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Car Overview Dec 2008

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Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research Overview

Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research Overview


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  • 1. The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (CAR) Center for Automotive  C t f At ti Research Overview December 10, 2008 http://car.osu.edu
  • 2. The Ohio State University • The largest, most comprehensive public research university in the country – 51,800 students at the Columbus campus – 19 different Colleges on the same campus • Ranked in the Top 25 of all public universities overall in both research and education • Ohio State ranks 7th in public-university research expenditures programs, 12th overall – $708 million in 2007 – ranked 3rd among all American universities for private industry sponsored research. Endowment >$2 Billi (7th among public universities) • Ed t $2 Billion bli i iti ) – OSU in first public university group (1999) to exceed $1Billion
  • 3. College of Engineering Ohio State University College of Engineering is: More than 7,000 students enrolled in 10 engineering departments and Knowlton School of Architecture Research expenditures: $113 million Ranked #3 Nationally in Materials Research Funding Ohio State ranked 3rd in the country for industry-financed research; 60% of industry funding awarded for engineering research f f (NSF)
  • 4. College of Engineering Enrollment Ohio State has a competitive admissions policy: p y Two-thirds of entering students from top quartile of high school Average incoming engineering ACT score—27; national average 22 score 27; average—22 Only 8 universities in the top 25 have higher GRE admit scores Eighth-largest ndergrad ate Eighth largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in U.S. Undergraduate Engineering 4,719 Graduate Engineering 1,299 Engineering Total 6,018 Architecture Total A hit t Ttl 856
  • 5. Graduate Degree Programs Diverse Engineering Graduate Degree Programs: • Aerospace Eng • Architecture • Biomedical Eng • Chemical and Biomolecular Eng • Civil and Environmental Eng • Geodetic Science • Computer Science and Eng • Electrical and Computer Eng • Food, Agricultural, and ood, g cu tu a , a d • Industrial and Systems Eng Biological Eng • Materials Science and Eng • Mechanical Eng • Nuclear Eng • Welding Eng
  • 6. College of Engineering Faculty Our faculty boast: 260 full-time faculty members 10 National Academy of Engineering members 18:1 Undergraduate student/faculty ratio 14:1 First-Year Engineering program First Year student/faculty ratio: 12:1 First-Year Honors Engineering s ude / acu y a o student/faculty ratio: 40 research centers and laboratories provide state-of-the art facilities for research and teachingg
  • 7. Interdisciplinary Research Centers • Institute for Material Research • Center for Automotive Research • Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center • Center for Multifunctional Polymer Nanomaterials and Devices • Center for Advanced Polymer and Composite Engineering • Institute for Energy and the Environment gy • Photovoltaic Innovation and Commercialization • Smart Vehicles Concepts Center • Collaborative for Enterprise Transformation and p Innovation • Center for Precision Forming • Center for Occupational Health in Automotive Manufacturing • Institute for Ergonomics • Center for Energy, Sustainability and the Environment • Center for Advanced Maturation of Materials • ElectroScience Lab • Institute for Sensing Systems
  • 8. Materials Research Facilities Molecular beam epitaxy: to synthesize nanomaterials (1st at an Ohio university - `94) FEI Tit ™ 80-300 Titan™ 80 300 • World’s highest structural resolution microscope ( p (0.07 nm) ) • 1st in world - 2006 Nanofabrication cleanrooms: • More than 7000 sqft of multi- user processing capabilities Leica EBPG 5000+ • 10 nm spot electron beam nanopattern capability • less than 5 at US universities, `05
  • 9. Nanomaterials and Photonics Commercialization of the Speed of Light Displays Future Information Technology High T h D i Hi h Tech Driven, Emerging Applications E i A li ti Biosensing Bi i Optics
  • 10. ElectroScience Laboratory Major research areas: • Graduated over 311 Ph.Ds. and Over 557 M.Sc. Degrees • Graduate 17 Ph.Ds/M.Sc. degrees per year
  • 11. Integrated Sensing Systems
  • 12. Occupational Health in Auto Manufacturing • State-of- the Art Research Facility Completed • 3 funded projects • $1M in donated equipment
  • 13. Center for Energy, Sustainability and the Environment Advanced Nano-Engineered OSU Solar Cells on International Space Station • Relatively low cost compound solar cells ( y p (III-V’s on silicon) ) • Highest efficiency in the world for these Cells (20%) • Recently retrieved from the Space Station
  • 14. Ohio Supercomputer Center • High performance computing resources for all public and private higher education institutions • Computational science education and workforce development • Renewed focus on economic development through Blue Collar Computing and networking for businesses multi-scale, Parallel CFD modeling of multi-physics models Buckeye Bullet 2
  • 15. The Ohi State University Th Ohio St t U i it Center for Automotive Research
  • 16. Center of Automotive Research The Center of Automotive Research is a major Center of Excellence in the College of Engineering •24 faculty •40 grad students g •350 undergrads •Graduates 10 Ph.Ds/M.Sc. per year Major research areas: Hybrid Electric Vehicles Automotive Safety Electromechanical Systems Diesel and Gas Engines
  • 17. Key R&D Capabilities Computational Experimental Collaboration with Ohio Engine Combustion and Exhaust Supercomputing Center After Treatment After-Treatment Solid Modeling, CAD, FEM Powertrain Control Design Space Exploration Power and Energy CFD • Fuel Cell Systems Modeling and Simulation • HEV/PHEV Architectures • Drive Cycle Analysis • Energy Storage • Vehicle-Terrain Interaction and o Aging characterization Mobility o Modeling • Chassis Dynamics o Battery management systems • Engine Combustion and Exhaust Alternative Fuels • Engine Flow Noise Vehicle Dynamics (TRC) • Fuel cells Noise d N i and acoustics i • Hybrid Electric Vehicles ITS and V2V • Batteries
  • 18. CAR Testing Facilities • Dynamometer test cells – Engine ( ) g (4) – Heavy-duty axle – Chassis dynamometer • Advanced Propulsion Systems research facilities – PHEV and HEV test beds – Fuel cell research laboratory – Electrochemical energy storage aging and characterization laboratory • Vibration, Noise and Acoustics laboratories – hemi-anechoic chamber • Intelligent and autonomous vehicle laboratories • Engine fluid mechanics and combustion research facilities • Hydrogen refueling station
  • 19. Research Partners and Sponsors Government Private • U.S. Army TARDEC • American Electric Power • U.S. Army Yuma Proving • Battelle Ground • Bosch • U.S. Department of Energy • Caterpillar • U.S. Department of • Chrysler y Transportation (NHTSA) • Cummins • Argonne National Laboratory • Dana • National Renewable Energy • Denso Laboratory • Eaton • Oak Ridge National Laboratory • Ford Motor Company • National Science Foundation • General Motors Corporation • Ohio Board of Regents • Honda •O Ohio Department off • Hyundai Development • Nissan Motor Co. • Oshkosh Truck Corporation • Tenneco Automotive • Toyota • TRC, Inc.
  • 20. Personnel Summary - 2008 •5 Facility Support Staff •4 Administrative Staff • 19 Faculty • 12 Research Staff •4 Post Doctoral Fellows • 45 Graduate Students • 15 Visiting Scholars • 40 Student Research Assistants Total: ota 144 peop e (84 peop e based on FTE) people (8 people o ) The Center also provided facilities and support, in collaboration with the College and ME department for 5 student project teams consisting department, of over 100 active undergraduate students and 45 FIRST (robotics project) high school students.
  • 21. Research Expenditures and Growth • Balanced portfolio of government and private sector funding. • Responsible for 13% of industry-funded research in the college of engineering. • Industrial consortium is largest in the college • Research expenditures have increased four-fold in 6 years. 7,000,000 6,000,000 6,000,000 $5,700,000 $5,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000 3,800,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,600,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,600,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 FY06: $1,742,855 0 38% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  • 22. FY08 Research Revenue Capital Improvements Graduate Fee $162,081 Consortium Authorizations 3% $374,358 $374 358 $226,276 $226 276 8% 5% In House Research $516,222 11% Sponsored Res. NON F&A $248,364 5% Industrial $1,944,525 42% Total: $4,708,189 Government $1,236,363 26%
  • 23. Types of Engineering Services o Testing • Engine test cells (4) • Chassis dynamometer • Heavy-duty axle dynamometer • Energy storage lab • Flow lab • Electronics Lab • Machine shop o Design • Concept design o Simulations, Optimizations, Solid Models, etc. • Engineering design o Mechanical, Electrical/Electronic o Prototype • Hardware for experimental confirmation
  • 24. Customers to Date • Testing • Design – Caterpillar – Mercury Marine – General Motors – Dana Italia – Tenneco • Prototype – Nextech – NETL • Lab space access – NHTSA/VRTC
  • 25. Overview of Research Activities
  • 26. Sustainable Mobility • Advanced energy storage • Hybrid propulsion systems • Fuel cell systems • Vehicle-building Vehicle building networks and PHEVs ELECTROLYZE R Graduate Research Associates: 8-12 M.S. and Ph.D. students. 26
  • 27. Advanced Powertrain Systems • Diesel and gasoline engine modelingg • Control algorithm development and validation • Exhaust after-treatment systems • Diagnostics Graduate Research Associates: 6 M S 4 Ph D St dents M.S., Ph.D. Students
  • 28. Flow, Engine and Acoustics • Flow noise and flow performance • Intake d h I t k and exhaust system t t acoustics • Engine combustion and emissions ii Graduate Research Associates: 4 M.S., 2-4 Ph.D. Students
  • 29. Control and Intelligent Transportation • Control • V2V communications • Mobile sensor networks • Vehicle dynamics and control • Autonomous vehicles and related sensing and sensor fusion Graduate Research Associates: 2-4 M.S., 4-6 Ph.D. Students
  • 30. Vehicle Dynamics and Control • Experimentally validated models of advanced suspension, braking, and vehicle stability b ki d hi l t bilit control systems, including CES, ABS, ESC (YSC and RSC), and related syste s e ated systems. • Advanced vehicle control systems, such as automated test drivers. Graduate Research Associates: 3-5 M.S. and Ph.D. students.
  • 31. Vehicle Duty Cycles and Terrain Characterization • On-road and off-road vehicle duty cycles representing real-world driving conditions for various types of vehicles. • Terrain surface profile measurement using the latest sensor technologies technologies. • Vehicle-based Terrain Severity Measurement System. Graduate Research Associates: • Analysis of terrain surface profile 2 M.S., 1 Ph.D. student. data
  • 32. System Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis • Theory of model-based Observatio Residual Decisio RESIDUAL RESIDUAL diagnosis and prognosis. n s n GENERATOR EVALUATION • Applications to: – Exhaust after treatment systems Input Outpu Plant s ts – Engine systems – Vehicle chassis systems Model – Vehicle electrical systems RESIDUAL 1 RESIDUAL S L GENERATOR M M – Starter batteries Model n – HEV battery systems Graduate Research Associates: 4-6 M.S. and Ph.D. students. LNT System Schematic
  • 33. Concept Design • Aerodynamics • Coolingg • Electric Machines and Drives • Engines • Powertrains and transmissions. transmissions • Suspensions • Vehicle Designs g
  • 34. Injury Biomechanics • Human response to high energy loading conditions commonly found during lf dd i automobile collisions • Injury criteria for various aspects of the human body t f th h bd Graduate Research Associates: 5-7 M.S. and Ph.D. students and 4 medical students
  • 35. CAR I d Industrial Consortium i lC i Established in 1999
  • 36. Consortium Benefits • Provide industry and government leveraged automotive research • Interaction with other consortium members on research projects in areas of mutual interest • Opportunities for teaming with partner members on bids for major program funding • Significant leveraging of government sponsored research • CAR laboratory, university support and the availability of the Transportation Research Center (TRC) • Access to all CAR reports that are not proprietary • Reduced fees for test facility use at CAR
  • 37. Additional Benefits • Provides educational opportunities for g pp graduate students • Access to CAR professors and research scientists a for limited amount of free consulting • Opportunity to sponsor graduate fellowships at reduced fees • Interaction with OSU students to enhance the company’s recruiting
  • 38. 2008-09 CAR Consortium Members Consortium Associate Members • US Army Yuma Proving Ground • US AArmy TARDEC • NHTSA (VRTC) Vehicle Research and Test Center
  • 39. Project Selection • Participate in and steer the direction of these projects. projects • Final project review are hosted by a member companies in early September September. • Project reviews and deliverables available on secure website – Algorithms – Data – Simulation models • For additional information visit http://car.osu.edu .
  • 40. 2008/09 Projects Advanced Propulsion Systems • PHEV Battery Aging studies • Diesel NOX After-treatment Modeling and Diagnostics • PHEV Energy Management • Innovative HEV drive systems Intelligent Transportation Systems/Vehicle 2 Vehicle • Sensor Fusion and other IV technologies • Wireless Intersection Simulator • Hardware Test bed Development p Noise Vibration Dynamics • Noise Path
  • 41. 1998 to 2004 and 2006 to 2010 DoE Graduate Automotive Technology Education ( (GATE) Programs ) g Modeling, Control and System Integration of Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems
  • 42. 1998- 1998-2004 GATE Program Hybrid Drivetrains and Control Systems Projects • Original funding from DOE – 1998 through 2004 $550,000 – supported 22 Graduate-Student-years • Additional funding from DOE – 96 Graduate-Student-years • GATE program at Ohio State graduated – 38 M.S students – 12 Ph.D. students – 45 of these 50 professionals are now employed in the automotive sector
  • 43. Program Success Year M.S. Ph.D. Company Hires 1999 3 1 DaimlerChrysler 2 2000 2 0 Ford 7 2001 7 4 General Motors 7 2002 8 1 Hyundai 2 2003 3 0 Caterpillar 8 2004 6 3 Cummins 5 2005 7 5 Oshkosh Truck 2 TOTAL 36 14 DDC 2 Bosch 1 50 Delphi 2 Ballard 1 OSU CAR 2 Battelle (fuel cells) 1 Army (USMA) 1 Other automotive 2 45 TOTAL
  • 44. 1998 to 2004 GATE Results Research Programs Partners – Advanced engine combustion, – Caterpillar sensing, actuation and control – Cummins – Advanced electrochemical – DaimlerChrysler energy storage systems – Delphi modeling and system – Denso integration – Ford – Fuel cell system modeling, modeling – General Motors, Honda design and control – Oshkosh Truck Corporation – Research in smart materials with application to sensing and – NREL actuation in automotive – U.S. Army systems – TARDEC – Modeling, design, integration – NSF and control of light- and heavy- g y – U.S DoT duty hybrid-electric vehicles .
  • 45. GATE Success Metrics • Number of graduates per year placed in auto industry • Number of students in the program, including OSU graduate students program and industry participants • Auto companies participating in internship and recruitment programs • Funded F d d research programs l h leveraged f d from GATE • Publications and patents • Number of specialty courses developed and taught and number of team-taught courses • Number of participating faculty • Variety of courses across disciplines • Outreach and societal impact • International participation
  • 46. GATE Past Achievements • Design and built a Land Speed Record vehicle powered by fuel cells • Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Full Cell • Matlab-based “Personal Energy Management Ecosystem” simulator • Battery electro-thermal battery characterization •NNew B tt Battery Aging L b A i Lab • Fuel Cell Research
  • 47. New GATE Program 2006-10 • The theme of the new program is System Integration. • The program focus is on: – advanced combustion engines, – advanced energy storage systems, – fuel cell systems, – sensing and actuation technologies and – advanced hybrid propulsion and related control systems, • The DOE GATE program will continue to serve as a catalyst – Educating a new generation of automotive system engineers – Strong emphasis on the integration g p g – Development of new generation of automotive propulsion concepts
  • 48. Advanced Engines and Energy Storage Systems Addressing Societal Needs Emission reduction and efficient energy conversion Society y “Well-to-wheel” Vehicle technology demonstrations assessment Control-oriented Real-time control modeling Hardware-in-the-loop implementation Optimization of g p geometry, y operating conditions, Sensor, actuator, actuation hardware Multivariate implementation optimization Engine combustion models Experiments p Control theoretics, theoretics Engine flow models, models Turbulent reacting flows control policy, control spray dynamics Catalysis structure Experiments Product Pollutant Formation, Multi-dimensional Electrochemistry Advanced sensing simulations Energy Conversion and actuation Engineering Core Efficiency technology Experiments Chemical kinetics Science Experiments Fuel cell and battery modeling Engineering g g Advanced Engineering Ei i Science
  • 49. Sustainable Mobility: Advanced Research Team
  • 50. SMART@CAR Research Thrusts • Fleet Studies Development of standards data formats and acquisition systems; Fleet data standards, formats, acquisition; data repository and data analysis • PHEVs and their interaction with renewable energy sources and the grid Model interdependencies between PHEVs and the grid • Macroeconomics, Regulations, and Public Policy Economic and public policy issues with significant role in the beneficial p p y g development of a viable PHEVs market. • Power Electronics: Connecting the Vehicle and the Grid From concept to realization power electronics needs for PHEV applications; on realization, board and off board applications, communication with battery management system and vehicle control system 50
  • 51. Current PHEV Research @ CAR Vehicle and energy storage technology • Battery aging and management • Power electronics V2G and V2B interface and communications Vehicle design Energy management and control strategies for PHEVs Tools for PHEV vehicle design Energy analysis Energy management
  • 52. Fleet Studies 10 kWh GAIA Lithium battery pack ChallengeX Equinox g q Soon to be PLUG-IN !! Plug-in Prius 5 kWh Hymotion pack Data related to real world duty D ld l ld d cycles, battery aging, and fuel economy will be collected and shared with consortium members Plug-in Hybrid Fuel Cell Plug-in Saturn VUE.. Neighborhood Electric Vehicle V hi l By 2009 a fleet of 10-20 PHEVs is expected to be available in the Columbus area
  • 53. Data Clearinghouse • Hardware: • Use existing Web service provider (Google, others) to provide reliable hardware reliable data archiving and accessibility for data collected on prototype or production PHEVs/EVs. • Aspects to consider: • Storage space for growing data base • Set-up Set up and maintenance costs • Security of data, archiving • Always on-line • Accessible with any Web browser/internet connection with no special hardware y p • Speed of access for convenient user upload and download of data • Open Storage • Define standards for data type, data format, data storage, data retrieval, data mining, and data uploading. • Definition of open standards documented and distributed to the user community • Open and proprietary standards interoperability • Defined web services and conformance standards
  • 54. Vehicles part of the Energy Network Grid power management – resource allocation (when, how much) B2G Communication network protocol Collect info on power demand/priority V2B Communication network protocol Information flow Power flow
  • 55. Renewable based Ecosystem: a case study y A renewable based ecosystem” Matlab/Simulink® model Main system components: - residential load - PV panels - small scale wind turbine small‐scale wind turbine - battery pack for residential  Energy  applications Management - plug‐in hybrid electric plug in hybrid electric  vehicle Detailed evaluation of: - Energy - Economics - Emissions 55
  • 56. Vehicles part of the Energy Network gy RENEWABLE ENERGY ENERGY BUS: STORAGE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL H2 REFUELING DEVICES STATION H2 GENERATION CAR PLUG IN PLUG-IN HYBRIDVEHICLES FUEL CELL GRID POWER Smart control systems optimize the energy management taking into account time variations of CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, the demand (homes and OSU 56 drivers) and generation
  • 57. Vehicles part of the Energy Network STORAGE RENEWABLE DEVICES ENERGY ENERGY BUS: H2 REFUELING MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL STATION Battery system tied to 10 kW of the PV array Installed I t ll d PV power within 6-8 weeks CAR PLUG IN PLUG-IN HYBRIDVEHICLES Real data will be available soon -PV system PV - Vehicles - Batteries and Energy GRID POWER Management Smart control systems optimize - CAR load the energy management taking into account time variations of CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, the demand (homes and 57 OSU drivers) and generation
  • 58. PHEV Energy Storage and Energy Management Research
  • 59. Battery Experience • Over 10 years experience with advanced batteries •AAccelerated aging of NiMH and Li i cells and modules. l td i f d Li-ion ll d dl • Multiple battery aging cyclers • Programmable loads • Supplies • Temperature control environmental chamber • Peltier junctions • Individual system controller for each cycler • Architecture mimicking parallel computer cluster • Multiple cyclers in parallel for accelerated testing • Safe operation with redundant control systems p y • Ethernet to supervisory safety controller and data archive • Emergency operator paging system and accessible through VPN via the Web. • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) for non-intrusive damage assessment 59
  • 60. Control Strategies Typical Til HEV paramet ers 60
  • 61. Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab (CITR)
  • 62. DARPA Grand Challenge 2005 Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab
  • 63. Autonomous City Transport (ACT) TerraMax’04 ION’05 ACT 2007 • Lane tracking • Car following • Intersections, traffic circles • Passing • Obstacle avoidance • Parking • Dynamic route Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab planning
  • 64. ACT Autonomous Car • A hybrid vehicle • Most drive by wire drive-by-wire aspects used • Steering motor added • Sensors added
  • 65. Vehicle 2 Vehicle Communication (V2V)
  • 66. V2V Research • Vehicle-to-vehicle communication – Simulator – Testbed – Protocols • Intersection collision warning, – V2V and Sensors • Sensor fusion • Simulation environments • Energy savings using ITS • In-vehicle networks • Rollover Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab
  • 67. Multi-Vehicle Demonstration . Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab
  • 68. V2V Communication
  • 69. Intersection Collision Control and Intelligent Transportation Research Lab
  • 70. Educational Benefits
  • 71. Student Motorsport Projects Teamwork incorporated in engineering education
  • 72. Student Motorsport Projects First-Year Engineering Program Team building training incorporated Hands-on team design projects Senior design S i d i projects jt Multidisciplinary year long year-long 16 student-managed project teams 700 participants p p Intercollegiate competitions
  • 73. Challenge X 3rd Pl d Place Overall O ll 1st Place, MATHWORKS: Crossover to model-based design • model based 1st in Technical Paper Competition • 1st in Control Strategy Presentation • 2nd Place in Dynamic Consumer Acceptability • 2nd Pl d Place i T h i • in Technical P l Presentation t ti 3rd Place Outreach competition •
  • 74. 74
  • 75. EcoCAR NeXt Challenge Ohio State selected for EcoCAR upcoming competition Highest g ranking out of 50 proposals 75
  • 76. Land Speed Record • Design and realization of a Land Speed Record • Vehicle powered by fuel cells • Designed and built by students (ME, ECE and Aero), and leadership of two GATE fellows • Strong partnership with Ford and Ballard and a host of other sponsors • Set FIA record in October 2007 and fastest speed ever recorded for FC vehicle: 225 mph.
  • 77. Distance Education Programs • Certificates: o Powertrain modeling and Control o Advanced Propulsion Systems o Automotive NVH • Graduate Specialization in Automotive Systems Engineering o Powertrain modeling and Control o Advanced Propulsion Systems oAt Automotive NVH ti o Other specialty courses: Model-based diagnostics, Powertrain packaging • Seminars and short courses 77
  • 78. Industry and Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research • Cutting edge research • Development of new technology • Industry trained graduates A Winning Combination! http://car.osu.edu