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AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides
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AS ICT (OCR) G061 3.1.2 Sofware & Hardware Components lesson slides

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  • 1. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 1 žHardware: › Physical equipment that makes up a computer system. › If you can kick it or take an axe to it, it is hardware. žSoftware: › Programs, routines and procedures (together with their associated documentation) which can be run on a computer system. It is important not to confuse the media used to transport software with software itself! › A CD is a piece of hardware which you can touch and kick and it may contain software which you cannot touch. The CD is not software! C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 2
  • 2. Examples of Hardware ž Central Processor (CPU) ž Peripherals – these are hardware devices which are attached to the central processor. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 3 They can be classified into 4 types: ž Input: › Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner ž Output: › Monitor, Speakers ž Backing Storage: › Hard Disk, Flash Drive ž Communications: › Modem
  • 3. ž Standardisation is the imposition, by a third party, or with agreement, of a set of standards on manufacturers. › W3C : the world wide web Consortium › ISO : International Standards Organisation ž ICT suffers from a lack of standardisation for both Hardware & Software. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 5 ž Lack of standardisation has the following disadvantages › Cost › Availability › Technical Support ž Software › Word Processors should all use the same file format but do they? › Do all web browsers display web pages in exactly the same way? ž Hardware › Do all PCs accept the same hardware upgrades? › When buying a game for a PC what must you consider? C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 6
  • 4. ž Takeovers › When a company gets taken over there is likely to be incompatibility between their own systems. This may be down to the two companies having separate standards. › This leads to:- – No communication between systems – Miscommunication between systems (incorrect data being shared) – New equipment having to be purchased – Staff training – Lack of tech support on new systems C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 7 ž An input device is a piece of Hardware that gets data from outside the computer system into the computer system › Keyboard › Mouse › Scanner › Graphics Tablet › Digitiser C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 8
  • 5. ž Output devices are used to display the result of processing to the user. They are used to get data from inside the computer to outside. › Monitor (LCD, CRT) › Printer › Plotter › Loud Speakers › LEDs › Buzzer C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 9 Loud Speaker ž Used to give confirmation of actions ž Can be used to read lines of text ž Increased use with CDs and Music (MP3s) ž Music technology requires specialist sound output devices. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 10
  • 6. LED and Buzzer ž LED › Can display the status of a device – HDD light displayed when in use – Lights on a Printer indicates status – Can be used to signal to hearing impaired people ž Buzzers › Gives confirmatory actions – Set sounds to events in Windows – Bar Codes beep to indicate successful entry C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 11 Monitor (VDU) ž Most common Output device ž Range of Sizes – standard is 17”, but 19” or 21” available for specialists, › For example, designers › Newspapers and magazines ž High quality output ž Possible health issues C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 12
  • 7. ž Three main types of printers: › Impact/Dot matrix Printers › InkJet Printers › Laser Printers ž Choice of: › Colour › Black and White ž Selection of different resolutions. › DPI [Dots per Inch] C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 13 ž Physical Connection between print head and paper ž Noisy ž Slow ž Cheap to run ž Colour or Black and White ž Low Resolution ž Can do Carbon Copies C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 14
  • 8. ž Ink is fired at the page and the number of DPI can be very high › High resolution ž Colour or B&W ž High Running Costs ž Faster than a Dot Matrix but not as fast as laser ž Cannot print Carbon Copies C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 15 ž High Quality Images ž Fast Printing ž Colour or Black and White (Colour is expensive) ž Medium to low running costs ž Excellent Quality ž Can produce OHTs ž Cannot do Carbon Copies C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 16
  • 9. ž Storage devices are used to hold data and programs. ž They are non-volatile. › Floppy Disks [now obsolete] › Hard Disks [SSD’s on the horizon] › Optical Disks (CD, DVD, Blu-ray) › Tape Drives › Flash Memory (MMC, SD, CF, xD, MS) ž Sometimes referred to as mass storage. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 17 ž Motor Impairment is the loss or limitation in muscle control or movement, or a limitation in mobility. › Mouth stick › Puff-Suck Switch › Tongue-activated joystick › Eye-typer › Foot mouse C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 18
  • 10. ž Specialist software can help people with disability › Text to speech › Speech to text › Auditory feedback (windows sounds) › Screen magnifier › Predictive text › Sticky Keys ž Which are available in a standard install of Windows? C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 19 ž Operating Systems Hardware ž User Interfaces ž Utilities Operating System ž Applications Applications Utilities C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 20
  • 11. ž A program or suite of programs that control the entire operation of the computer. ž Deals with the basic functions of the computer. ž At a technical level, it handles the basic and central functions such as input and output operations and interrupts. ž Examples include: MS-DOS, Win 2000, Win XP, UNIX, Linux, FreeBSD, Symbian, MacOS C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 21 User Interfaces ž These are pieces of software which fit onto existing packages to alter the user interface. ž More commonly, they are now referred to as “Skins” ž They allow for individual customisation of the user interface C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 22
  • 12. ž Command-Based The user ž Forms interface is the method by ž Menus which the user ž Natural Language communicates with the computer. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 23 ž Command Prompt ž Commands are typed ž Each command can have switches › These are different modes in which the command can be run. ž Expert users only C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 24
  • 13. ž Data Labels giving assistance ž Boxes to enter/choose data ž Used for Data entry (records) ž Making choices is easier ž The user is given choices ž Useful for novice users C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 25 ž Series of related items which can be clicked ž Presents a limited choice ž Novice-friendly ž Structured into options C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 26
  • 14. ž User types or speaks in normal everyday language and the computer responds ž Used in Microsoft Help and Ask Jeeves Web Site ž Useful for novice users as they do not need to understand the computer to use it. ž With vocal input, useful for physically handicapped people. ž Hand writing recognition on PDAs and Nintendo DS C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 27 ž GUI (Graphical User Interface) › This is an interface that is based on graphics and pictures rather than text. ž WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pointer) › This is a particular type of GUI. ALL WIMPs are GUIs, but not all GUIs are WIMPs C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 28
  • 15. ž Designed to perform a commonplace task, for example the transfer of data from one storage device to another, sorting a set of data, disk editor. ž They are designed to make the operation of the computer easier. › Windows Explorer › Defrag › Anti-Virus › Anti-Spyware › Burning CDs/DVDs › File Compression › Printer monitoring C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 29 ž Generic ž Tailor-Made ž Off-the-shelf C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 30
  • 16. ž These are off-the-shelf packages which do not meet a specific purpose but serve a general purpose ž For example: › Microsoft Office and components › Corel Suite › Adobe CS suite › Lotus Suite – Word Processors, Spreadsheets, Databases ž The software can then be customised to produce the result you want. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 31 ž Either: › Bespoke – The application is written for the purpose by a software house – Disadvantages: Time consuming, expensive, limited support/books. – Advantages: Fulfils purpose, individual support ž Or: › Customisation – A generic application is customised using a programming language – Disadvantages: Need to purchase the application and you get more than required. – Advantages: Cheaper, lots of support. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 32
  • 17. ž Purchasing solutions from a shop without alteration ž For example: › SAGE payroll package › Heritage Library Database ž The idea is to be able to open the package and run the software which delivers a specific solution. C. Demetriou (2009) 1 October 2009 33

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