yang baik itu berasal dari metode Generation dari Binatang yang melanggar buka Aristotle menjelaskan dibuahi telur ayam pada interval untuk mematuhi terlihat ketika organ yang dihasilkan. He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants ' four-chambered fore-stomachs, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus . [ 24 ] Dia memberi gambaran akurat ruminants' empat chambered kedepan-stomachs, dan dari ovoviviparous embryological perkembangan hound hiu Mustelus mustelus. [24] Classification of living things Klasifikasi makhluk hidup Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the nineteenth century. Aristotle's klasifikasi makhluk hidup berisi beberapa elemen yang masih ada di abad kesembilanbelas. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates do make use of haemoglobin , but of a different kind from vertebrates). Apa yang modern akan memanggil ahli ilmu hewan invertebrata dan vertebrates, Aristotle disebut 'binatang dengan darah' dan 'binatang tanpa darah' (dia tidak mengetahui bahwa invertebrata kompleks dilakukan menggunakan hemoglobin, tetapi dari jenis yang berbeda dari vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and
  • 40. egg-bearing (birds and fish). Binatang dengan darah dibagi ke dalam tanah hidup (manusia dan binatang menyusui), dan telur-bearing (burung dan ikan). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). Invertebrata ( 'hewan tanpa darah') adalah serangga, crustacea (dibagi menjadi non- dimeriami - cephalopods - dan dimeriami) dan testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus , who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms). Dalam beberapa hal, ini tidak lengkap klasifikasi lebih baik daripada yang Linnaeus, yang ramai yang sama invertebrata ke dalam dua kelompok, Insecta dan Vermes (cacing). For Charles Singer , quot;Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturae quot; [ 23 ] Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical quot; Ladder of Life quot; ( scala naturae ), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move. [ 25 ] Untuk Charles Singer, quot;Tidak ada yang lebih hebat daripada [Aristotle's] upaya untuk [pameran] hubungan hidup sebagai sesuatu scala naturaequot; [23] Aristotle's Sejarah Binatang tergolong organisme dalam kaitannya dengan sebuah hirarki quot;Ladder of Lifequot; (scala naturae ), menempatkan mereka sesuai dengan kompleksitas struktur dan fungsi yang lebih tinggi sehingga organisme yang lebih besar menunjukkan kekuatan dan kemampuan untuk bergerak. [25] Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, ie, formal causes , guided all natural processes. Aristotle percaya bahwa intelektual tujuan, yakni penyebab formal, petunjuk semua proses alam. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. Seperti teleologi melihat memberi Aristotel untuk membenarkan menyebabkan ia amati data sebagai ekspresi formal desain. Noting that quot;no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns,quot; and quot;a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen,quot; Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Mencatat bahwa quot;tidak memiliki hewan, pada saat yang sama, baik tusks dan tanduk,quot; dan quot;satu-hooved hewan dengan dua tanduk saya tidak pernah melihat,quot; Aristotle bahwa Alam, sehingga tidak ada hewan dan kedua tanduk tusks, adalah staving off batil, dan memberikan makhluk fakultas seperti itu hanya untuk mendapatkan gelar seperti yang diperlukan. Noting that ruminants had a multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance. [ 26 ] Bahwa ruminants memiliki beberapa stomachs dan lemah gigi, dia seharusnya pertama adalah untuk mengimbangi kedua, Alam dengan mencoba untuk melestarikan jenis keseimbangan. [26] In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being . [ 27 ] His system had eleven grades, arranged according quot;to the degree to which they are infected with potentialityquot;, expressed in their form at birth. Dengan gaya yang sama, Aristotle percaya bahwa alam yang diatur dalam skala yang dinilai kesempurnaan naik dari tanaman di atas manusia, yang scala naturae atau Great Chain of Being. [27] Ia telah sebelas sistem nilai, diatur sesuai quot;dengan derajat ke mereka yang terinfeksi dengan potensi quot;, yang dinyatakan dalam formulir mereka saat lahir. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs
  • 41. cold, dry, and in thick eggs. Tertinggi diletakkan binatang hangat dan basah makhluk hidup, yang terendah membosankan mereka dingin, kering, dan tebal telur. Theory of biological forms and souls Teori biologis bentuk dan jiwa Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. Aristotle juga menyatakan bahwa tingkat kesempurnaan dari makhluk yang telah tercermin dalam bentuk, tetapi tidak preordained oleh formulir. Ideas like this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in modern times. Ide seperti ini, dan gagasan tentang jiwa, tidak dianggap sebagai ilmu pengetahuan sama sekali dalam modern. He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed, asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection. [ 28 ] Dia ditempatkan pada jenis (s) dari sebuah jiwa organisme gila, asserting tanaman yang memiliki jiwa vegetatif, bertanggung jawab untuk pertumbuhan dan reproduksi, binatang dan tumbuhan yang sensitif jiwa, yang bertanggung jawab untuk mobilitas dan sensasi, dan manusia yang vegetatif, yang sensitif , dan jiwa yang rasional, mampu berpikir dan refleksi. [28] Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain. [ 29 ] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon . [ 30 ] Aristotle, dalam kontras ke filosof sebelumnya, tetapi sesuai dengan orang-orang Mesir, meletakkan jiwa rasional di jantung, bukan otak. [29] penting adalah Aristotle's pembagian sensasi dan pikiran, yang biasanya pergi terhadap filosof sebelumnya, kecuali dari Alcmaeon. [30] His analysis of procreation is frequently criticized on the grounds that it presupposes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive, lumpen female element; it is on these grounds that Aristotle is considered by some feminist critics to have been a misogynist . [ 31 ] Nya analisis penghasilan sering dikritik atas dasar bahwa presupposes aktif, maskulin ensouling elemen membawa kehidupan yang malas, pasif, elemen lumpen perempuan, yang berada di dasar bahwa Aristotle ini dianggap oleh beberapa kritikus feminis yang telah orang yg membantah perkawinan. [31] Aristotle's successor: Theophrastus Aristotle's penerus: Theophrastus
  • 42. Frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), which was originally written around 200 BC Muka ke 1644 versi yang diperluas dan ilustrasi edisi Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), yang pada awalnya ditulis sekitar 200 SM Main articles: Theophrastus and Historia Plantarum Artikel utama: Theophrastus dan Historia Plantarum Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum , Theophrastus , wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants —which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages . Aristotle's penerus di kamar bacaan, Theophrastus, menulis sejumlah buku yang di-botani Sejarah Tanaman-yang bertahan sebagai yang paling penting kontribusi ke botani jaman dahulu, bahkan ke dalam abad. Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel. Banyak dari Theophrastus nama menjadi hidup modern, seperti carpos untuk buah-buahan, dan bibit untuk pericarpion kapal. Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause . Daripada fokus pada menyebabkan formal, seperti Aristotle did, Theophrastus menyarankan sebuah skema mechanistic, drawing analogies antara alam dan buatan proses, dan mengandalkan Aristotle's konsep menyebabkan efisien. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages. [ 32 ] Theophrastus juga mengakui peran seks dalam reproduksi dari beberapa tanaman yang lebih tinggi, namun penemuan terakhir ini telah hilang dalam waktu usia. [32] Influence on Hellenistic medicine Pengaruh obat pada Helenistik For more details on this topic, see Medicine in ancient Greece . Untuk informasi lebih rinci tentang topik ini, lihat di Pengobatan Yunani kuno. After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Setelah Theophrastus, kamar bacaan yang gagal untuk menghasilkan suatu karya asli. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly. [ 33 ] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. Walaupun minat
  • 43. Aristotel gagasan selamat, mereka umumnya diambil unquestioningly. [33] Ia tidak sampai usia Iskandariyah di bawah Ptolemies bahwa kemajuan biologi dapat ditemukan lagi. The first medical teacher at Alexandria Herophilus of Chalcedon , corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Pertama medis guru di Alexandria Herophilus dari Chalcedon, dikoreksi Aristotel, menempatkan intelijen di otak, dan sistem saraf yang terhubung ke gerakan dan sensasi. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries , noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. [ 34 ] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology ) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr claimed that there was quot;nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance.quot; [ 35 ] Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly. [ 36 ] Herophilus juga dibezakan antara veins dan arteries, mencatat bahwa kedua pulse sementara mantan don't. [34] Walaupun beberapa kuno atomists seperti Lucretius cacat yang teleologi segi Aristotel ide tentang kehidupan, teleologi (dan setelah kebangkitan Kekristianan, alam teologi) akan tetap pusat ke biologi pemikiran dasarnya sampai abad 18. dan 19.. Ernst Mayr mengklaim bahwa ada quot;apa-apa dari segala konsekuensi nyata dalam biologi dan Lucretius setelah Galen hingga Renaissance.quot; [35] Aristotle gagasan sejarah alam dan obat-obatan selamat , namun mereka umumnya diambil unquestioningly. [36] Practical Philosophy Filosofi praktis Ethics Etika Main article: Aristotelian ethics Artikel utama: Aristotel etika Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical science, ie, one mastered by doing rather than merely reasoning. Aristotel dianggap etika menjadi ilmu yang praktis, misalnya, dikuasai oleh satu daripada hanya melakukan reasoning. Further, Aristotle believed that ethical knowledge is not certain knowledge (such as metaphysics or epistemology ) but is general knowledge. Selanjutnya, Aristotle percaya bahwa pengetahuan adalah tidak etis pengetahuan tertentu (seperti metafisika atau epistemologi) tetapi adalah pengetahuan umum. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, Nichomachean Ethics , in which he outlines what is commonly called virtue ethics . Dia menulis beberapa treatises pada etika, termasuk terutama, Etika Nichomachean, di mana dia garis besar apa yang sering disebut keutamaan etika. Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function of a thing. Aristotel mengajarkan bahwa kebaikan harus dilakukan dengan benar fungsi apapun. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Mata yang hanya baik di mata banyak karena dapat melihat, karena fungsi yang benar adalah pandangan mata. Aristotle reasoned that man must have a function uncommon to anything else, and that this function must be an activity of the soul. Aristotel beralasan bahwa manusia harus memiliki fungsi jarang hal yang lain, dan fungsi ini harus merupakan kegiatan jiwa. Aristotle identified the best activity of the soul as eudaimonia : a happiness or joy that pervades the good life. Aristotel mengidentifikasi aktivitas terbaik jiwa sebagai eudaimonia: suatu kebahagiaan atau sukacita yang pervades
  • 44. kehidupan yang baik. Aristotle taught that to achieve the good life, one must live a balanced life and avoid excess. Aristotel mengajarkan bahwa untuk mencapai kehidupan yang baik, kita harus hidup yang seimbang dan menghindari kelebihan. This balance, he taught, varies among different persons and situations, and exists as a golden mean between two vices - one an excess and one a deficiency. Keseimbangan ini, ia mengajar, bervariasi antara orang yang berbeda dan situasi, dan ada sebagai emas berarti antara dua vices - satu kelebihan dan kekurangan yang satu. Politics Politik Main article: Politics (Aristotle) Artikel utama: Politik (Aristotle) In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics . Selain karya-karyanya pada etika, yang masing-masing alamat, Aristotle dialamatkan kota dalam karyanya berjudul Politik. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner. [ 37 ] Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Aristotle's konsepsi kota adalah organik, dan dia dianggap salah satu yang pertama untuk menyusun kota dengan cara ini. [37] Aristotle dianggap kota menjadi alam masyarakat. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, ie, last in the order of becoming, but first in the order of being . Selain itu, ia menganggap kota sebelum menjadi keluarga yang pada gilirannya adalah sebelum individu, misalnya, yang terakhir dalam rangka menjadi, tetapi dalam urutan pertama sebagai. He is also famous for his statement that quot;man is by nature a political animal.quot; Dia juga terkenal atas pernyataan bahwa quot;manusia itu oleh alam politik binatang.quot; Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine , and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotel disusun sebagai politik seperti organisme daripada seperti komputer, dan sebagai kumpulan bagian-bagian tidak ada yang bisa ada tanpa yang lain. It should be noted that the modern understanding of a political community is that of the state. Perlu dicatat bahwa modern pemahaman politik masyarakat adalah bahwa negara. However, the state was foreign to Aristotle. Namun, negara asing itu ke Aristotle. He referred to political communities as cities. Dia disebut sebagai politik masyarakat kota. Aristotle understood a city as a political quot;partnershipquot; and not one of a social contract (or compact) or a political community as understood by Niccolò Machiavelli . Aristotel dipahami sebagai sebuah kota politik quot;kemitraanquot; dan tidak satu dari kontrak sosial (atau kompak) atau masyarakat politik sebagai dipahami oleh Niccolò Machiavelli. Subsequently, a city is created not to avoid injustice or for economic stability , but rather to live a good life: quot;The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living togetherquot; . Kemudian, kota yang dibuat bukan untuk menghindari ketidakadilan atau untuk stabilitas ekonomi, tetapi untuk hidup kehidupan yang baik: quot;The kemitraan politik harus dipandang, oleh karena itu, karena untuk kepentingan mulia tindakan, bukan untuk kepentingan hidup bersamaquot; . This can be distinguished from the social contract theory which individuals leave the state of nature because of quot;fear of violent deathquot; or its quot;inconveniences.quot; [ 38 ] Ini dapat dibedakan dari teori kontrak sosial yang individu meninggalkan negara alam karena quot;kekerasan takut matiquot; atau quot;inconveniences.quot; [38] Rhetoric and poetics Retorika dan poetics
  • 45. Main articles: Rhetoric (Aristotle) and Poetics (Aristotle) Artikel utama: retorika (Aristotle) dan Poetics (Aristotle) Aristotle considered epic poetry , tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative , each varying in imitation by media, object, and manner. [ 39 ] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. Aristotel dianggap puisi epik, tragedi, komedi, puisi bersifat puji-pujian dan musik yang akan tiruan, masing-masing di imitasi oleh berbagai media, obyek, dan cara. [39] Misalnya, musik imitates dengan media ritme dan harmoni, sedangkan tarian imitates dengan irama saja, dan puisi dengan bahasa. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Formulir juga berbeda dalam objek imitasi. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Komedi, misalnya, adalah dramatis imitasi laki-laki lebih buruk daripada rata-rata; tragedi imitates sedangkan laki- laki sedikit lebih baik dari rata-rata. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation - through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama. [ 40 ] Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. [ 41 ] Terakhir, bentuk-bentuk yang berbeda dalam cara mereka yang imitasi - melalui cerita atau karakter, melalui perubahan atau tidak berubah, dan tidak melalui drama atau drama. [40] Aristotle percaya bahwa imitasi adalah alam kepada umat manusia dan merupakan salah satu keunggulan dari manusia atas binatang. [ 41] While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books - one on comedy and one on tragedy - only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Meskipun diyakini bahwa Aristotle Poetics terdiri dari dua buku - satu di komedi dan satu tragedi - hanya porsi yang berfokus pada tragedi telah bertahan. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, spectacle, and lyric poetry. [ 42 ] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Aristotel diajarkan tragedi yang terdiri dari enam elemen: plot-struktur, karakter, gaya, tontonan, puisi dan sajak. [42] Karakter dalam tragedi hanya sarana untuk mengemudi cerita, dan plot, bukan karakter, akan dengan fokus utama dari tragedi. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Tragedi adalah imitasi dari tindakan arousing kasihan dan takut, dan efek yang dimaksudkan untuk pembersihan emosi dari orang-orang yang sama. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis . Aristotle Poetics menyimpulkan dengan suatu diskusi di mana, jika salah satu, yang unggul: epic tragis atau peniruan. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic. [ 43 ] Dia menyarankan agar tragedi karena memiliki semua atribut yang epic, kemungkinan memiliki atribut tambahan seperti tontonan dan musik, lebih kompak, dan mencapai tujuan dari peniruan dalam lingkup yang lebih singkat, dapat dianggap unggul dari epos. [43] Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop . [ 44 ] Aristotle adalah seorang kolektor keen sistematis dari riddles, cerita rakyat, dan peribahasa; dia
  • 46. sekolah dan memiliki minat khusus dalam riddles dari Delphic Oracle dan mempelajari fables dari Aesop. [44] The loss of his works Hilangnya karya-karyanya According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: the quot;exotericquot; and the quot;esotericquot;. [ 45 ] Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the more technical works (esoteric) intended for the narrower audience of Aristotle's students and other philosophers who were familiar with the jargon and issues typical of the Platonic and Aristotelian schools. Menurut sebuah perbedaan yang berasal Aristotel dengan dirinya sendiri, tulisannya yang dibagi ke dalam dua kelompok yang quot;dpt dipahami orang banyakquot; dan quot;esoterikquot;. [45] Sebagian besar ulama telah dipahami sebagai perbezaan antara karya Aristotel ditujukan bagi masyarakat (dpt dipahami orang banyak), dan bekerja lebih teknis (esoterik) yang ditujukan untuk pemirsa yang sempit Aristotel dari mahasiswa dan filosof lainnya yang akrab dengan jargon dan isu-isu yang bersifat khas dan Aristotel sekolah. Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant - that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind. Lainnya adalah asumsi bahwa tidak ada yang dpt dipahami orang banyak bekerja adalah wujud - bahwa semua masih ada tulisan-tulisan dari Aristotle merupakan jenis batin. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form. Peristiwa pengetahuan tentang apa yang tepat dpt dipahami orang banyak tulisan-tulisan yang seperti itu dan sedikit ragu-ragu, walaupun banyak dari mereka mungkin telah dalam bentuk dialog. ( Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived.) Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as quot;a river of goldquot;; [ 46 ] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us. [ 47 ] However, some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works. [ 48 ] (Fragmen beberapa Aristotle's dialog yang bertahan hidup.) Mungkin hal ini adalah untuk yang Cicero merujuk ketika ia Aristotel karakteristik dari gaya penulisan sebagai quot;sungai emasquot;; [46] sulit bagi banyak pembaca modern untuk menerima satu yang bisa jadi serius mengagumi gaya yang bekerja saat ini tersedia bagi kami. [47] Namun, beberapa ulama modern ada peringatan bahwa kami tidak dapat mengetahui dengan pasti bahwa dari Cicero telah memuji reserved khusus untuk bekerja dpt dipahami orang banyak; beberapa ulama modern yang benar-benar penghargaan yang ringkas menulis gaya ditemukan Aristotle's wujud dalam bekerja. [48] One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us? [ 49 ] The story of the original manuscripts of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives . [ 50 ] The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus , who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis . Satu pertanyaan besar dalam sejarah Aristotle's bekerja, maka itu adalah bagaimana semua tulisannya dpt dipahami orang banyak yang hilang, dan bagaimana yang kita miliki sekarang datang kepada kami? [49] Cerita yang asli manuskrip dari esoterik treatises dijelaskan oleh Strabo di Geografi dan Plutarch di Parallel Lives. [50] The manuskrip itu kiri dari Aristotel kepada penggantinya Theophrastus, yang pada gilirannya menghendaki
  • 47. mereka untuk Neleus dari Scepsis. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis , where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the first century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. Neleus diduga mengambil tulisan-tulisan dari Jakarta ke Scepsis, di mana ia ahli waris hendaklah mereka tersiksa dalam gudang sampai abad pertama SM, ketika Apellicon dari Teos menemukan dan membeli manuskrip, membawa mereka kembali ke Jakarta. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text. Menurut cerita, Apellicon berusaha untuk memperbaiki beberapa kerusakan yang telah dilakukan selama manuskrip 'tinggal di basement, memperkenalkan sejumlah kesalahan ke dalam teks. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome , where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes . Ketika Lucius Cornelius Sulla diduduki Athena di 86 SM, ia dibawa keluar dari perpustakaan dari Apellicon ke Roma, di mana mereka pertama kali diterbitkan dalam 60 SM oleh ahli tatabahasa Tyrannion dari Amisus kemudian oleh filsuf Andronicus of Rhodes. Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides quot;the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century BCquot; [ 51 ] Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story, however. Carnes Tuhan atribut yang kepercayaan ini ke dalam kenyataan bahwa ia menyediakan quot;penjelasan yang paling masuk akal untuk cepat gerhana dari Peripatetic sekolah setelah bagian tengah abad ketiga, dan tidak adanya pengetahuan yang luas dari treatises khusus dari seluruh Aristotel pada periode Helenistik, dan juga untuk ulangan kemunculan mendadak dari Aristotelianism maju pada abad pertama SM quot;[51] Tuhan suara sejumlah pemesanan tentang berita ini, namun. First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair. Pertama, kondisi teks jauh terlalu bagus bagi mereka untuk memiliki banyak menderita kerusakan diikuti oleh Apellicon dari pada upaya perbaikan tdk ahli. Second, there is quot;incontrovertible evidence,quot; Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. Kedua, ada quot;tdk dpt dibantah bukti,quot; Tuhan mengatakan, bahwa dalam sirkulasi treatises yang selama ini di mana Strabo dan Plutarch menyarankan mereka dibatasi di dalam gudang di Scepsis. Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his. Ketiga, pasti edisi Aristotel dari teks seolah-olah telah dibuat di Jakarta beberapa lima puluh tahun sebelum Andronicus diduga ia dikompilasi. And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelean corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. Dan keempat, perpustakaan kuno predating catalogues Andronicus' intervensi daftar Aristotel corpus yang cukup mirip dengan yang kami miliki saat ini. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelean interpolations in the Politics , for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact. Tuhan melihat sejumlah pos- Aristotel interpolations di Politik, misalnya, tetapi pada umumnya yakin bahwa pekerjaan telah turun kepada kita relatif utuh.
  • 48. As the influence of the falsafa grew in the West, in part due to Gerard of Cremona 's translations and the spread of Averroism , the demand for Aristotle's works grew. William of Moerbeke translated a number of them into Latin. Sebagai pengaruh yang falsafa dibesarkan di Barat, sebagian disebabkan oleh Gerard dari Cremona 's terjemahan dan penyebaran Averroism, permintaan Aristotle's works berkembang. Moerbeke William dari sejumlah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Latin. When Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology , working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe , and ultimately revitalizing European thought through Muslim influence in Spain to fan the embers of the Renaissance. Ketika Thomas Aquinas, menulis teologi, bekerja dari Moerbeke's Terjemahan, permintaan Aristotle's tumbuh dan tulisan-tulisan Yunani manuskrip dikembalikan ke Barat, yang merangsang kembali dari Aristotelianism di Eropa, dan akhirnya kembali pemikiran Eropa melalui pengaruh Muslim di Spanyol untuk membuat embers dari the Renaissance. Legacy Legacy Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle Islam dari awal memerankan Aristotel Aristotle portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a 15th-century-AD scholar. Aristotel digambarkan di 1493 Nurnberg babad sebagai abad ke-15.-AD sarjana. Twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. Tiga ratus dua puluh tahun setelah kematiannya, Aristotle tetap salah satu orang yang paling berpengaruh yang pernah hidup. He was the founder of formal logic , pioneered the
  • 49. study of zoology , and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] Despite these accolades, many of Aristotle's errors held back science considerably. Bertrand Russell notes that quot;almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrinequot;. Dia adalah pendiri formal logika, memelopori ilmu zoology, dan kiri depan setiap filsuf dan ilmuwan di melalui hutang kepada metode ilmiah. [52] [53] Walaupun accolades ini, banyak dari kesalahan Aristotle's diadakan kembali ilmu sangat . Bertrand Russell catatan bahwa quot;hampir setiap muka serius intelektual telah mulai dengan serangan pada beberapa Aristotel doktrinquot;. Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as quot;repulsivequot;, and calls his logic quot;as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomyquot;. Russell juga merujuk kepada Aristotel etika sebagai quot;menjijikkanquot;, dan panggilan- Nya logika quot;sebagai definately antiquated sebagai Ptolemaic astronomiquot;. Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors. [ 54 ] Russell catatan bahwa kesalahan ini sulit untuk melakukan sejarah keadilan untuk Aristotel, hingga salah satu cara mengingat besar yang dibuat setelah sebelumnya dia segala pendahulu. [54] The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school . Langsung pengaruh Aristotle's merasa telah bekerja sebagai tumbuh ke dalam kamar bacaan Peripatetic sekolah. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus , Dicaearchus , Demetrius of Phalerum , Eudemos of Rhodes , Harpalus , Hephaestion , Meno , Mnason of Phocis , Nicomachus , and Theophrastus . Aristotle's terkemuka siswa termasuk Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius dari Phalerum, Eudemos dari Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, meno, Mnason dari Phocis, Nicomachus, dan Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. Aristotel mempengaruhi lebih dari Alexander the Great terlihat di kemudian dari membawa bersamanya pada ekspedisi serangkaian zoologists, botanists, dan peneliti. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Dia juga belajar banyak sekali tentang adat dan tradisi Persia dari guru. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained quot;Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?quot; [ 55 ] Walaupun ia menghormati Aristotle yg dikecilkan adalah sebagai perjalanan menjadi jelas bahwa banyak Aristotle's geografi itu jelas salah, ketika dirilis filsuf lama karya-karyanya ke masyarakat, Alexander mengeluhkan quot;Engkau tidak dilakukan dengan baik untuk menerbitkan acroamatic doktrin-Mu, sebab apa akan saya melebihi orang lain jika mereka doktrin dimana saya telah dilatih akan semua laki-laki milik umum? quot;[55] Aristotle is referred to as quot;The Philosopherquot; by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas . Aristotel disebut sebagai quot;The Philosopherquot; oleh sekolah pemikir seperti Thomas Aquinas. See Summa Theologica , Part I, Question 3, etc. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. Lihat Summa Theologica, Bagian I, Pertanyaan 3, dll ini pemikir dijus Aristotel filsafat dengan agama Kristian, membawa pemikiran Yunani Kuno ke dalam abad. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. Itu diperlukan sebuah penolakan beberapa prinsip
  • 50. Aristotel untuk ilmu dan seni untuk membebaskan diri untuk penemuan ilmiah modern hukum dan metode empiris. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having Pada abad pertengahan Inggris penyair Chaucer menjelaskan kepada siswa sebagai senang dengan At his bedded hed Tidur di hed Twenty books clothed in blake or red Dua puluh dalam buku clothed Blake atau merah Of Aristotle and his philosophie Of Aristotle dan Philosophie The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell , Italia penyair Dante mengatakan dari Aristotel di kalangan pertama dari neraka, I saw the Master there of those who know, Master aku melihat ada orang-orang yang tahu, Amid the philosophic family, Di tengah keluarga yang filosofis, By all admired, and by all reverenced; Oleh semua penghargaan, dan oleh semua reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Ada juga aku melihat Plato, dan Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest. Siapa yang berdiri di samping dia lebih dekat dari sisanya. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. [ 56 ] However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue - or arete - of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. Filsuf Jerman Friedrich Nietzsche telah dikatakan telah mengambil hampir segala filsafat politik dari Aristotle. [56] Namun implausible ini, adalah hal yang pasti dari Aristotel kaku pemisahan dari tindakan produksi, dan justifikasi tentang sikap dari budak dan lain-lain kepada kebaikan - atau arete - dari beberapa dibenarkan yang ideal dari aristokrasi. It is Martin Heidegger , not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. Ia adalah Martin Heidegger, bukan Nietzsche, yang dijabarkan baru interpretasi dari Aristotel, dimaksudkan untuk menjamin his deconstruction dari tradisi ilmiah dan filosofis. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans. [ 57 ] Lebih baru-baru ini, Alasdair MacIntyre telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki apa yang dia panggilan Aristotel tradisi dengan cara yang anti-elitist dan mampu disputing klaim kedua Liberals dan Nietzscheans. [57] List of Aristotle's works Daftar Aristotle's works Main article: Corpus Aristotelicum Artikel utama: Corpus Aristotelicum Notes and References Catatan dan Referensi
  • 51. 1. ^ Jonathan Barnes , quot;Life and Workquot; in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. ^ Jonathan Barnes, quot;Life dan Workquot; dalam The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), hal 9. 2. ^ McLeish, Kenneth (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers . ^ McLeish, Kenneth (1999). Aristotle: The Great filosof. Routledge. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0-415-92392-1 . hal 5. ISBN 0-415-92392-1. 3. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 4. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon , 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. ^ Peter Green, Alexander dari Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd Oxford, Inggris. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.58-59 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, hal.58-59 5. ^ Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon , 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. ^ Peter Green, Alexander dari Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd Oxford, Inggris. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379,459 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379459 6. ^ William George Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology , vol. ^ George William Smith, Yunani dan Kamus Biografi dan Mitologi Romawi, vol. 3, p. 3, mukasurat 88 88 7. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 8. ^ Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern . ^ Neill, Alex; Harun Ridley (1995). The Filosofi Seni: pembacaan Kuno dan modern. McGraw Hill. McGraw Hill. p. 488 . http://www.amazon.com/dp/0070461929/ . 488 hal. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0070461929/. 9. ^ Jones, WT (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy . ^ Jones, WT (1980). The Klasik Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Harcourt brace Jovanovich. p. 216 . http://www.amazon.com/dp/0155383124/ . hal 216. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0155383124/. , cf. Vita Marciana 41. , Cf. Vita marciana 41. 10. ^ Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will ^ Aufstieg und Niedergang der Welt römischen oleh Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will 11. ^ Bocheński, IM (1951). Ancient Formal Logic . ^ Bocheński, IM (1951). Purba Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 12. ^ a b Bocheński, 1951. ^ A b Bocheński, 1951. 13. ^ Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic . ^ Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 14. ^ Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele . ^ Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore. Milano: Bruno Editore Mondadori. 15. ^ Aristotle, History of Animals , 2.3. ^ Aristotle, Sejarah Binatang, 2.3. 16. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 17. ^ Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. ^ Aristotle, Badan Meterologi 1.8, trans. EW Webster, rev. EW Webster, rev. J. Barnes. J. Barnes.
  • 52. 18. ^ Burent, John. 1928. Platonism , Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. ^ Burent, John. 1928. Platonisme, Berkeley: University of California Press, hal. 61, 103-104. 61, 103-104. 19. ^ Aristotle, Physics 2.6 ^ Aristotle, Fisika 2,6 20. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1043a 10-30 ^ Aristotle, metaphysics VIII 1043a 10/30 21. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics IX 1050a 5-10 ^ Aristotle, metaphysics IX 1050a 5-10 22. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b ^ Aristotle, metaphysics VIII 1045a-b 23. ^ a b Singer, Charles. A short history of biology . ^ A b Singer, Charles. J singkat sejarah biologi. Oxford 1931. Oxford 1931. 24. ^ Emily Kearns, quot;Animals, knowledge about,quot; in Oxford Classical Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1996, p. ^ Emily Kearns, quot;Binatang, pengetahuan tentangquot; di Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996, hal 92. 25. ^ Aristotle, of course, is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics. ^ Aristotle, tentu saja, tidak bertanggung jawab untuk kemudian menggunakan idea ini dibuat oleh clerics. 26. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 43-44 ^ Mason, A History of the Ilmu pp 43-44 27. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought , pp 201-202; see also: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, hal 201-202, lihat juga: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being 28. ^ Aristotle, De Anima II 3 ^ Aristotle, De anima II 3 29. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 45 ^ Mason, A History of the Ilmu pp 45 30. ^ Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. ^ Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 pp. 1 pp. 348 31. ^ Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 December 1999). Discovering Reality,: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science . ^ Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 Desember 1999). Menemukan Realita,: feminis Perspectives on Epistemology, metaphysics, Metodologi, dan Filsafat Ilmu. Springer. Springer. p. 372 . http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/9027714967/ . hal 372. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/9027714967/. 32. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought , pp 90-91; Mason, A History of the Sciences , p 46 ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, hal 90-91; Mason, A History of Sciences, 46 p 33. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252 ^ Annas, klasik Yunani Filosofi pp 252 34. ^ Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 56 ^ Mason, A History of the Ilmu pp 56 35. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought , pp 90-94; quotation from p 91 ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, hal 90-94; kutip dari p 91 36. ^ Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy , p 252 ^ Annas, Klasik Greek Philosophy, 252 p 37. ^ Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers . ^ Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Pengenalan pemikir politik. Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth Group. p. 59. hal 59. 38. ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomacean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) quot;Aristotle Discovers the Economyquot; in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. ^ Untuk membaca yang berbeda dari proses sosial dan ekonomi di Nicomacean Etika Politik dan melihat Polanyi, K. (1957) quot;Aristotel menemukan Perekonomianquot; dalam primitif, Archaic dan ekonomi modern:
  • 53. Essay dari Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78-115 G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78-115 39. ^ Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a ^ Aristotle, Poetics saya 1447a 40. ^ Aristotle, Poetics III ^ Aristotle, Poetics III 41. ^ Aristotle, Poetics IV ^ Aristotle, Poetics IV 42. ^ Aristotle, Poetics VI ^ Aristotle, Poetics VI 43. ^ Aristotle, Poetics XXVI ^ Aristotle, Poetics XXVI 44. ^ Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete Fables By Aesop Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. ^ Temple, Olivia, dan Kalimantan Tengah, Robert (penerjemah), The Complete Fables Oleh Aesop Penguin Klasik, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. Introduction, pp. Pendahuluan, hal. xi-xii. 45. ^ Jonathan Barnes , quot;Life and Workquot; in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. ^ Jonathan Barnes, quot;Life dan Workquot; dalam The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), hal 12; Aristotle himself: Nichomachean Ethics 1102a26-27. 12; Aristotel dirinya: Nichomachean Kode Etik 1102a26-27. Aristotle himself never uses the term quot;esotericquot; or quot;acroamaticquot;. Aristotle sendiri tidak pernah menggunakan istilah quot;batinquot; atau quot;acroamaticquot;. For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi logoi , see WD Ross , Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953), vol. Petikan lain di mana Aristotel berbicara dari exōterikoi logoi, lihat WD Ross, Aristotle's metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp. 2, hal. 408-410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to quot;discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic schoolquot;, rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. Ross defends sebuah interpretasi yang sesuai dengan ungkapan, paling tidak dalam Aristotle sendiri bekerja, biasanya merujuk ke umumnya quot;diskusi tidak aneh ke Peripatetic sekolahquot;, daripada ke khusus karya Aristotle sendiri. 46. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). quot;quot;flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristotelesquot;quot; . Academica . http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/1/4/9/7/14970/14970- h/14970-h.htm#BkII_119 . ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). quot;quot; Flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles quot;quot;. Academica. Http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/1/4/9/7/14970/14970-h / 14970-h.htm # BkII_119. Retrieved on 25 January 2007 . Diambil pada 25 Januari 2007. 47. ^ Barnes, quot;Life and Workquot;, p. ^ Barnes, quot;Life dan Workquot;, hal 12. 48. ^ Barnes, quot;Roman Aristotlequot;, in Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature , Routledge 2001, vol. ^ Barnes, quot;Roma Aristotlequot;, dalam Gregory Nagy, Yunani Literatur, Routledge 2001, vol. 8, p. 8, hal 174 n. 174 n. 240. 49. ^ The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, quot;Roman Aristotlequot;. ^ Yang pasti, belajar bahasa Inggris dari pertanyaan ini adalah Barnes, quot;Roma Aristotlequot;. 50. ^ quot;Sulla.quot; ^ quot;Sulla.quot; 51. ^ Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by Aristotle . ^ Tuhan, Carnes (1984). Pendahuluan ke Politik, oleh Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press . Chicago: Chicago University Press. p. 11. hal 11. 52. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/34560/Aristotle ^ Http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/34560/Aristotle 53. ^ Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy . United States : Simon & Schuster, Inc.. ^ Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy. Amerika Serikat: Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 9780671739164 . hal 92. ISBN 9780671739164.
  • 54. 54. ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 ^ Bertrand Russell, quot;A History of Western Philosophyquot;, Simon & Schuster, 1972 55. ^ Plutarch, Life of Alexander ^ Plutarch, Kehidupan Alexander 56. ^ Durant, p. ^ Durant, hal 86 57. ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy , Polity Press, 2007, passim . ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotel Filosofi, pemerintahan Press, 2007, passim. Further reading Membaca lebih lanjut The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. Sekunder sastra di Aristotle adalah luas. The following references are only a small selection. Berikut referensi hanya sedikit pilihan. • Ackrill JL 2001. Ackrill JL 2001. Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA Essay pada Plato dan Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA • Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle for Everybody . New York: Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader. • Bakalis Nikolaos. 2005. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 • Barnes J. 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge University Press • Bocheński, IM (1951). Ancient Formal Logic . Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. • Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. • Burnyeat, MF et al. 1979. Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub- faculty of Philosophy • Chappell, V. 1973. Aristotle's Conception of Matter, Journal of Philosophy 70: 679-696 • Code, Alan. 1995. Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 • Frede, Michael. 1987. Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press • Gill, Mary Louise. 1989. Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press • Guthrie, WKC (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. 6 . Cambridge University Press . • Halper, Edward C. (2007) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha — Delta , Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6 • Halper, Edward C. (2005) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books , Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6 • Irwin, TH 1988. Aristotle's First Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Jori, Alberto . 2003. Aristotele , Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the quot;International Academy of the History of Sciencequot;) ISBN 88-424-9737-1 • Knight, Kelvin. 2007. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre , Polity Press. • Lewis, Frank A. 1991. Substance and Predication in Aristotle . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 55. • Lloyd, GER 1968. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought . Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9 . • Lord, Carnes. 1984. Introduction to The Politics , by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. • Loux, Michael J. 1991. Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press • Owen, GEL 1965c. The Platonism of Aristotle, Proceedings of the British Academy 50 125-150. Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and RRK Sorabji (eds.), Articles on Aristotle, Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth (1975). 14-34 • Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship. • Reeve, CDC 2000. Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett. • Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. • Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6 th ed. ed.). London: Routledge. An classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators, in print since 1923. • Scaltsas, T. 1994. Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. • Strauss, Leo. quot;On Aristotle's Politics quot; (1964), in The City and Man , Chicago; Rand McNally. • Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). quot;Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biologyquot; . Greek Biology and Medicine . http://web.archive.org/web/20060327222953/http://www.ancientlibrary.com/ medicine/0051.html . • Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation . Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. For the general reader. • Woods, MJ 1991b. quot;Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics.quot; Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy supplement. 41-56 Silogisme Aristoteles, sebuah perjalanan logika deduktif yang amat panjang sejak 2500 tahun yang silam, sejak Aristoteles dilahirkan di Stagira 384 SM, tetapi logika ini akan tetap aktual dalam perjalanan manusia mencari makna diri di alam semesta ini, bahkan sesungguhnya silogisme Aristoteleslah yang mendasari prinsip-prinsip Antropik Kosmos (Cosmic Anthropic_principle). Konsep silogisme Aristoteles adalah konsep dasar tatkala kesadaran manusia harus menapak awal melihat fenomena Jagad Semesta dan mulai menganalisa keajaiban kehidupan bumi, kemudian manusia menyadari bahwa dirinya sendiri akan menjadi tiada seperti spesies makhluk hidup lainnya, mortal Silogisme Aristoteles lebih mudah difahami dari persamaan matematika berikut, jika A = B dan B = C maka A = C
  • 56. A B C Inilah pertanyaan-pertanyaan abadi tentang kesadaran manusia : 1. Jika kita harus berkata bahwa kesadaran manusia itu lahir dari kegelapan goa goa awal peradaban manusia, maka adalah logis jika suatu hari kelak kita akan lahir kembali dalam kondisi yang sama, kegelapan di goa awal peradaban. Dalam bentuk silogisme Aristoteles A = B = C. 2. 100.000 tahun yang lalu, dimana kesadaran semesta itu berada? Apakah masih berevolusi dalam diri dalam spesies Homo_erectus? 3. 10.000 tahun yang lalu, peradaban manusia lantas muncul dan sampai saat ini, apakah yang sebenarnya terjadi pada 200 milayr sel-sel syaraf spesies manusia? Angka 10,000 tahun adalah tidak sebanding dengan 3 juta tahun atau 4.5 milyar tahun yang silam untuk menyatakan bahwa kesadaran manusia itu baru memulai evolusi. Angka 10,000 tahun lebih tepat kita lihat sebagai fenomena revolusi kesadaran semesta dari munculnya kesadaran manusia. 4. Sederhananya bandingkan 200 milayr sel-sel syaraf manusia itu dengan sebuah transformator listrik Jika input transformator adalah fungsi tegangan/arus/frekwensi listrik A maka outputnya adalah fungsi tegangan/arus/frekwensi B. Sedangkan input dari 200 milyar sel-syaraf kita adalah suatu 'Dimensi Kesadaran Semesta' yang memang kekal eksistensinya melihat 'Masa Depan Semesta' sebagai ouputnya. Fungsi kesadaran manusia adalah untuk melihat Masa Depan Jagad Semesta sambil 'bermain-main' di Bumi ini, tetapi bukan untuk mengeksekusi Semesta Kosmos sejauh 13.7 milyar tahun cahaya.
  • 57. 5. Kita bertemu di bumi berbangsa-bangsa berbeda bahasa adalah untuk memahami bahwa Bumi tinggal Satu untuk kelak menghadap Sang Pencipta. Pada akhirnya manusia akan faham bahwa Logika Hari Kiamat adalah realitas indahnya Keabadian Kesadaran Semesta, betapapun perbedaan kita dalam bermimpi tentang makna keabadian. Fungsi Kesadaran 200 milayr sel-sel syaraf >> Fungsi Masa Depan Semesta >> manusia Semesta Fungsi (V,I,f,A) >> transformator listrik >> Fungsi (V,I,f,B) Tatkala kesadaran manusia harus muncul dan tumbuh, maka mulailah kita mencari asal muasal kesadaran itu muncul. Kesadaran kita akan selalu mengarah kepada penyederhanan dan penyederhanaan dari kompleksitas observasi seorang manusia seperti Aristoteles. Solusinya adalah membuat sistematika yang logis dengan cara membuat klasifikasi, inilah cara berfikir logis sang jenius Aristoteles tanpa mikroskop dan tanpa teleskop disampingnya. Kita membayangkan pribadi pribadi pengamat kosmos seperti Plato, Socrates, atau Aristoteles yang harus berfikir tentang alam semesta tanpa penemuan dasar seperti mikroskop, teleskop, atau mesin cetak Gutenberg, maka hasilnya berupa istilah klasifikasi orisinal mereka seperti analytica, dialectica, physica, matematica , scientifica, etica, politica, medica adalah penemuan luar biasa. Lucunya saat kini kita seolah kembali ke cara berfikir ala Aristoteles dimana pada saat ini fitrah manusia millennium mengalami ‘kebuntuan kosmologi’ dalam menyimpulkan angka 13.7 milyar tahun cahaya. Lantas apa maknanya silogisme Aristoteles 2500 tahun silam dan prinsip antropika millennium dalam memandang kosmos. Jangan jangan Aristoteles-lah yang benar bahwa bumi adalah pusat alam semesta, dan paling tidak kesadaran manusia di bumi adalah satu satunya kesadaran yang pernah ditemukan di alam semesta, jadi barangkali bumi-lah pusat kesadaran kosmos semesta. Karena Sang Pengamat Kosmos cuma Satu adanya di Bumi, Sang Manusia. Quo Vadis Aristoteles !!! Referensi kita bermula pada definisi pra sejarah dan sejarah tulis menulis, dan kita mengacu pada angka 10,000 tahun sejarah manusia di bumi, maka sebelum 10,000 tahun kita menganggap sebagai bagian kehidupan manusia purba pra sejarah. 'Dawn of
  • 58. Civilization' atau 'Fajar Peradaban' bermula dari tepian sungai Eufrat Mesopotania, Timur Tengah, tepatnya di Irak masa kini, atau juga boleh jadi bermula di tepian sungai Gangga, Harappa India. Namanya juga fajar , maka pada umumnya suasana fajar itu berkabut, karena belum penuh disinari terangnya sang surya, jadi kita susah susah gampang melacaknya lewat arti guratan-guratan batu bertulis. Seorang bayi manusia akan terlahir sama dalam melihat kesadaran sekelilingnya, karena mungkin tidak bisa melihat jelas bayang-bayang ibunya yang mengasihinya, lantas ia menangis sekeras-kerasnya menyatakan bahwa dirinya hadir di alam semesta ini. Ia akan tumbuh sadar dan akan dapat menatap takjub kepada dunia memulai suatu proses kesadaran semesta. Mungkin kondisi ekivalen silogis ini adalah sama pada saat ini manusia mencoba membayangkan bentuk dan nasib kosmos sejauh 13,700,000,000 tahun cahaya, maka kabur mata penglihatan fikiran kita, apa sesungguhnya makna 10,000 tahun dibandingkan dengan angka tak berhingga itu? Sungguh diluar kekuasaan manusia!! Bayangkan perjalanan peradaban manusia 7500 tahun dahulu dari Mesopotania, 5000 tahun silam dari Mesir, 2500 tahun berlalu kemarin dari Yunani dan Romawi , dan cobalah bayangkan apakah yang terjadi 10,000 tahun kelak mendatang. Bayangkan manusia harus melepaskan ketergantungan energi fosil dan seharusnya juga ketergantungan akan keinginan pengunaan energi nuklir di masa depan !!! Kemudian coba bayangkan ‘segmen segmen kubus’ 10,000 tahun itu kita susun agar terbentuk piramida bervolume 13,700,000,000 tahun. Lantas apakah kita percaya, bahwa segmen 10,000 tahun kesadaran manusia itu saat ini sekarang tepat berada di puncak piramida ruang waktu menghadap Wajah Sang Maha Pencipta pada jarak 10exp(-100) meter? Ketika Aristoteles pada akhirnya menyimpulkan bahwa bumi adalah pusat alam semesta, maka pandangan yang salah inipun belum mampu membuat manusia milenium menemukan makhluk hidup lain selain di permukaan bumi ini. Ketika kita harus bertanya tentang diri kita sendiri, maka kita sampai saat ini masih berdebat apakah kesadaran manusia itu hanya sekadar proses materi kimiawi plus foton plus elektron, atau kesadaran kita itu sebenarnya adalah proses kesadaran di luar ruang waktu fisik materi, artinya kesadaran kita saat ini sebenarnya ‘tidak berlokasi’ di bumi, hanyalah materi tubuh kita yang berada di bumi, atau orang bilang bahwa kesadaran kita itu adalah metafisika. Hebatnya kesadaran ‘metafisika’ ini telah mampu menunjukkan eksistensinya selama 4.5 milyar tahun sejak zaman eon Hadean di muka bumi ini, dimana salah satu proses perdananya adalah ‘tugas melukis’ angkasa menjadi berwarna biru dari asalnya yang berwarna kelam kelabu. Ini jelas bukanlah pekerjaan 10,000 tahunan, dan itu pasti
  • 59. memerlukan atmosfir yang mengandung oksigen, nitrogen, uap air sehingga langit angkasa akan menjadi berwarna biru. Lantas dari mana berasalnya oksigen, kalau bukan berasal dari proses fotosintesa makhluk makhluk hidup prokaryota(semacam plankton) bermilyar tahun lamanya berinteraksi dengan foton cahaya matahari. Saat ini kita menyadari adanya hubungan yang erat antara materi, energi , dan 'kesadaran' itu adalah vektor vektor ruang waktu yang realitasnya adalah 'dominan' yang barangkali memang 'kesadaran nyata' itu diperlukan untuk menetukan masa depan kosmos, karena angka 4.5 milyar tahun kehidupan bumi adalah setara dengan angka 13.7 milyar tahun sejak Ledakan Besar, tetapi angka 10,000 tahun kesadaran manusia di bumi adalah 'begitu kecil dan tidak berarti' secara matematis dibanding dengan angka raksasa 13,700,000,000 tahun perjalanan cahaya. Tetapi apakah kesadaran manusia itu hanyalah serpihan debu angkasa luar yang mampir ke bumi? Kenapa baru muncul 10,000 tahun dan kita seperti mempunyai tugas mengukur dimensi ruang waktu, materi, energi, dan kehidupan itu sendiri, kemudian terkadang kita bertanya siapakah sebenarnya 'kita' dan sebenarnya tugas kita untuk apa ? Pada saat ini ketika realitas pengertian kosmos menjadi buntu akibat ukuran 13.7 milyar tahun cahaya yang sedemikan raksasanya, maka logika deduktif Aristoteles cukup menolong menenangkan fikiran kita tentang kesadaran sendiri yang selalu mentok dengan persoalan keterbatasan mortalitas, di lain sisi kita selalu ingin memberontak bahwa kita ingin bermimpi mempunyai kapasitas imortalitas. Jadi kita akan selalu menghadapi realitas yang absurd !!!! Tetapi dengan silogisme Aristoteles ataupun prinsip Antropika (Anthropic Principles), kita akan mencapai suatu pengertian dalam pencarian kausal mendekati suatu pemahaman akan adanya 'Prima Causa'. Bermula kita menjadi bahagia atas kehadiran pemikiran Einstein bahwa materi itu mempunyai hubungan khusus dengan cahaya dan totalitasnya adalah energi kosmos yang tertuang dalam formulasi E=mc2. Secara sederhananya bahwa materi itu diperintahkan untuk bercahaya, maka kita dapat melihat bahwa materi bintang bintang nun jauh galaksi disana akan mengeluarkan cahaya lewat proses fusi nuklirnya yang berlangsung bermilyar tahun cahaya. Sebuah keseimbangan materi dan energi kosmos dimana cahaya adalah tetapan abadi 300,000 km/detik dalam ruang vakum. Ruang waktu boleh melengkung tetapi cahaya akan tetap abadi menyinari alam semesta dengan konstan.
  • 60. Jika kita terus bertanya dari mana asal muasal materi dan energi kosmos sejak bermulanya Ledakan Besar 13.7 milyar tahun lalu, maka lagi lagi kita mengalami ‘Pertanyaan Besar’. Sebaiknya kita menikmati perjalanan asal muasal keindahan kehidupan di bumi dimana hubungan antara makhluk hidup dengan materi dan energi(cahaya matahri) sudah demikian lamanya sejak zaman eon Hadean sekitar 4,500,000,000 tahun lalu. Bagaimana mengubah lautan H20(rumus molekul air) yang berwarna kehitaman menjadi berwarna indah kebiruan dan terkadang kehijauan di kedalaman laut yang kita pandang. Sebelum terisi oleh makhluk makhluk hidup yang bergerak seperti ikan, maka lautan di permukaan bumi ini seolah seperti dasar kanvas yang akan dilukis dengan warna dasar biru. Orang bilang warna dasar cinta kasih adalah biru, tepatnya biru laut. Kesadaran manusia selalu mencari jalan menuju ‘keabadian’ apapun perbedaan pendapat manusia tentang arti keabadian. Kita menyadari bahwa kita mortal dan kita faham lawan kata mortal adalah imortal. Jika kita menyatakan bahwa hidup kita sebentar hanya berkisar di angka sekitar 70 tahun, hal itu adalah realitas, tetapi ternyata kehidupan di bumi telah berlangsung 4.5 milyar tahun , maka secara total kita melihat adanya suatu fenomena 'imortalitas', dan kita dapat meneruskan hipotesa kita tentang adanya 'keabadian'. Mungkin boleh saja kita menduga bahwa kehidupan itu mestinya abadi, dan 'kita' akan kembali ke suatu 'Titik Awal', dimana manusia akan selalu berdebat tentang 'Titik Awal' itu sendiri, apakah 'Titik Awal' hanyalah berupa Ledakan Besar 13.7 milyar tahun lalu. Jika kita berbicara tentang 'Titik Awal' kesadaran kita, maka boleh saja kita menyatakan bahwa setiap manusia berasal dari 1(satu) sel zygote yang kemudian mengalami ‘Ledakan Besar’ selama 17 tahun menjadi dewasa dan menjadi manusia besar dengan jumlah sel sebanyak 100 triliun sel hidup dalam tubuhnya. Siapa bilang mudah mengatur pertumbuhan dari satu sel zygote menjadi 100.000.000.000.000 sel yang berorganisasi secara sempurna dan seimbang, ini suatu fenomena hebat, bahkan mungkin lebih hebat dari proses lahirnya bintang bintang galaksi tahunan cahaya nun jauh disana. Belum lagi kalau kita melihat warna warni keberagaman species makhluk hidup, sampai dengan keinginan kuat kita mengetahui kronologi perjalanan panjang 'tarian abadi double-helix' DNA/RNA berinteraksi dengan materi dan energi cahaya matahari di permukaan bumi. Ini semua membuktikan bahwa kita ingin tahu dan selalu mencari apa arti 'Titik Awal' memori, Mem- Origin disingkat menjadi Memorigin.
  • 61. Riwayat Hidupnya Lahir pada tahun 384 sebelum masehi di Stageria, bapaknya seorang dokter maka dari beliaulah Aristoteles tertarik akan bidang ilmu pengetahuan empiris, dan pada usia 17 tahun ia dikirim ke akademia Plato untuk belajar disana dan selama 20 tahun ia belajar disana hingg ai mengajar bidang Logika dan retorika. Namun pada perkembangannya ia tidak menyetujui pendapat Speusippos yang pada saat itu pemimpin akademia, ia berpendapat filsafat identik dengan matematika. Lalu Aristoteles bersama temannya Xenokrats meninggalkan Athena menuju ke Assos untuk mengadu nasib disana dan ia akhirnya banyak melakukan penelitian dibidang biologi dan zoologi. Pada tahun 342 Aristoteles diundang raja Philippos dari Makedonia untuk mendidik anaknya yang bernama Alexander yang berusia 13 tahun agar nantinya siap menjadi pemimpin. Pada saat Alexander diangkat menjadi raja maka Aristoteles kembali ke Athena. Aristoteles mendirikan perpustakaan dan ii merupakan perpustakaan pertama dalam sejarah manusia. Ariftoteles meninggal pada usia 62/ 63 tahun. Aristoteles tentang Logika Pada awalnya memang Aristoteles tidak memunculkan istilah Logika dalam karyanya, yang pertama kali memperkenalkan istilah Logika ini adalah Alexander Aphrodisias pada abad 3 masehi dalam arti yang sekarang ini berlaku yaitu ilmu yang menyelidiki lurus tidaknya pemikiran. Namun sebelumnya pada abad 1 sebelum masehi oleh Cicero Logika diartikan sebagai seni berdebat. Aristoteles sendiri mengungkapkan tentang Analitika yaitu suatu penyelidikan tentang argumen yang bertitik tolak pada putusan-putusan yang benar dan Dialektika yaitu penyelidikan tentang argumen yang bertitik tolak dari hipotesa/ putusan yang tidak pasti kebenarannya. Aristoteles membagi 3 golongan ilmu pengetahuan yaitu pertama, Praktis : etika dan politik. Kedua, Produktif : menghasilkan karya (teknik dan seni). Ketiga, Teoritis : Fisika, matematika, dan metafisika. Sedangkan Logika menurut Aristoteles bukanlah Ilmu pengetahuan melainkan alat (Organon). Logika adalah alat yang mendahului ilmu pengetahuan sebagai persiapan untuk berfikir dengan cara ilmiah, dan alat untuk mempraktekkan ilmu pengetahuan. Logika memang dari dahulu sudah ada namun Aristotels-lah yang pertama menyusun secara sistematik Menurut Aristoteles pengetahuan dapat dihasilkan melalui 2 metode, yaitu metode Induksi, yaitu dari kasus yang khusus sifatnya ke pengetahuan umum. Dan metode kedua yaitu Deduksi yaitu dari 2 kebenaran yang tidak diragukan kebenarannya dan atas dasar itu menyimpulkan kebenaran ke 3. Ia beranggapan bahwa pengetahuan yang melalui metode Induksi tergantung dari pengetahuan indrawi, sedangkan Deduksi tidak tergantung pengetahuan inderawi dan ini
  • 62. merupakan jalan sempurna menuju pengetahuan baru. Untuk memperaktekkan deduksi Aristotels memperkanalkan Silogisme Aristoteles tentang Fisika Dalam ajarannya ini ia memperkenalkan berbagai macam Gerak (tentunya gerak yang dimaksud disini tidak melulu gerak suatu benda tetapi mempunyai arti yang lebih luas dari sekedar arti harfiah gerak). Ada 2 macam gerak yaitu gerak karena kekerasan seperti orang melempar batu, dan gerak spontan menurut kodrat. Dari sini ia membagi lagi macam-macam gerak, yaitu pertama, Gerak Substansial, yaitu gerak dari 1 substansi menjadi substansi lain, seperti air menjadi uap. Kedua, Gerak aksidental, yang menyangkut salah satu aspek saja, dan ini dibagi lagi menjadi 3 yaitu : pertama, Gerak Lokal, yaitu gerak dari lokasi A ke lokasi B, kedua, Gerak Kualitatif, secara kualitas berubah seperti kertas putih berubah menjadi kuning, ketiga, Gerak Kuantitatif, seperti pohon yang tumbuh. Tentunya dari setiap gerak ini ada penyebabnya dan tugas ilmu pengetahuan mencari setiap penyebab kejadian. Ada 4 macam penyebab, yaitu :pertama, Penyebab Efisien, merupakan sumber kejadian, faktor yang menjalankan kejadian (pelaku, subjek). Kedua, Penyebab Final, yaitu tujuan yang menjadi arah seluruh kejadian/ tujuan yang akan dicapai.Ketiga, Penyebab Material, yaitu bahan yang dipakai atau darimana bahan itu dibikin. Keempat, Pnyebab Formal, yaitu bentuk yang menyusun bahan. Aristoteles juga percaya bahwa dalam dunia ini semua mempunyai tujuan dalam melakukan kegiatannya, dan berdasarkan tujuan itu dunia ini berjalan dengan harmonis. Aristoteles tentang Manusia Lain halnya dengan Palto, aristoteles mengatakan bahwa Jiwa dan Tubuh merupakan suatu kesatuan dan ia menganggap bahwa Jiwa merupakan suatu yang fundamental dan mempunyai arti lebih luas, namun demikian tetap jsaja jiwa dan tubuh merupakan satu kesatuan yang tidak terpisahkan dengan demikian jika tubuh mati hancur maka jiwa pun akan mati bersama tubuh yang hancur. Menurut Aristotels apa yang ditangkap oleh panca indera itu merupakan suatu yang real atau nyata dan dalam menangkap kenyataan itu manusia menggunakan 2 macam rasio yang dimilikinya yaitu rasio pasif yang hanya menerima essensi yang ada di realitas, dan dari tangkapan pancaindera itu rasio tadi harus melepaskan realitas itu dari bahan yang disajikan panca indera, maka muncul rasio aktif dan disini muncul abstraksi, dimana ada proses menarik benda real/ nyata itu menjadi suatu benda yang abstra yang mencapai hakekat dari benda tersebut. Sehingga hasil abstraksi itu sifatnya kekal dan terpisah dari yang nyata tadijadi dapat disimpulkan rasio aktif sifatnya baka dan rasioa pasif sifatnya binasa. Aristoteles mengatakan bahwa rasio aktif itu adalah Tuhan dan jiwa harus dibedakan dari kedua rasio ini. Aristoteles tentang Metafisika
  • 63. Istilah metafisika tidak dipakai oleh Aristoteles, istilah ini diperkenalkan oleh Andronikos dari rhodos yang telah menerbitkan karya Aristoteles. Sedangkan Aristoteles sendiri mengatakan bahwa metafisika itu sebagai kebijaksanaan. Ilmu pengetahuan selalu mencari prinsip-prinsip dan penyebab-penyebab. Karena kebijaksanaan merupakan ilmu yang tertinggi, maka ilmu ini akan mencari prinsip-prinsip yang paling fundamental dan penyebab pertama, dilain karyanya ia mengatakan metafisika itu ilmu yang bertugas mempelajari “yang ada, sejauh ada”, dimana penyelifdikan kenyataan secara menyeluruh mnurut aspek yang paling umum, tetapi sekali lagi metafisika menelaah kenyataan selurhnya sejauh “yang ada” merupakan sesuatu. Dengan lain perkataan, metafisika mempelajari kenyataan sebagai “adaan”. Di buku lainnya ia mengatakan metafisika adalah ilmu yang tertinggi mempunyai obyek yang paling luhur dan paling sempurna. Karena itu kalau terdapat suatu substansi yang tak terubahkan dan abadi, maka ilmu yang menyelidiki subastansi itu boleh dinamakan “ilmu pertama” atau “filsafat pertama”. Aristoteles tentang Etika Ia mengatakan bahwa manusia hidup ini mempunyai tujuan, dan tujuan yang ingin dicapai tidak lain hanyalah suatu tujuan antara untuk mencapai tujuan selanjutnya, dan Aristotelse mengatakan bahwa tujuan yang paling tinggi adalah mencapai kebahagiaan. Tugas etika ialah mengembangkan dan mempertahankan kebahagiaanyang telah dicapai dan ia juga mengatakan bahwa etika sebaiknya tidak dipelajari oleh orang muda, sebab mereka belum mempunyai pengalaman yang boleh disebut matang. Menurut Aristoteles manusia akan mencapai kebahagiaan apabila ia menjalankan aktifitas secara baik, ia harus menjalankan aktifitasnya menurut keutamaan, hanya pemikiran yang disertai keutamaan dapat membuat manusia bahagia, dan dijalankan dalan jangka waktu yang panjang dan sifatnya stabil. Ada 2 keutamaan menurut Aristoteles yaitu Keutamaan Moral,dilukisakan sebagai sikap watak yang memungkinakn manusia untuk memilih jalan tengah antara dua akstrem yang berlawanan. Dan keutamaan lainnya adalah KeutamaanIntelektual, dimana rasio manusai mempunyai 2 fungsi, disatu pihak berfungsi untuk mengenal kebenaran, dan dilain pihak rasio dapat memberi petunjuk suapay orang mengetahui apa yang harus diputuskan dalam keadaan tertentu. Dari sini ada 2 keutamaan yang menyempurnakan rasio, yaitu kebijaksanaan teoritis, yang merupakan suatu sikap tetap, yang mempunyai kebijaksanaan ini adalah orang yang terpelajar, dan untuk mencapai kebijaksanaan ini harus melalui pendidikan ilmiah yang panjang.Kebijaksanaan praktis, adalah sikap jiwa yang memungkinkan manusia untuk mengatakan yang mana dari barang-barang konkret boleh dianggap baik untuk hidupnya. Aristoteles tentang Negara Aristoteles mengatakan bahwa menurut kodrtanya manusia adlaah zoion politikon, Yaitu mahluk yang hidup dalam polis. Ia menambahkan bahwa tujuan polis adalah memungkinkan terciptanya hidup dengan baik. Keluarga bermaksud menjamin reproduksi hidup manusia dan memenuhi keperluan sehari-hari, dan desa yang menggabungkan keluarga-keluarga berusaha memenuhi kebutuhan yang tidak dapat dipenuhi keluarga tersebut. Beberapa Desa dipersatukan dalam satu
  • 64. negarayang berusaha memenuhi kebutuhan warga negaranya, oleh karena itu negara mempunyai tujuan supaya manusia hidup dengan baik dalam arti sepnuh-penuhnya. Ada 3 macam bentuk negara yang dikatakan oleh Aristoteles yaitu Monarkis, ia menganggap tidak terlalu praktis, karena terdapat seorang yang jauh melebihi semua warga negara lain karena keunggulannya dalam kebijaksanaan sehingga kepemimpinan harus diserahkan padanya, sistem seperti ini memungkinkan adanya penyelewengan manjadi tirani. Aristokrasi, pemerintahan dipercayakan pada segelintir orang yang mutlak yang dianggap paling baik, namun didapati tidak selalu hal ini terjadi. Politeia, harus dipandang sebagai bentuk negara yang paling baik dalam praktek, yaitu bentuk pemerintahan yang moderat atau demokrasi yang mempunyai undang- undang dasar. Aristoteles menambahkan bahwa pemimpin yang baikadalah yang berasal dari kelas menengah sebab ia bisa menengahi kelas atas dan kelas bawah. Daftar Pustaka 1. Bertens, K, Sejarah Filsafat Yunani, cet. 14, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1997 2. Hadiwijono, Harun, Sari Sejarah Filsafat Barat 1, cet. 15, Penerbit Kanisius, yogyakarta, 1998 3. Hatta, Mohammad, Alam Pikiran Yunani, cet. 3, Penerbit Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 1986