Universal Precautions
Definition• Universal precautions are  recommended practices used to  minimize the risk of exposure to  infectious disease...
Bloodborne Pathogens• Blood borne pathogens are infectious  microorganisms in blood that can cause  disease in people
Example of Blood Borne         Pathogens• Hepatitis B• Hepatitis C• HIV
Hepatitis B• Transmitted by blood• Sexually transmitted• IV drug users• Household contact(sharing razors,  toothbrushes, d...
Hepatitis C• Primarily blood borne• Sexual transmission• Prenatal• Can be transmitted by blood to blood contact  such as n...
HIV/Aids• Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome• Live vaccines should not be administered• Follow universal precautions such ...
Common Ways to be exposed toPathogens in the School Setting•   Nosebleeds•   Lost teeth•   Cuts•   Fights•   Vomit•   Bath...
Modes of Pathogen          Transmission• Contact from skin to skin or from  contaminated surfaces• Air-born infectious par...
Body Fluids• When dealing with any body fluids  assume that every person has an  infectious disease
Protocol for safely dealing withexposure to blood and other potentially         infectious materials• Essential techniques...
Hand Hygiene• Hand hygiene is the single most  important activity to decrease the  spread of infections of all kinds
Hand Hygiene• Wash your hands after using the restroom;  before eating; before touching your mouth, face,  or eyes• Should...
Hand Hygiene• Apply a dime sized amount of  soap/cleaner to hands• Rub hands vigorously for 10-15  seconds• Scrub between ...
Barriers• Always wear gloves or place some type  of barrier between you and the person  you are caring for• Always wear gl...
Skin wounds• Skin wounds such as scratches,  abrasions, lacerations, and weeping  skin lesions are potentially infectious•...
Skin wounds• Students should be instructed not to  handle other people’s blood;should not  be asked to assist in controlli...
Blood• Blood on the skin should be washed off  thoroughly with soap and water.• Activities may be resumed after the  wound...
Pressure to stop a bleeding            wound• Always wear gloves• Gloves should never be reused• Apply new bandage over ba...
Clean up Procedure• Always use disposable towels for  cleaning up blood or body fluids• Clean surfaces with an approved  d...
Clean up Procedure• All materials contaminated with  blood/body fluids should be double  bagged in a trash liner and seale...
Non-disposable cleaning    equipment and materials• Mop heads should be disinfected with  approved school disinfectant• An...
Used needles, syringes, other       sharp objects• Needles should not be recapped, bent  or removed from the syringe befor...
Respiratory Etiquette• Always cover mouth/nose when  coughing/sneezing• Use a tissue to cover mouth or blow nose;  dispose...
MRSA• Stands for “Methicillin Resistant  Staphylococcus Aureus”• Became a “super bug” because of  overuse of antibiotics b...
Treatment of MRSA• MRSA can be treated by sulfa drugs and  Clindamycin• It is easily killed by good hand hygiene; hand  sa...
Exposure• Do not share towels, drink after others,  share razors, toothbrushes• Even though blood borne pathogens  have no...
Education• Attention to infection prevention and  control by all school employees will help  attain the goal of maintainin...
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Universal Precautions

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  • If hands are visibly soiled, must wash with soap and water; buildup of hand sanitizer gels can occur and soap and water are needed to clean; always wash hands after giving care to injured or ill person
  • Example: have a person with nosebleed pinch his/her nose to slow bleeding Example: have bleeding person apply pressure to wound to slow bleeding
  • If clothing is bloody, must be changed; small amounts of blood pose no risk
  • Direct pressure should be applied with a bandage over bleeding wound; if you are applying the pressure put a barrier between you and the person’s blood; for example a bandage or towel; use gloves if possible;wash hands after care
  • Encourage the use of hand sanitizer after sneezing, coughing into hands; encourage person to always cover mouth and nose
  • REMEMBER: WASH. WASH, WASH your hands!!!
  • Universal Precautions

    1. 1. Universal Precautions
    2. 2. Definition• Universal precautions are recommended practices used to minimize the risk of exposure to infectious diseases and pathogens(germs) carried in blood and body fluids
    3. 3. Bloodborne Pathogens• Blood borne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in blood that can cause disease in people
    4. 4. Example of Blood Borne Pathogens• Hepatitis B• Hepatitis C• HIV
    5. 5. Hepatitis B• Transmitted by blood• Sexually transmitted• IV drug users• Household contact(sharing razors, toothbrushes, drinking after person)• Can be treated with medications• Vaccine available
    6. 6. Hepatitis C• Primarily blood borne• Sexual transmission• Prenatal• Can be transmitted by blood to blood contact such as non-sterile tattoos, syringes, cuts, etc• No vaccine is available• May be treated with medication if chronic and causing liver damage
    7. 7. HIV/Aids• Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome• Live vaccines should not be administered• Follow universal precautions such as handwashing, proper handling and disposal of sharps/contaminated materials• Cleaning/disinfecting after any contact with blood• Personal protection barriers;gloves, masks, goggles, etc as needed
    8. 8. Common Ways to be exposed toPathogens in the School Setting• Nosebleeds• Lost teeth• Cuts• Fights• Vomit• Bathroom accidents/soiled clothing• Contaminated surfaces• Tissues/bandages
    9. 9. Modes of Pathogen Transmission• Contact from skin to skin or from contaminated surfaces• Air-born infectious particles in the air• Droplets from sneezing, coughing, or talking
    10. 10. Body Fluids• When dealing with any body fluids assume that every person has an infectious disease
    11. 11. Protocol for safely dealing withexposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials• Essential techniques used to control infections are: effective hand hygiene, using gloves and other barriers, disposing of waste appropriately, and cleaning spills promptly and carefully
    12. 12. Hand Hygiene• Hand hygiene is the single most important activity to decrease the spread of infections of all kinds
    13. 13. Hand Hygiene• Wash your hands after using the restroom; before eating; before touching your mouth, face, or eyes• Should have access to warm water, soap, and towels• Waterless hand sanitizer may be used if there is no visible soiling of hands; should not be substituted for soap/water; always wash with soap/water after several uses of hand sanitizer• After wearing gloves
    14. 14. Hand Hygiene• Apply a dime sized amount of soap/cleaner to hands• Rub hands vigorously for 10-15 seconds• Scrub between fingers, under nails, tops of hands and wrist. Sing Yankee Doodle Dandy or Happy Birthday to ensure you spend enough time!
    15. 15. Barriers• Always wear gloves or place some type of barrier between you and the person you are caring for• Always wear gloves during clean up procedures
    16. 16. Skin wounds• Skin wounds such as scratches, abrasions, lacerations, and weeping skin lesions are potentially infectious• Cover all wounds with a secure bandage• The injured person should perform his/her own wound care whenever possible
    17. 17. Skin wounds• Students should be instructed not to handle other people’s blood;should not be asked to assist in controlling a bleeding injury,should not clean blood contaminated enviromental surfaces(such as floors or wrestling mats) or handle contaminated laundry
    18. 18. Blood• Blood on the skin should be washed off thoroughly with soap and water.• Activities may be resumed after the wound is covered as long as the injury is minor
    19. 19. Pressure to stop a bleeding wound• Always wear gloves• Gloves should never be reused• Apply new bandage over bandage if saturated with blood
    20. 20. Clean up Procedure• Always use disposable towels for cleaning up blood or body fluids• Clean surfaces with an approved disinfectant for schools• Wet surface with disinfectant; leave on wet for 10 minutes, wipe dry• Bleach is not used in WCPS
    21. 21. Clean up Procedure• All materials contaminated with blood/body fluids should be double bagged in a trash liner and sealed• Gloves should be disposed of in trash• Trash liners should not be reused• Trash should be discarded as soon as possible
    22. 22. Non-disposable cleaning equipment and materials• Mop heads should be disinfected with approved school disinfectant• Any linens should be stored in a plastic bag until laundered• Thoroughly wash hands after cleaning even if gloves were worn
    23. 23. Used needles, syringes, other sharp objects• Needles should not be recapped, bent or removed from the syringe before disposal• Each school clinic has a Sharps container for all needles• When the container is 3/4 full; notify the facilities manager by work order that a pick up is needed
    24. 24. Respiratory Etiquette• Always cover mouth/nose when coughing/sneezing• Use a tissue to cover mouth or blow nose; dispose of in trash• Use sleeve/arm instead of hands• Wash hands or use hand sanitizer after sneezing/coughing or blowing nose
    25. 25. MRSA• Stands for “Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus”• Became a “super bug” because of overuse of antibiotics by the health care community• Is resistant to commonly used antibiotics
    26. 26. Treatment of MRSA• MRSA can be treated by sulfa drugs and Clindamycin• It is easily killed by good hand hygiene; hand sanitizers and washing with soap/water• Most forms encountered in schools only cause simple skin infections• Report any weeping skin lesions to school nurse; even “acne” on face if openly oozing
    27. 27. Exposure• Do not share towels, drink after others, share razors, toothbrushes• Even though blood borne pathogens have not been shown to be transmitted in saliva, you should not share personal items• Blood borne pathogen infections, even when treated, may sometimes be fatal
    28. 28. Education• Attention to infection prevention and control by all school employees will help attain the goal of maintaining student and employee health.• Teachers and nurses need to be alert to patterns of illness that may emerge
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