Why Did The Dutch Triumph Over Their Imperial

3,079 views
2,899 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,079
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
25
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Why Did The Dutch Triumph Over Their Imperial

  1. 1. Aims Summarise the chronology of events Understand the key arguments why the Dutch succeeded Evaluate the importance of key reasons - debate
  2. 2. Chronology <ul><li>1566-1568 </li></ul><ul><li>1566 – Iconoclastic Fury </li></ul><ul><li>1567 Alva sent to Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>1568 failure of Williams uprising </li></ul><ul><li>1572-1576 </li></ul><ul><li>1572 2nd Dutch revolt </li></ul><ul><li>1576-1609 </li></ul><ul><li>1576 Pacification of Ghent following Spanish Fury </li></ul><ul><li>1579 Union of Arras – Southern Provinces return to Spanish fold, Union of Utrecht alliance of Northern/rebel provinces </li></ul><ul><li>1584 Assassination of WWO </li></ul><ul><li>1585 Treaty of Nonsuch </li></ul><ul><li>1588 Armada </li></ul><ul><li>1596 Southern Provinces granted to ‘atchdukes’ Albert and Isabella </li></ul><ul><li>1609 Truce of Antwerp </li></ul>
  3. 5. Why did the Spanish fail to crush the Dutch revolt? Dutch Leadership Economic growth And trading Role of Calvinism Failure of Spanish Leadership Foreign Intervention Money, troops, Mutinies and massacres Other Factors
  4. 6. Historians Views <ul><li>J.L. Motley – morality tale – Dutch represented forces of democracy, liberty and Protestantism, triumphed over forces of tyranny and Catholicism. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Geyl – Dutch success – great surprise against greatest power on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Geyl – Alva most responsible for Spanish failure </li></ul><ul><li>Wedgewood – stressed early failings and unheroic character of Dutch leader WOO, who’s compatriots nonetheless went on to triumph at Spain’s expense. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Overview Points <ul><li>Spanish control was always precarious </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt contained nobility, merchant elites and large number of fortified towns </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by deep hostility to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Following PoG encompassed all provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Most urbanised area of Europe – war therefore became series of slow sieges against fiercely independent towns and cities </li></ul>
  6. 8. Overview Points <ul><li>Elites were well educated and at the centre of new ideas – Erasmus (Dutch) </li></ul><ul><li>Logistical difficulties – distance from home – food, weapons and pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of pitched battles </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian population hostile to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch aided and abetted by Spanish enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch revolt only part of Spain’s military and financial commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties of a large empire – e.g. would lose Portugal in 1640 </li></ul>
  7. 9. Why did the Spanish fail to crush the Dutch revolt? Dutch Leadership Economic growth And trading Role of Calvinism Failure of Spanish Leadership Foreign Intervention Money, troops, Mutinies and massacres Other Factors
  8. 10. Spanish Weaknesses <ul><li>1) Failure of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>2) Foreign intervention </li></ul><ul><li>3) Money, troops, mutinies and massacres </li></ul>
  9. 11. Failure of Leadership <ul><li>View point of Protestant historians </li></ul><ul><li>MOP – weak and feeble </li></ul><ul><li>Granvelle – insensitive and high handed </li></ul><ul><li>Reliant on decisions from Philip </li></ul><ul><li>Granvelle an unpopular appointment </li></ul><ul><li>MOP relaxing heresy laws after CoN lead to increased Calvinist preaching resulting in Iconoclastic fury 1566. </li></ul><ul><li>Alva sent – Philip unhappy with MoP flexibile approach. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Failure of Leadership <ul><li>Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Geyl – the man who did more than anyone else to prevent Spanish victory </li></ul><ul><li>Council of troubles / execution of Egmont and Hornes </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Penny – 10% sales tax – by passed States General </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonised ruling classes – opposition universal </li></ul><ul><li>Sieges – Haarlem – 2000 executed </li></ul><ul><li>Provided Propaganda gift ‘ all market places are blaze with fires in which the simple people are burnt alive, all the canals are filled with dead corpses’ </li></ul><ul><li>Did defeat WOO in 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>Alva 1573 sacked </li></ul><ul><li>Philip must take some responsibly </li></ul>
  11. 13. Failure of Leadership <ul><li>Don Luis de Requesens 1573-1576 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>General pardon and Tenth penny abolished </li></ul><ul><li>1575 Philip bankrupt and Philip would make no religious concessions </li></ul><ul><li>1576 Death – Spanish Fury at Antwerp – leading to States General signing Pacification of Ghent – alliance against Spain. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Failure of Leadership <ul><li>Don John 1576-1578 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of money and instruction from Philip </li></ul><ul><li>Tore up Perpetual Edict of 1577 (Truce removing Spanish troops) </li></ul><ul><li>Drove States General back to Holland and Zeeland </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed Dutch suspicions </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless action – it was only a matter of time for differences between hard-line provinces of Holland and Zeeland would have spilt Low Countries </li></ul>
  13. 15. Failure of Leadership <ul><li>Duke of Parma 1578-92 </li></ul><ul><li>Great diplomat, strategist and military genius </li></ul><ul><li>Divided rebels into 3 groups – Union of Arras – 3 most southerly states wanted Spanish protection against French, Union of Utrecht hard-line 6 Northern provinces - safeguard religious liberty. States General – remaining middle states </li></ul><ul><li>Reconquests 1578-89 – successes for DOP </li></ul><ul><li>Other considerations- P2 ordered attentions against France / England </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1592 </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of leadership – Philip not DoP </li></ul>
  14. 16. Post 1592 <ul><li>Confused leadership – Mansfelt and Count of Fuentes </li></ul><ul><li>1599 – Isabella and Archduke Albert appointed regent by Philip III </li></ul><ul><li>Stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Bankrupt 1607 </li></ul><ul><li>Truce of Antwerp 1609 </li></ul>
  15. 17. Philip <ul><li>Appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Other commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Did not visit – a little personal monarch needed </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of religious toleration </li></ul>
  16. 18. Why did the Spanish fail to crush the Dutch revolt? Dutch Leadership Economic growth And trading Role of Calvinism Failure of Spanish Leadership Foreign Intervention Money, troops, Mutinies and massacres Other Factors MoP Granvelle Philip Alva Requesens Don John DoP Indirect rather than Direct Turks France England
  17. 19. Foreign Intervention <ul><li>The Turks </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul>
  18. 20. Foreign Intervention <ul><li>Direct and indirect. Direct little impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to deal with Dutch in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Under estimated Dutch 1560-1570 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of funds due to Turk’s </li></ul><ul><li>Ill fated expedition in Tripoli and Djerba </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet destroyed and attempts to rebuild 1561/62 </li></ul><ul><li>1565 blockage of Malta </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into conciliatory measures – e.g. Granvelle removed. Grandees control of States Council – moderate heresy laws leading to 1566 Iconoclastic fury </li></ul><ul><li>Later financial drain – Spanish Fury 1576 – PoG – slow and serious revolt </li></ul>
  19. 21. Foreign Intervention <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>In French interests to keep revolt going </li></ul><ul><li>1572 French army of 6000 sent – easily defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Left Spanish fearful of French invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Alva forced to move troops from Holland and Zeeland – Sea Beggars at Brielle </li></ul><ul><li>1581 WOO and States General offered Sovereignty to Duke of Anjou – younger brother of Henry II. </li></ul><ul><li>Anjou invaded, defeated but relieved pressure on rebels in North </li></ul><ul><li>Anjou’s death in 1584 made Protestant Henry of Navarre heir. Philip turned towards France with DoP. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Foreign Intervention <ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>Limited involvement </li></ul><ul><li>1585 Treaty of Nonsuch </li></ul><ul><li>4000 troops, 400 cavalry, financial assistance and Earl of Leicester sent as governor general. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited – however Spanish convinced England main cause of continuing Dutch resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconquest of provinces deferred for Armada </li></ul><ul><li>Armada defeat expensive – financially and psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Latter attempts in 1596, 1597 and 1601. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Why did the Spanish fail to crush the Dutch revolt? Dutch Leadership Economic growth And trading Role of Calvinism Failure of Spanish Leadership Foreign Intervention Money, troops, Mutinies and massacres Other Factors MoP Granvelle Philip Alva Requesens Don John DoP Indirect rather than Direct Turks France England
  22. 24. Spanish Brutality Munities Philip II of Spain Length of the War War of Sieges Cost of the War Alva Terrain Bankruptcy Margaret of Parma William of Orange Geyl Motley Parker Distance Supplies England Turks France Calvinism Liberties Bishoprics Don John Duke of Parma Requesens
  23. 25. Lack of funds = Mutinies <ul><li>Requesens – ‘No treasury in the world would be equal to the cost of this war’. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of mercenaries of different nationalities - difficult to keep order. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of mutinies – 1572-6,1589-1607 – major one Spanish Fury 1576 – sacking of Antwerp </li></ul><ul><li>Used as propaganda against Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Antwerp centre of culture – not in revolt against Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>No where was safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Now Pacification of Ghent – all provinces against Spain previously only Holland and Zeeland </li></ul><ul><li>Don John forced to accept Truce – Perpetual Edict. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Massacres - Spanish Brutality <ul><li>Brutality of Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in some areas South and East Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>However Holland and Zeeland counter productive </li></ul>
  25. 27. Nature of the fighting <ul><li>War of sieges </li></ul><ul><li>Many towns especially along the coast fortified under Charles </li></ul><ul><li>Long and drawn out </li></ul><ul><li>Debate of terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Geyl – great rivers provided a barrier to Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Discredited – more deep channels making Zeeland a series of islands </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish had no war fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch therefore still able to trade/supplies etc </li></ul>
  26. 28. Problems of supply <ul><li>‘ northern outpost’ of Monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Parker – cost before men even started fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Failed sea expeditions – 1572 </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of ‘Spanish road’ longer but less risk than sea </li></ul>
  27. 29. Dutch Leadership <ul><li>WOO </li></ul><ul><li>Motley ‘ a guiding star’ </li></ul><ul><li>Rallying point </li></ul><ul><li>Influential in POG </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to bring in foreign intervention – Anjou, Turks, Leicester </li></ul><ul><li>Kept cause ‘a float’ </li></ul><ul><li>Martyr following his assassination </li></ul><ul><li>YET </li></ul><ul><li>Little military success </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as a populist / too tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Changed religion Catholic-Lutheran-calvinist </li></ul>
  28. 30. Dutch Leadership <ul><li>MOO or Maurice of Nassau </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrilla type warfare after 1584 </li></ul><ul><li>Yet most success due to Spanish weaknesses e.g. Parma in France and lack of Spanish finances </li></ul>
  29. 31. Economic Growth and Trading <ul><li>Northern provinces strong economically </li></ul><ul><li>New colonies and increase in trade </li></ul><ul><li>However high taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch people suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Holland province paid for 70% war in 1597 </li></ul>
  30. 32. Role of Calvinism <ul><li>Spark – iconoclastic Fury 1566 </li></ul><ul><li>Determination/motivation/resistance for some </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>Divided some provinces key to end of 1576 POG </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% pop were clavinist </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Failure of Spanish Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Brutality and mutinies </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of the war </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of the fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Economic strength of Northern Provinces </li></ul>

×