Versailles Summary


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Versailles Summary

  1. 1. Impact of the war on Germany by 1918
  2. 2. Germany was virtually bankrupt
  3. 3. <ul><li>National income was about one-third of what it had been in 1913 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>War left 600,000 widows and 2 million children without fathers – by 1925 the state was spending about one-third of its budget in war pensions </li></ul>© Hodder Murray
  5. 5. <ul><li>Industrial production was about two-thirds of what it had been in 1913 </li></ul>© Hodder Murray
  6. 6. The war had deepened divisions in German society
  7. 7. <ul><li>There were huge gaps between the living standards of the rich and the poor </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Many German workers were bitter at the restrictions placed on their earnings during the war while the factory owners made vast fortunes from the war </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>During the war women were called up to work in the factories. Many people saw this as damaging to traditional family values and society as a whole </li></ul>
  10. 10. Germany had a revolution and became an unstable democratic republic
  11. 11. <ul><li>Stresses of war led to a revolution in October–November 1918 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Many ex-soldiers and civilians despised the new democratic leaders and came to believe that the heroic leader Field Marshal Hindenburg had been betrayed by weak politicians </li></ul>
  13. 13. How did the allies react to Germany after World War One? Aims : To understand the reaction of the French, British and Americans to Germany after World War One.
  14. 18. <ul><li>Paris Peace Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Palace of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by the three main victorious countries – France, Britain and USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Named the Big Three </li></ul><ul><li>Met to decide what should now happen in Europe and what should happen to Germany. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau David Lloyd George
  16. 20. What is the message of the cartoon?
  17. 21. What is the message of the cartoon?
  18. 22. What is the message of the cartoon?
  19. 23. <ul><li>The peace treated was dominated by the three main allied powers of France, Britain and America who has done most of the fight against Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>They were known as the Big Three. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Georges Clemenceau (Prime Minister of France)
  21. 25. David Lloyd George (Prime Minister of Britain)
  22. 26. Woodrow Wilson (President of the USA)
  23. 27. The Big 3 .
  24. 28. France <ul><li>Clemenceau </li></ul><ul><li>Cripple Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into smaller states </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce military </li></ul>
  25. 29. Britain <ul><li>David Lloyd George </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce navy </li></ul><ul><li>Take colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Allow Germany to trade again </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about threat of Communism in Germany if punished too much </li></ul>
  26. 30. America <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Fair treaty </li></ul><ul><li>14 Points </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation for a lasting peace </li></ul>
  27. 31. Loss of Money Reparations Germany had to pay to the allies a total of £6,600 million Loss of Land Alsace Lorraine Polish Corridor Not allowed union with Austria Demilitarised Rhineland League of Nations Germany could not join until it showed it was a peaceful nation Loss of Pride War Guilt Clause 231 German people blamed for war Loss of Military Only 100,000 men No conscription 6 Battle ships No submarines, military aircraft or tanks 5 L’s Treaty of Versailles
  28. 32. What are the main differences after the treaty?
  29. 35. Land <ul><li>Rhineland demilitarised </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Alsace Lorraine </li></ul><ul><li>Lost land to make Polish corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Lost colonies e.g. Cameroon </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Sudetenland to make Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>No union with Austria </li></ul><ul><li>10% of land lost </li></ul>
  30. 36. Money <ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>6600M </li></ul><ul><li>Take until 1980’s to pay </li></ul><ul><li>Germany already economically crushed after the war </li></ul>
  31. 37. Military <ul><li>Only 6 battleships </li></ul><ul><li>No tanks </li></ul><ul><li>No Submarines </li></ul><ul><li>No aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>No conscription </li></ul><ul><li>Only 100,000 men </li></ul>
  32. 38. Pride <ul><li>Clause 231 </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed specifically on German people </li></ul>
  33. 39. League of Nations <ul><li>Germany not allowed to join until showed it was a peaceful nation </li></ul><ul><li>Joined in 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>One of Wilson’s 14 points </li></ul><ul><li>Part of all the peace treaties </li></ul>
  34. 40. What did the Treaty do? 5 L’s Loss of Money Reparations Loss of Pride Clause 231 League of Nations Loss of Land Loss of Military
  35. 42. 10 % of land 12.5 % of Population Reparations were crippling No self determination for Germans in Austria No self determination for Germans in Czechoslovakia Sole blame for the war Other countries did not disarm 100,000 men a tiny army Saarland was important to industry Britain and France expanding empires Loss of pride Vulnerable No tanks, submarines or aircraft