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It governance in higher education institutions in the philippines It governance in higher education institutions in the philippines Presentation Transcript

  • IT GOVERNANCE IN HIGHEREDUCATION INSTITUTIONSIN THE PHILIPPINESDave E. MarcialCollege of Computer Studies, Silliman UniversityDumaguete City, Negros Orientaldemarcial@su.edu.ph
  • Presentation Outline• Introduction andReview ofLiterature• Methodology• Results• Conclusion andRecommendations• This paper presentsthe empiricalinvestigation of thelevel of prioritizationand degree ofimplementation of ITgovernance in highereducation institutions(HEIs) in thePhilippines.
  • What is IT Governance?• the responsibility of the board of directorsand executive management.• an integral part of enterprise governanceand consists of the leadership andorganizational structures and processes thatensure that the organization’s IT sustainsand extends the organization’s strategiesand objectives(IT Governance Institute (ITGI) Board briefing on IT Governance, 2nd Edition) View slide
  • What is IT Governance?• as specifying the decision rightsand accountability framework toencourage desirable behavior inthe use of ITWeill, P. and Woodham, R. (2002). View slide
  • Overall Objectives of IT Governance–to understand the issues andthe strategic importance of IT,–to ensure that theexpectations for IT are met,and IT risks are mitigated.(IT Governance Institute (ITGI) Board briefing on IT Governance, 2nd Edition)
  • Purpose of IT governance– to direct IT endeavors,– to ensure that IT’s performance meets thefollowing objectives:• IT is aligned with the enterprise to realizethe promised benefits.• IT assets are used responsibly.• IT-related – often cross-functional – risksare managed appropriately.(IT Governance Institute (ITGI) Board briefing on IT Governance, 2nd Edition)
  • IT Governance Structure
  • Key IT Decisions Domains(Weill & Woodham, 2002; Hendrickx, 2010)
  • Governance Styles/Archetypes
  • IT Governance Core Competencies
  • Effective IT Governance Structure© 2002 CISR MIT Sloan – Weill & Woodham
  • Example Governance Structure
  • Results of Good IT Governance–IT projects that are aligned withthe business strategy–IT projects that deliver therequired business value–Alignment of IT andorganizational capabilities withbusiness strategyHendrickx, H. H.M. (2010)
  • Good IT Governance has fivecharacteristics:1. Principles are explicit and derived from the ITstrategy.2. The operating logic is explicitly sharedbetween stakeholders.3. Structure, social processes, and control areexplicitly managed.4. Sufficient attention to the social aspects ofgovernance9 is required; social processes arethe weakest link of governance.5. Governance is differentiated by IT sub-domains.Hendrickx, H. H.M. (2010)
  • IT Governance Stress Pointsand Challenges1.Exception Handling2.Governance Design3.Who Sets IT Principles?4.Governance Transparency© 2002 CISR MIT Sloan – Weill & Woodham
  • IT Governance:A Top-ten IT Global Issues in Higher Educationhttp://www.educause.edu/
  • IT Governance:A Top-ten IT Global Issues in Higher Education
  • IT Governance:A Top-ten IT Global Issues in Higher Education
  • IT Governance:A Top-ten IT Global Issues in Higher Education
  • IT Governance:A Top-ten IT Global Issues in Higher Education
  • Challenges1.Given ongoing fiscal challenges, CIOs mustfocus on the wise stewardship and inclusionof all available resources, the appropriaterestructuring of the IT organization, and therationalizing and right-sourcing of the ITsystems and service portfolio.
  • 2. IT organizations must use projectportfolio management to identifycritical projects, establish truepriorities, and ensure projectalignment with institutional missions.Challenges
  • 3. CIOs must build and maintain strategicpartnerships, participate on keyexecutive and campus committees,collaborate with peers acrossinstitutions, and develop newpartnerships with state organizations.Challenges
  • Critical Questions in IT Governance1. With ongoing increased scrutiny of budgets and priorities, what reusable andsupportive frameworks can be developed with constituent groups and strategicpartners?2. How can CIOs lead discussions about priorities using language and techniquesthat are amenable to broad campus constituencies?3. Are IT leaders seeking opportunities to understand quality, efficiency, andeffectiveness in a wide institutional context and determining how technologymight offer solutions?4. How can IT leaders influence external controlling bodies, such as boards andstate-level governing agencies, about the importance of information technologyand the significance for teaching, learning, and operations?5. How are IT leaders applying right-sourcing strategies and a rethinking of coreservices in alignment with the institutional mission?6. How are IT leaders thinking creatively about the "new normal"?7. What strategies will CIOs use to lead their organizations in new directions?
  • • Level of prioritization IT Governance inhigher education institutions in thePhilippines
  • • Degree of implementation of ITGovernance in higher educationinstitutions in the Philippines?
  • • Test of relationship between degree ofimplementation IT Governance in highereducation institutions in the Philippinesand:Manager’s Level of Technical SkillIT Manager’s Level of Human skillIT Manager’s Level of Conceptual SkillIT Manager’s Extent of Decision-making
  •  IT Manager’s Gender IT Manager’s Civil Status IT Manager’s Highest Educational Attainment IT Manager’s Working Status IT Manager’s Teaching Status• Test of relationship between degree ofimplementation IT Governance in highereducation institutions in the Philippinesand:
  • –HEI’s Number of Years of Existence–HEI’s Total Internet Bandwidth• Test of relationship between degree ofimplementation IT Governance in highereducation institutions in the Philippinesand:
  • • Test of differences between the level ofprioritization and degree of implementation of theteaching and lIT Governance in higher educationinstitutions in the Philippines in terms of the:• total number of years of existence of the HEIs;• annual IT expenditures of the HEIs;• total Internet bandwidth of the HEIs;• level of proficiency of the respondent’s technical skills;• rating of the respondents’ human skills;• rating of the respondent’s conceptual skills; and• extent of participation in decision-making of therespondents.
  • • Descriptive (survey method)• Questionnaire• February 4 - April 30, 2011• stratified sampling• Heads in the management of IT (MIS)• 95 HEIs
  • Region Public PrivateTotal HEI-respondents1 (locos Region) 1 3 42 (Cagayan Valley) 0 5 53 (Central Luzon) 1 4 54 (Calabarzon) 1 3 45 (Bicol Region) 3 3 66 (Western Visayas) 1 11 127 (Central Visayas) 1 17 188 (Eastern Visayas) 2 4 69 (Zamboanga Peninsula) 0 5 510 (Northern Mindanao) 1 1 211 (Davao Region) 2 6 812 (Soccsksargen) 0 4 413 (National Capital Region) 0 9 914 (Cordillera Administrative Region) 0 2 215 (Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao) 0 1 116 (Caraga) 0 2 217 (MIMAROPA) 2 0 2TOTAL 15 80 95Regional Distribution02468101214161820Public Private Total Respondents
  • • refers to the level of importance or urgency ofIT governance in the higher educationinstitutions5 – Essential(Item needs to be done in the current year)4 – High priority(Item needs to be done in the next 3 years )3 – Medium priority(Item needs to be done in the next 6 years)2 – Low priority(Item needs to be done in the next 9 years)1 – Not a priority(Item is never been considered)PRIORITIZATION
  • • refers to the degree of realization or execution of ITGovernance in the higher education institutions5 – Very Highly Implemented(Item is performed and done with careful review andevaluation)4 – Highly Implemented(Item is performed but continuing and on-going)3 – Moderately Implemented(Item is in the strategic plan but no action yet)2 – Fairly Implemented(Item is discussed and considered for inclusion in the nextstrategic plan)1 – Not Implemented(Item is never been considered)IMPLEMENTATION
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription1. IT governanceprocess shouldhave theperformancemeasures andother metricsnecessary tomake informeddecisions3.76HighPriority2.87ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription2. The current governancestructure, includingadvisory committees,should facilitate orimpede planning,prioritizing, andimplementing ITinitiatives, sharingexpensive resources,actions that couldimprove campus ITservices3.88HighPriority3.05ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription3. IT governanceprocess should bedesigned in acoherent fashion andnot just simply anaccumulation ofinherited practices &institutionaltraditions3.89HighPriority3.03ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription4. The MIS shouldhave appropriateadvisorycommittees, andbe constituted toensure broadconstituent input3.91HighPriority2.98ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription5. MIS leadersfor the futureshould have aleadership-developmentpath for ITleaders3.98HighPriority3.08ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription6. The MIS leadershould sit in anadministrativepost andparticipate ininstitutionalstrategicplanning bodies4.01HighPriority3.37ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription7. The institution’sexecutive teamshould understandthat the role of anMIS leader is notabout technologyitself but is aboutthe ability of acampus to achieveits goals andobjectives throughtechnology4.02HighPriority3.27ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceItemsLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescription8. MIS leaders shouldseek opportunitiesto understandquality, efficiency,and effectiveness ina wide institutionalcontext anddetermine howtechnology mightoffer solutions4.05HighPriority3.19ModeratelyImplemented
  • Prioritization and Implementation of IT GovernanceLevel of Prioritization Degree of ImplementationWeightedMeanDescriptionWeightedMeanDescriptionAggregate Mean 3.94HighPriority3.11ModeratelyImplemented
  • Visualizing the Gap00.511.522.533.544.5Prioritization Implementation
  • Test of DifferencesVariables RemarksNo. of years of existence, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantNo. of curricular offerings, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantAnnual IT Expenditures, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantTotal Internet Bandwidth, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantLevel of Proficiency of Technical Skills, level of prioritization, anddegree of ImplementationSignificantRating of Human Skills, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantRating of Conceptual Skills, level of prioritization, and degree ofImplementationSignificantExtent of Participation in Decision-making, level of prioritization,and degree of ImplementationSignificant
  • Test of RelationshipFactorsChiSquareCorrelation p-value RemarksIT Manager’sLevel ofPrioritization83.185 0.670 0 SignificantManager’s Levelof TechnicalSkill21.681 0.439 0.041 SignificantIT Manager’sLevel ofConceptualSkill17.857 0.403 0.022 Significant
  • Test of RelationshipFactors Chi Square Correlation p-value RemarksIT Manager’s Level ofHuman skill14.784 0.372 0.063 Not SignificantIT Manager’s Extent ofDecision-making1.105 0.115 0.997 Not SignificantIT Manager’s Gender 2.164 0.154 0.706 Not SignificantIT Manager’s Civil Status 1.195 0.117 0.879 Not SignificantIT Manager’s HighestEducationalAttainment11.285 0.344 0.186 Not SignificantIT Manager’s WorkingStatus (fulltime orpart time)6.565 0.263 0.161 Not SignificantIT Manager’s TeachingStatus (With teachingload or w/o teachingload)4.957 0.231 0.292 Not SignificantHEI’s Number of Years ofExistence17.119 0.396 0.645 Not SignificantHEI’s Total InternetBandwidth14.847 0.448 0.25 Not Significant
  • • IT Governance in the HEIs is highly prioritized, impliesthat IT Governance needs to be done in the next 3 years• IT Governance in the HEIs is moderately implemented,implies that this is already in the strategic plan but noaction yet• There is a strong evidence that level of prioritization of ITGovernance is positively significant to degree ofimplementation• There is a moderate evidence that IT manager’s level oftechnical skill and conceptual skill are positively relatedto degree of implementation of IT governance in theHEIs• There is a suggestive evidence that IT manager’s level ofhuman skill is positively related to degree ofimplementation of IT Governance in the HEIs
  • • There is no significant relationship betweendegree of implementation of IT Governance inHEIs and:– IT Manager’s Extent of Decision-making ,– IT Manager’s Gender,– IT Manager’s Civil Status,– IT Manager’s Highest Educational Attainment,– IT Manager’s Working Status (fulltime or part-time),– IT Manager’s Teaching Status (With teaching loador w/o teaching load),– HEI’s Number of Years of Existence, and– HEI’s Total Internet Bandwidth.
  • • to rethink IT governance in HEIs (but should beinfrequent) and adopt the process proposed byWeill & Woodham1. Map the “as is” IT governance2. Identify the institutional objectives for the HEIs and theassociated desirable behaviors3. Consider the way the typical MIS governs IT and how the topperformers on each financial metric are different4. Redesign the institution’s IT governance5. Identify the performance goals, metrics and accountabilitiesrequired for the new governance models6. Plan the move from the “as is” to the “to be” governancemechanism recognizing the major organizational and culturalchanges involved
  • • to make the governance mechanismtransparent to all IT personnel• to clearly design IT governance with thedesirable behaviors in mind• to educate IT managers and usersunderstand and use the governance• to make governance structures simple andto optimize a small number ofperformance goals and metrics
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• HEIs through their School Heads, MIS Heads andDirectors,• Philippine Society of IT Educators,• Computing Society of the Philippines,• Philippine e-Learning Society,• Cebu Educational Foundation for InformationTechnology, and the• ICT Association in Dumaguete and Negros Oriental, forsharing their database of members;• Silliman University through the Faculty DevelopmentCommittee
  • (Main) References• Hendrickx, H. H.M. (2010). Governance in itand architecture. CTO CME Industry Unit,Hewlett-Packard Expanding Concepts Of ItGovernance Working Group• Weill, p. and Woodham, R. (2002). Don’t justlead, govern: Implementing effective itgovernance. Center for information systemsresearch, Massachusetts Institute OfTechnology
  • Thank You!