ZMET Technique In Marketing Research


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ZMET Technique In Marketing Research

  1. 1. Asst. Prof. Dr. Deniz Atik Fall 2010 / 2011
  2. 2. “Despite the resources spent on market research, nearly 80% of all new offerings fail. The pattern is predictable: Customers say they want something, companies create it, and once it’s available, customers don’t buy it. Why? Is it because customers just don’t know what they want? (Zaltman 2003)” 2
  3. 3. Zaltman concludes that at some level, customers do know what they want, but marketing’s most overused tools such as surveys, questionnaires, and focus groups and conventional thinking don’t dig deeply enough to help customers discover and express what they want. Zaltman argues that 95% of thinkingZaltman argues that 95% of thinking happens in our unconscious.happens in our unconscious. 3
  4. 4. “One cannot reduce the explanation of human behavior to any narrowly circumscribed and simplistic model, whether that model is behaviorist or psychoanalytic, ethological or anthropomorphic, cognitive or motivational: the behavior of people in general and of consumers in particular is the fascinating and endlessly complex result of a multifaceted interaction between organism and environment (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982).” 4
  5. 5. Qualitative researchQualitative research consists of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings and memos to the self. This means that qualitative research study things in their natural setting, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them(Denzin and Lincoln 2000). 5
  6. 6. Qualitative Research is an interdisciplinary field (ethnography in anthropology, sociology; cultural studies; communication; textual, hermeneutics, feminist, psychoanalytic, semiotic, narrative analysis in literary studies; archival, material culture, historical, and document analysis in history, biography, and archeology; discourse and conversational analysis in medicine, communications, and education, etc.) Qualitative Researchers give emphasis on using multiple methods together. 6
  7. 7. Some call qualitative researchers softSome call qualitative researchers soft scientists. Their work is termedscientists. Their work is termed unscientific,unscientific, onlyonly exploratory, orexploratory, or subjectivesubjective…… The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured in terms of quantity, amount, intensity, or frequency. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. In contrast, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes. (Denzin and Lincoln 2000). 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Mick (1986) suggests that the complex human environment will not permit us to arrive at the truth; there can be multiple reality or multiple representations. Thus, the process of understanding is aThus, the process of understanding is a never-ending process…never-ending process… 9
  10. 10.  Thoughts occurs as pattern of neural activity, not as words.  Most human meaning is exchanged nonverbally.  Much cognition is embodied.  Emotion and reason are equally important.  Emotion and learning occur without awareness.  Cognitions (process of thought) are socially shared. 10
  11. 11.  ZMET is a hybrid methodology grounded in various domains, including verbal and nonverbal communication, visual sociology, visual anthropology, literary criticism, semiotics, mental imagery, cognitive neuroscience and phototherapy (Zaltman 1997). 11
  12. 12.  The method involves semi-structured, in-depth personal interviews centered on visual images that the informant brings to the interview (Coulter 2006).  Validation studies of ZMET applications indicate that 4 to 5 depth interviews that are focused on identifying and understanding core themes can prov,de to 90% of the information avaliable from a large set of interviews (Zaltman and Coulter 1995). 12
  13. 13.  A Metaphor is the representation of one thing in terms of an other (Lakoff and Johnson 1980).  Metaphor is central to thought.  Image based methaphors: ◦ Visual images participants bring to the interview ◦ Sensory images they discuss ◦ Digital images they create 13
  14. 14.  Storytelling  Missed Images  Metaphor probe / expand the frame,  Sensory metaphors  Vignette  Digital Image 14
  15. 15.  Storytelling  “Please tell me how this image relates to your thoughts and feeling about your .... Experience.” 15
  16. 16.  Missed Images  “Were there any thoughts and feelings you for which you were unable to find an image? Please describe the thought or feeling, and tell me about an image that you use to represent the thought or feeling...” 16
  17. 17.  Metaphor probe / expand the frame:  “If you could widen the frame of this picture in all directions, what else would I see that would help me to better understand your thoughts and feelings about ... and the role they play in your life?” 17
  18. 18.  Sensory Metaphors  “What sound could I hear that would represent your thoughts and feelings about ... they play in your life?”  Sound / color / taste / smell / touch 18
  19. 19.  Vignette  “I would like you to use your imagination to create a short story. The story should express your thoughts and feelings about ... and the role they play in your life. Please include at least 3 characters: You, “X”, and a similar type of – product / service – you might enjoy.” 19
  20. 20.  Digital Image  The informant with the skilled assistance of a computer graphics imager, creates a summary collage using his images and supplemental images from a database, as needed. 20
  21. 21.  What is missed in one step (technique) can be cought with the next one. 21