Ecology 3

3,974 views
3,805 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,974
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
89
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ecology 3

  1. 1. Ecology
  2. 2. Ecology Standar Kompetensi Menganalisis hubungan antara komponen ekosistem, perubahan materi dan energi serta peranan manusia dalam keseimbangan ekosistem Kompetensi Dasar Mendeskripsikan peran komponen ekosistem dalam aliran energi dan daur biogeokimia serta pemanfaatan komponen ekosistem bagi kehidupan
  3. 3. Indikator <ul><li>Menguraikan komponen ekosistem dari hasil pengamatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeskripsikan hubungan antara komponen biotik dan abiotik, serta biotik dan biotik lainnya </li></ul><ul><li>Menganalisis jika terjadi ketidakseimbangan hubungan antar komponen (karena faktor alami dan akibat perbuatan manusia) </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan mekanisme aliran energi pada suatu ekosistem. </li></ul><ul><li>Membuat charta daur biogeokimia, seperti air, karbon, nitrogen, sulfur, posfor. </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan peran mikroorganisme/organisme dalam berbagai daur biogeokimia. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Indikator <ul><li>Menguraikan komponen ekosistem dari hasil pengamatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeskripsikan hubungan antara komponen biotik dan abiotik, serta biotik dan biotik lainnya </li></ul><ul><li>Menganalisis jika terjadi ketidakseimbangan hubungan antar komponen (karena faktor alami dan akibat perbuatan manusia) </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan mekanisme aliran energi pada suatu ekosistem. </li></ul><ul><li>Membuat charta daur biogeokimia, seperti air, karbon, nitrogen, sulfur, posfor. </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan peran mikroorganisme/organisme dalam berbagai daur biogeokimia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. K.D. 4.2 Menjelaskan keterkaitan antara kegiatan manusia dengan masalah perusakan/pencemaran lingkungan dan pelestarian lingkungan Indikator <ul><li>Menemukan faktor-faktor penyebab terjadinya perusakan lingkungan. </li></ul><ul><li>Membuat usulan alternatif pemecahan masalah kerusakan lingkungan. </li></ul><ul><li>Mengenali perilaku manusia yang tidak ramah lingkungan. </li></ul><ul><li>Memberikan contoh bahan-bahan polutan. </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan dampak suatu bahan polutan terhadap kelangsungan hidup makhluk hidup. </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan pemahamnnya tentang hidup ber-etika lingkungan. </li></ul><ul><li>Membuat usulan rencana perbaikan/pelestarian lingkungan rumah masing-masing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. K.D 4.3 Menganalisis jenis-jenis limbah dan daur ulang limbah Indikator <ul><li>Membuat data jenis-jenis limbah rumah tangga berdasarkan pengamatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Mengklasifikasi limbah organik dan anorganik dan sumbernya. </li></ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan jenis limbah bahan beracun berbahaya (limbah B3) </li></ul><ul><li>mengidentifikasi jenis limbah yang mungkin dapat di daur ulang. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ecology is…. <ul><li>derived from the Greek words oikos meaning “home” and logos meaning “to study.” </li></ul><ul><li>the scientific study of how organisms interact with one another and their environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Important cause of evolution of environments and organisms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Environments <ul><li>2 components </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic- nonliving chemical and physical factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Temperature, light, H20 and nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>-distribution of organisms limited by abiotic conditions that the organisms can tolerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic - living organisms in any individual’s environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. A lizard living in the desert. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Environments … <ul><li>Ecology is separated into 4 levels of study </li></ul><ul><li>Organismal - behavioral, physiological and morphological ways in which individual organisms adapt to their abiotic environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Population – a group of organisms of the same species, living in a particular geographical area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly deals with factors affecting population composition and size. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community – organisms that inhabit a particular area. Consists of populations of different species. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Environments… <ul><li>Ecosystem - includes abiotic and biotic factors. Sometimes concerns energy flows and chemical cycles affecting abiotic and biotic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic components: </li></ul><ul><li>- include temperature, water and the water cycle, sunlight, wind, rocks, soil, periodic disturbances, and climate. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Climate <ul><li>Global Climates and seasonal changes are established by solar energy (sun hitting the Earth) and the Earth revolving around the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun’s warming effect on the atmosphere, land and water establishes temperature variations, cycles of air movement and evaporation of water, which are all responsible for the variations in climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature, water, light and wind are all major components of climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate affects the location of different biomes as do these abiotic factors. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Climate… <ul><li>Ocean currents and land exchanging heat and cool air (day-cool air over ocean, night-cool air over land) </li></ul><ul><li>mountains affect temperature and rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>southward facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere-->more sunlight (drier and warmer) than north facing slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Rain shadow </li></ul>
  13. 13. Seasonal Change <ul><li>Earth is tilted on a 23.5˚ axis relative to its plane of orbit around the sun and this causes “seasonal variation” in the intensity of solar radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>When North Pole tilted most </li></ul><ul><li>toward the sun, the Northern Hemisphere (summer) </li></ul><ul><li>begins June 21-22 (Summer Solstice). </li></ul><ul><li>Sun's energy is more concentrated on the Northern Hemisphere where </li></ul><ul><li>its rays hit Earth directly and are more intense. </li></ul>
  14. 14. biome
  15. 15. Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>evaporation of seawater makes most rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthetic bacteria and marine algae--->Earth’s Oxygen, consuming Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater ---> less than 1% salt concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Marine ---> 3% salt concentration </li></ul>
  16. 16. Aquatic Biomes… <ul><li>Increases water flow speed and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Light intensity decreases with water depth </li></ul><ul><li>water is “stratified” </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Photic - sufficient light for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Aphotic - little light penetrates </li></ul><ul><li>Thermocline - narrow layer of quick temperature change that separates upper layer (warm water) from lower layer (cold water) </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic - bottom of aquatic biome </li></ul><ul><li> - composed of sand, organic and </li></ul><ul><li>- inorganic sediments </li></ul>
  17. 17. Aquatic Biomes… <ul><li>Benthic zone continued </li></ul><ul><li>occupied by communities of organisms (benthos) </li></ul><ul><li>detritus--> major food source for benthos </li></ul><ul><li>detritus comes from surface waters of photic zone in lakes and oceans </li></ul>
  18. 18. Freshwater Biomes <ul><li>Still bodies of water, ex. lakes and ponds </li></ul><ul><li>-distribution of plants and animals by depth </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Littoral - shallow, well-lit, near shore </li></ul><ul><li>- floating and rooted plants found here </li></ul><ul><li>Limnetic - well-lit, open surface waters, farther from shore </li></ul><ul><li>- variety of phytoplankton (algae and cyanobacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>- zooplankton (ex. small crustaceans eat phytoplankton) </li></ul><ul><li> - small fish eat zoopankton </li></ul><ul><li>- larger fish eat the smaller fish </li></ul><ul><li>- turtles, birds, etc. eat the fish </li></ul>
  19. 19. Freshwater Biomes… <ul><li>Profundal - aphotic </li></ul><ul><li> - small organisms from limnetic zone die and sink here </li></ul><ul><li> - microbes use oxygen for cellular respiration to decompose detritus </li></ul>
  20. 20. Three Types of Lakes <ul><li>Oligotrophic - deep, nutrient-poor </li></ul><ul><li> - phytoplankton in limnetic zone not very productive </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophic - more shallow, high nutrient concentration </li></ul><ul><li> - phytoplankton very productive </li></ul><ul><li> - murky water </li></ul><ul><li>Mesotrophic - between oligotrophic and mesotrophic </li></ul><ul><li> - moderate amounts of phytoplankton activity and </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients </li></ul>
  21. 21. Moving Bodies of Water <ul><li>ex. Streams, rivers </li></ul><ul><li>cold, clear water </li></ul><ul><li>little sediment, few mineral nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>narrow channel with swift current </li></ul><ul><li>other streams join to form river </li></ul>
  22. 22. Marine <ul><li>Intertidal zone - land meets water- </li></ul><ul><li>Neritic zone - beyond intertidal, shallow over continental shelves (underwater extension of coastal plain) </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic zone - past continental shelves, very deep </li></ul><ul><li>Plagic zone - open water </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic zone - seafloor </li></ul><ul><li>Bathyal zone - region along upper continental slope between edge of continental shelf and abyssal benthic region. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Marine… <ul><li>Continental shelf - underwater extension of coastal plain </li></ul><ul><li>Continental slope - edge of continent, descends from continental shelf and depth increases more rapidly than continental shelf. </li></ul><ul><li>Epipelagic zone - upper pelagic zone of ocean, based on daytime distribution of animals, sufficient light exists </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopelagic Zone - middle pelagic zone </li></ul><ul><li>Bathypelagic - deep pelagic zone, beneath mesopelagic zone. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Intertidal <ul><li>- exposed by two cycles of tides causing variation in </li></ul><ul><li>seawater and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- rocky </li></ul><ul><li>- suspension feeding (filter feeding) worms, crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>and clams bury themselves in sand or mud to wait for </li></ul><ul><li>tide to bring food. </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: - oil pollution has reduced species diversity </li></ul><ul><li>- increased oil resistant species </li></ul>
  25. 25. Neritic <ul><li>Currents and waves feed organisms in reefs </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight allows for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>cnidarians secrete external skeleton of calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>limestone added to coral reefs by multicellular algae </li></ul><ul><li>coral animals eat microscopic organisms and debris </li></ul>
  26. 26. Oceanic Pelagic <ul><li>Mixed by ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient concentration lower than in coastal areas due to plankton sinking to benthic zone </li></ul><ul><li>plankton grow and reproduce quickly </li></ul><ul><li>increases amount of free swimming animals </li></ul><ul><li>marine mammals eat one another or plankton </li></ul><ul><li>organisms feed in photic area of pelagic zone </li></ul>
  27. 27. Benthos <ul><li>Light and temperature decline greatly with depth </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients reach seafloor in form of detritus </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants---> fungi, seaweed, algae </li></ul><ul><li>abyssal zone - 3 degrees Celsius, really cold </li></ul><ul><li>- high water pressure </li></ul><ul><li> - almost no light if any </li></ul><ul><li> - low nutrient concentrations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Wetlands <ul><li>area covered with water that supports aquatic plants </li></ul><ul><li>periodically flooded to permanently saturated soil (soaked) </li></ul><ul><li>hydrophytes (water plants) grow in these conditions </li></ul><ul><li>richest of biomes </li></ul><ul><li>diverse invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>herbivores dwell here (crustaceans, muskrats, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Basin - shallow depression </li></ul><ul><li>Duration - frequency, depth, flooding season determines type of plants grown there </li></ul><ul><li>**provide water storage basins that reduce intensity of flooding </li></ul><ul><li>**improve water quality by filtering pollutants </li></ul>
  29. 29. Estuaries <ul><li>Often bordered by mudflats and salt marches (coastal wetlands) </li></ul><ul><li>supply semi-aquatic vertebrates with food (waterfowl) </li></ul><ul><li>river nutrients enrich estuaries, making them “the most biologically productive environments on Earth.” </li></ul><ul><li>Major producers--->salt march grasses, algae and phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants---> worms, oysters, crabs, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Biomes <ul><li>Biotic environments - include 9 biomes </li></ul><ul><li>- Tropical Forest - Chaparral - Tundra </li></ul><ul><li>- Savanna - Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>- Desert - Deciduous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Desert - Taiga </li></ul>
  31. 31. Biomes <ul><li>Location of different biomes </li></ul>
  32. 32. Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia and Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>canopy, found in areas with long dry seasons or scarce rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>trees make up topmost stratum </li></ul><ul><li>trees covered with epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants, not in soil) ex. orchids </li></ul><ul><li>little light reaches ground </li></ul><ul><li>poor soil </li></ul><ul><li>50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants-monkeys, frogs, jaguars, snakes, birds </li></ul><ul><li>most biodiversity of biomes </li></ul>
  33. 33. Savanna <ul><li>grassland with scattered trees </li></ul><ul><li>dominant plants are grasses and scattered trees (dominant plant is fire adapted since fire is a major abiotic factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts follow 1 or 2 rainy seasons </li></ul><ul><li>fires during dry season (ground layer of grasses withstand dry conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>migratory or seasonal grazing </li></ul><ul><li>organisms include large herbivores and their predators (dominant herbivores-ants and termites) </li></ul><ul><li>ex. zebra, antelope, and giraffes </li></ul>
  34. 34. Desert <ul><li>Scarce rainfall (less than 10% precipitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Major deserts formed by dry, descending </li></ul><ul><li>subtropical air </li></ul><ul><li>formed from rain shadow or high plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cacti or deep rooted plants </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants - pocket mice, kangaroos, rats, </li></ul><ul><li>grasshopper mice, and reptiles </li></ul>
  35. 35. Extreme Desert <ul><li>Less than 3 inches of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>some plants near water </li></ul><ul><li>some animals appear near water or plants </li></ul><ul><li>(most of the time these are insects) </li></ul><ul><li>support little, if any, plant </li></ul><ul><li>or animal life </li></ul><ul><li>Rockies in western Canada, </li></ul><ul><li>in Greenland, in Tibet, Mexico, </li></ul><ul><li>and South-central Africa. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chaparral <ul><li>hot and dry </li></ul><ul><li>west coast of U.S., South </li></ul><ul><li>America, South Africa, Australia, </li></ul><ul><li>and Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>plants have large, hard leaves </li></ul><ul><li>that hold moisture </li></ul><ul><li>plants well adapted to fires and </li></ul><ul><li>root systems designed absorb a </li></ul><ul><li>lot of water </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants--->coyotes, jack </li></ul><ul><li>rabbits, mule deer, lizards, </li></ul>
  37. 37. Grasslands <ul><li>Found in all continents except </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Light rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Fires are common and </li></ul><ul><li>essential for life cycle of </li></ul><ul><li>many plant species </li></ul><ul><li>Tall and short grass </li></ul><ul><li>Most of land converted to </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture and is among most </li></ul><ul><li>fertile soils of world </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants: bison, antelope, </li></ul><ul><li>prairie dog, coyote, and badgers </li></ul>
  38. 38. Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Eastern North America, Europe, </li></ul><ul><li>Australia, Japan and tip of South America </li></ul><ul><li>trees – maple, basswood, oak, hickory </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants found: gray squirrels, wild </li></ul><ul><li>wild turkeys, black bears, deer </li></ul>
  39. 39. Taiga <ul><li>known as boreal forests </li></ul><ul><li>north of Tundra biome </li></ul><ul><li>North America and Euroasia </li></ul><ul><li>50 to 100 inches of rain per year </li></ul><ul><li>Needle-leafed evergreen trees </li></ul><ul><li>such as pine, firs, redwoods </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants: squirrels, beavers, </li></ul><ul><li>birds, bobcats, black bears, </li></ul><ul><li>porcupines </li></ul>
  40. 40. Tundra <ul><li>Two types: Alpine and Arctic </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Low biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vegetation structure </li></ul><ul><li>Short season of growth and </li></ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and nutrients in the form </li></ul><ul><li>of dead organic material </li></ul><ul><li>Large population oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>frost-molded landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>little precipitation </li></ul>Alpine Tundra atop Mount Washington
  41. 41. Tundra… <ul><li>poor nutrients (detritus matter is a major source of nutrients) </li></ul><ul><li>two major nutrients - nitrogen (created by biological fixation) and phosphorus (created by precipitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic tundra </li></ul><ul><li>located in the northern hemisphere, around north pole </li></ul><ul><li>known for cold, desert-like conditions </li></ul><ul><li>growing season is 50 to 60 days </li></ul><ul><li>average winter temperature: -34° C (-30° F) </li></ul><ul><li>average summer temperature: 3-12° C (37-54° F) allowing for life </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall may vary in different regions of the arctic </li></ul><ul><li>Plants - short, group together to resist the cold temperatures - protected by snow during winter </li></ul>
  42. 42. Tundra… <ul><li>Arctic tundra continued </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, ravens, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Tundra <ul><li>Alpine tundra </li></ul>Alpine Tundra atop Mount Washington
  44. 44. Biosphere <ul><li>What is the biosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>The global ecosystem-Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Major Abiotic Factors of biosphere: </li></ul><ul><li>-temperature -rocks and soil </li></ul><ul><li>-water -periodic disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>-sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>-wind </li></ul>
  45. 45. Our Biosphere continued <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- affects organism distribution because few organisms can maintain an adequately active metabolism at extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>-most organisms cannot maintain body temperatures extremely different from their atmospheric temperature. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Biosphere… <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Marine and freshwater organisms-submerged aquatic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>- issue of water balance if their intracellurlar *osmolarity does not match the surrounding water’s. </li></ul><ul><li>-desiccation risk </li></ul><ul><li>-evolution depended on requirements for obtaining and conserving adequate water supplies. </li></ul>Osmolarity - measure of osmotic pressure exerted by a solution across a perfect semi-permeable membrane compared to pure water.
  47. 47. Biosphere… <ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>-provides energy, fueling all ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>-important in development and behavior of may plants and animals sensitive to *photoperiod </li></ul><ul><li>photoperiod-lengths of day and night; reliable indicator for indicating seasonal events </li></ul>
  48. 48. Biosphere… <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>-increases heat loss by means of evaporation and convection </li></ul><ul><li>-increases evaporation rate and transpiration in plants and contributes to water loss in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>-can affect structural growth of plants </li></ul>
  49. 49. Biosphere… <ul><li>Rocks and Soil </li></ul><ul><li>-mineral composition of rocks and soil, physical structure, and pH limit distribution of plants and their predators </li></ul><ul><li>ex. composition in streams can affect water chemistry, thereby affecting plants and animals </li></ul>
  50. 50. Biosphere… <ul><li>Periodic Disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>-catastrophic disturbances, ex. hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>-when catastrophic disturbances occur, the organisms that once lived in that environment have to re-colonize or repopulated and the community may undergo a series of changes during the re-colonization or re-population. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Population Ecology Population Dynamics
  52. 52. Definition: <ul><li>Measure the changes in population size and composition. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the ecological and evolutionary causes of those changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Characteristics of Populations <ul><li>Population: organisms of a specific area that occupy the same specific area </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.Needs same resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Influenced by the same environmental factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Interact with each other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A population’s characteristics can be shaped by interactions between individuals and their environments on both ecological and evolutionary time scales, and natural selection cam modify the population’s characteristics. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Important Characteristics of Populations are…. <ul><li>Population size = number of individuals that make up a gene pool. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies with species type, environmental conditions, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** Population is estimated by indirect indicators** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.Numbers of nest or borrows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.Signs of dropping or tracks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.Mark-Recapture Method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N= # marked x total caught 2 nd time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li># marked recaptured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Important Characteristics… <ul><li>Density = Number of individuals living in a specific area or volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. # of grape vines per km2 in the San Joaquin County </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density is caused by numerous factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity, diseases, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Types of Dispersion <ul><li>All areas don’t provide the same suitable habitat and results in dispersion. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Clumped = individuals in certain areas that grow together because of certain factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Plants and Soil conditions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Grain = the spatial variation or enrivonment separation of individual organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse-grained environment </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-grained environment </li></ul><ul><li>3. Uniform = evenly spaces pattern of dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>4. Random = pattern less dispersion </li></ul>
  57. 57. Factors that affect growth and decline of populations <ul><li>Age Structure = relative number of individuals of each age </li></ul><ul><li>Number of individuals in reproductive group </li></ul><ul><li>Birthrate / Fecundity = number of offspring produced during a certain amount of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate = number of organisms who die per year, month, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Generation time = average span between the birth of individuals and the birth of their offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Ratio = proportion of individuals of each sex. </li></ul>
  58. 58. ***To represent an individual of a given age life expectancy, one uses life tables*** <ul><li>Cohort = a group of individuals of the same age, from birth to death. </li></ul><ul><li>Survivorship Curve = a plot of the numbers in a cohort still alive at each age. </li></ul><ul><li>1. High Survivorship: late in life and then increase in death </li></ul><ul><li>2. Constant Death: rates at all ages </li></ul><ul><li>3. High Death Rate: at early age </li></ul>
  59. 59. Population Growth <ul><li>1. Intrinsic rate of increase = maximum population growth rate. r max </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zero population growth (ZPG) = birth and death rate are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exponential Population Growth = population increase under a certain conditions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Carrying Capacity (k) = maximum population size that a particular environment can support with no net increase or decrease over a relatively long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>         Logistic growth: population grows slowly at first, followed by rapid growth, leveling off as carrying capacity is reached. </li></ul><ul><li>         Equilibrial populations: populations that are likely to be living at a density near the limit imposed by their resources. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Population Growth… <ul><li>Opportunistic populations: populations that are likely to be found in variable environments in which population densities fluctuate, or in open habitats where individuals are likely to face little competition. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Population limiting factors <ul><li>Intraspecific competition: the reliance of individuals of the same species on the same limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Density Dependent Control = controls on a population that are directly related to the density of that population. </li></ul><ul><li>         Predators </li></ul><ul><li>         Parasites/diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Food and nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Density Independent Controls = controls that are unrelated to population size. </li></ul><ul><li> Weather </li></ul><ul><li>         Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution/waste </li></ul>
  62. 62. Community Structure Vocabulary <ul><li>Community: groups of populations of different organisms in a specific time and location. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Ecology: encompasses the groups of the populations within the community </li></ul><ul><li>Species richness : the number of species they contain. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative abundance : Some communities contain few common species and many rare ones, while others contain the same number of species, but consists of all common species. </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity : the number and relative abundance of species in a biological community </li></ul>
  63. 63. Interactions Between Populations of Different Species <ul><li>Interspecific interactions: interactions that occur between populations of different species living together within a community. </li></ul><ul><li>These interspecific interactions can be strong selection factors in evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example- peppered moth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coevolution: mutual influence on the evolution of two different species interacting with each other and reciprocally influencing each other’s adaptations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- hummingbirds </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Characteristics of Species <ul><li>Type of Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>native species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immigrant/introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicator species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indicate biome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indicate healthiness of ecosystem/environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indicate degredation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effects many other species in ecosystem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Niche <ul><li>Definition- way of life of a species its role in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions species needs to survive and reproduce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalists- stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specialist- unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological niche : sum total of the organism’s use o the biotic and abiotic resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it fits into an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Niche : the set of resources a population is theoretically capable of using under idea circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Realized niche : the resources a population actually uses </li></ul>
  66. 66. Specie Interaction <ul><li>Symbiotic Relationship : a variety of interactions in which two species, a host and its symbiont, maintain a close association. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalisms </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul>
  67. 67. Parasitism <ul><li>Parasitism : a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits at the other’s expense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parastoidism- where insects lays their eggs on a living host, where it’s larvae then hatch and devour the host. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endoparasites : organisms that live within their hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tapeworm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ectoparasites: parasites that feed on the external surface of a host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mosquitoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural selections favors parasites that are best able to locate hosts and feed on them. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse is also true for potential hosts and their ability to combat the parasite. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Predation <ul><li>Predaton : Where a predator eats it’s prey </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivory - where an animals eats a plant. Considered a type of predation. </li></ul><ul><li>Most predators have acute senses and traits that enable them to locate and identify, and capture potential prey. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- claws, teeth, stingers, fangs, poison, smell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rattle snakes are other pit vipers locate their prey with special heat sensing organs. Kill their prey with toxins. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some keystone species can affect the community structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#’s of Predators affects #’s of prey. Vice Versa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>exotic species- an introduced species that will usually compete with native community structure. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Defenses against Predation <ul><li>Prey Defenses= example of coevolution </li></ul><ul><li>Plants against herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thorns, microscopic crystals in tissue, hooks, spines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make feeding difficult for the predator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals- such as morphine from opium poppy and nicotine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distasteful chemicals- peppermint, cinnamon, cloves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some plants produce insect hormones that cause defects in insect development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These defenses can act as selective agents to provoke the evolution of counteradaptations in the herbivore populations . </li></ul>
  70. 70. Defenses… <ul><li>Animal Defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hiding, fleeing, alarm calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distraction displays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryptic Coloration : a passive defense that makes potential prey difficult to spot against it’s background. Camouflage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>countershading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disruptive-zebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deceptive markings- fake eyes, false heads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical and Chemical defenses - Skunks and porcupines. </li></ul><ul><li>Aposomatic Coloration : bright colorations of organisms that act as a warning to predators. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Defenses… <ul><li>Mimicry: another organism bears resemblance to another species. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves aposematic models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batesian mimicry : a harmless species mimics another harmful model. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarch butterfly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mullerian Mimicry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two or more harmful aposematically colored species resemble each other </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Mutualism <ul><li>A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- digestions of cellulose by microorganisms in the digestive systems of termites. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually coevolve together </li></ul><ul><li>may evolve from predator-prey or host-parasite interactions </li></ul>
  73. 73. Commensalism <ul><li>Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles and whales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes one organism can be affected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turtles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cow birds </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Interspecific Competitions <ul><li>When populations of two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting resources, they may be subject to interspecific competition </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecific Competition: competitions between two different species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can occur in two different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interference competition: actual fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitative competition: consumption or use of similar resources </li></ul><ul><li>population growht of a species may be limited by the density of competing species as well as by the density of its own population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds feeding on seeds in a forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>species may compete for nesting sites, shelters, or other resources in short supply </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Competitive Exclusions Principle <ul><li>It is the theory that two species with similar requirements could not coexist in the same community. </li></ul><ul><li>One species would get more of the resources and reproduce more efficiently, driving the other species to extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Even slight reproductive advantages would lead to elimination of the inferior competitor and an increase in the density of the superior one. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Succession <ul><li>Succession: a process of change that results from disturbance in communities (fire) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary succession: begins in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet formed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pioneer species : adapted to flourishing in habitats unsuitable to most species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example- small plants with short life spans and produce many seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonization of barren ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New volcanic island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once soil is present the lichens and mosses are usually first </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Succession… <ul><li>Secondary successions ; occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponds shallow lakes and abandoned fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beings to return to it’s original state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants from windblown seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes woody shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eventually forest trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climax Community: stable form of ecosystem (last succession) </li></ul>
  78. 78. Ecosystems
  79. 79. Trophic Relationships <ul><li>Trophic structure : the different feeding relationships in an ecosystem that determines the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling </li></ul><ul><li>species are divided into trophic levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophic levels: the division of species in an ecosystem on the basis of their main nutritional source </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Primary Producers- supports all others in an ecosystem consists of autotrophs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes- plants, algae, cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers- organisms that eat the primary producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers- carnivores that eat primary consumers and can eat primary producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>omnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Trophic Levels…. <ul><li>Tertiary consumers : carnivores that eat other carnivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>snakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quaternary consumers : have a specific diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eagles, osprey, owls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detritivores - derive their energy from non living organic material from all trophic levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feces, fallen leaves, remains of dead organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called detritus matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>break organic material down into SPONCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria, fungus </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Food Chain and Food Web <ul><li>Food Chain: The pathway along which food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts with primary producers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Web: The feeding relationship in an ecosystem woven into elaborate webs </li></ul>
  83. 83. Energy Flow in Ecosystems <ul><li>All organisms require energy for growth, maintenance, reproduction, and locomotion. </li></ul><ul><li>This focuses on how energy enters an ecosystem, flows within it, and then exits </li></ul><ul><li>it begins with primary productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary productivity : amount of light energy converted to chemical energy during a given period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total primary productivity is gross primary productivity (GPP) </li></ul><ul><li>Net primary productivity (NPP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equal to the GPP minus the energy used by the producers in respiration </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Biomass <ul><li>Primary Productivity can be expressed in terms of energy per unit area per unit time (J/m 2 /yr) or as Biomass (weight) </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass : weight of vegetation added to the ecosystem per unit area per unit time (g/m 2 /yr) </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem’s primary productivity should not be confused with the total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present at a give time, called Standing crop biomass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A forest may have a large standing crop biomass , but its primary productivity may actually be less than that of some grasslands </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Ecological efficiency: the percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next </li></ul><ul><li>The percent varies among organisms from 5-20%, but usually 10% </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the organism on the trophic level, the less energy they receive. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants would be the most efficient </li></ul>
  86. 86. The Water Cycle
  87. 87. The Carbon Cycle
  88. 88. The Nitrogen Cycle
  89. 89. The Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>M-mining </li></ul><ul><li>F-fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>W-weathering </li></ul><ul><li>B-burial </li></ul><ul><li>D-decay </li></ul><ul><li>G-growth </li></ul>

×