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Isopropanol
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Isopropanol

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Isopropanol Isopropanol Document Transcript

  • Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) miscible in water and readily soluble in a number of common organic solvents such Isopropyl alcohol, also known as as acids, esters, and ketones. isopropanol, 2-propanol, dimethylcarbinol, and sec-propyl alcohol, is a colorless, Chemical properties of isopropyl alcohol volatile, and flammable liquid (at room are determined by its functional hydroxyl temperature), having a molecular weight of group in the secondary position. Except for 60.09 and a slight odor resembling a the production of acetone, most isopropyl mixture of ethyl alcohol and acetone. Its alcohol chemistry involves the introduction melting point is -89 oC and boiling point is of the isopropyl or isopropoxy group into 82 oC. other organic molecules by the breaking of the C-OH or the O-H bond in the isopropyl Isopropyl, the lowest member of the class alcohol molecule. of secondary alcohols, is generally known as the first petrochemical. Of the lower Uses of isopropyl alcohol are chemical, (C1-C5) alcohols, isopropyl alcohol is solvent, and medical. third in commercial production, behind methanol and ethyl alcohol. It undergoes 1.Chemical reactions typical of an active secondary alcohol and can be dehydrogenated, The use of isopropyl alcohol as a feedstock oxidized, esterified, etherified, aminated, for the production of acetone is expected to halogenated, or otherwise modified at the remain stable. Isopropyl alcohol is also OH moiety more readily than primary consumed in the production of other alcohols such as n-propyl or ethyl alcohol. chemicals such as methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl isobutyl, isopropylamine, and It has the molecular formula C3H7OH isopropyl acetate. The use of diisopropyl (CH3CH(OH)CH3). ether as a fuel ether may become a significant outlet for isopropyl alcohol. 2.Solvent Because of its balance between alcohol, water, and hydrocarbon-like characteristics, isopropyl alcohol is an excellent, low cost solvent free from Two processes are used to produce IPA. government regulations and taxes that apply to ethyl alcohol. The lower toxicity 1. A two-step (indirect) hydrogenation and of isopropyl alcohol favors its use over then hydrolysis of a petroleum product, methyl alcohol, even though the former is propylene, using acid and water. somewhat higher in cost. Consequently, isopropyl alcohol is used as a solvent in 2. A one-step (direct) hydrogenation of a many consumer products as well as petroleum product, propylene, with an acid industrial products and procedures, eg, catalyst. gasification and extractions. It is a good solvent for a variety of oils, gums, waxes , Physical properties of isopropyl alcohol are resins, and alkaloids, and consequently is characteristic of polar compounds because used for preparing cements, primers, of the presence of the polar hydroxyl, -OH, varnishes, paints, printing inks, etc. group. Isopropyl alcohol is completely 1
  • Isopropyl alcohol is also employed widely tincture of iodine, and bathing solutions for as a solvent for cosmetics, eg, lotions, surgical sutures and dressings. perfumes, shampoos, skin cleansers, nail polishes, makeup removers, deodorants, body oils, and skin lotions. In cosmetic applications, the acetone-like odor of isopropyl alcohol is masked by the addition of fragrance. Aerosol products contain isopropyl alcohol solvent. Aerosol formulations include hair sprays, floor detergents, shoe polishes, The largest use for IPA is as a solvent. The insecticides, burn ointments, window second largest use is as a chemical cleaners, waxes and polishes, paints, intermediate. IPA is also found in many automotive products, insect repellents, flea everyday products such as paints, inks, and tick spray, air refreshers, disinfectants, general-purpose cleaners, disinfectants, veterinary wound and pinkeye spray, first- room sprays and windshield deicing aid spray, foot fungicide, and fabric- agents. wrinkle remover. IPA is commonly used in Nitrocellulose Like acetone, it dissolves a wide range of -based lacquers and thinners for wood nonpolar compounds. It is also relatively finishing, in adhesives, pharmaceuticals, non-toxic and dries (evaporates) quickly. cosmetics and toiletries, disinfectants, Thus it is used widely as a solvent and as a rubbing compounds, and lithography. It is cleaning fluid, especially for also used as an ingredient in cleaners and dissolving lipophilic contaminants such as polishers, as a chemical intermediate, and oil. as a dehydrating agent and extractant. Isopropyl alcohol works well at removing IPA is a flammable material and should be smudges, dirt. It can also be used to handled only with adequate ventilation and remove stains from most fabrics, wood, in areas where ignition sources have been cotton, etc. removed (e.g., matches and unprotected light switches). 3.Medical Usage The flash point for IPA is 53°F / 12°C Isopropyl alcohol is also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant for home, hospital, and industry. It is about twice as effective as ethyl alcohol in these applications. Rubbing alcohol, a popular 70 vol % isopropyl alcohol-in-water mixture, exemplifies the medicinal use of isopropyl alcohol. Other examples include 30 vol % isopropyl alcohol solutions for medicinal liniments, tinctures of green soap, scalp tonics, and tincture of mercurophen. It is contained in pharmaceuticals, eg, local anesthetics, 2