The system that includes the circulation of money and involves banking, credit and investment.
1. Financial 4. Economic 2. Political 5. Religious 3. Military Lepanto 1571 Relations with the Papacy Armada 1588 Conciliar System Limpeza Auto de fe Loans Taxation Faction Industry Agriculture Trade Lepanto 1571
How is this money raised? What issues does it present George? U .S. war costs United States As of September 29 , 2006 , around $374.5 billion has been allocated by the U.S. Congress for the Iraq war. [
Taxation hit middle and lower orders as nobility and clergy exempt – e.g. Millones in 1590’s on food stuffs
Sales of crown lands short term gain – long term loss in rent revenue
Spain more notably Castile bore brunt of costs of maintaining Monarquia – Philip failed to persuade outlying regions to contribute e.g. Lepanto – Italian states most under threat paid 400K ducats, Castile paid 800K. Therefore constant drain on Spain/Castile.
Attempts at taxation caused unrest in Monarquia – e.g. 1572 Netherlands against attempts to tax via Hundredth, Twentieth and Tenth penny taxes. Ultimately backfired revenue from Netherlands dropped.