Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King

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Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King

  1. 1. ‘ A highly unsuccessful King?’
  2. 3. Successful? Successful? Unsuccessful? Spain religiously united Preserved Monarquia Bullion from new world Maintained control of Church in Spain Attempted to challenge heresy where Strategically viable to defend Catholicism – Lepanto 1571 Financial cost of defending Monarquia and Catholicism Inefficient government Paper King – government paralysis by 1590’s Rebellion of Provinces – Moriscos 1568 , Netherlands 1566 and Aragon 1590 Maintained Catholic unity Of Empire (Exception of Netherlands) Economic issues Military defeat by French, English and Dutch Final analysis – seeds sown in 16 th Century for Spain's later demise ‘ Golden Age’ of culture Acquisition of Portugal in 1580 Counter Reformation Reforming degrees of Council introduced ‘ Black Legend’ view – Motley Tyrannical / Absolute
  3. 5. 1585 High water mark <ul><li>Portugal secure – United Iberian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Spain religiously united </li></ul><ul><li>Tridentine Decrees </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained control of the Church (Lynch) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3 provinces under revolt in Spanish Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated Turks 1571 Lepanto </li></ul><ul><li>1578 Peace held with Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Indies – wealth </li></ul><ul><li>England and France main concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – El Greco / Titian </li></ul>
  4. 6. 1588 Signs of decline (Kamen) <ul><li>Enterprises too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Already bankrupt x 2 official </li></ul><ul><li>Micro managing </li></ul><ul><li>Highly personalised direction of affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic facing foreign policy against England and France e.g. Armada 1588 / war against Henry IV </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>More centralised government by 1598 </li></ul><ul><li>But slow, inefficient and corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Far flung empire </li></ul><ul><li>P2 a ‘strait jacket’ to decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thought threatened by Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Stifled culture </li></ul><ul><li>Religious uniformity not achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Moriscos remained a ‘Trojan horse’ </li></ul><ul><li>Plague, famine, depopulation, declining agriculture and industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth from new world flowed in but quickly flowed out due to loans </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Dynastic power, material wealth and spiritual fulfilment at enormous cost </li></ul><ul><li>Successes and failures ran in tandem </li></ul>
  7. 9. Historians Assessment <ul><li>Philip ultimately left similarly difficult and complex legacy to that of his father. </li></ul><ul><li>Motley and Watson argue ‘Black Legend’ view of Philip – tyrannical and absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Elliot ‘ Philip had spent all he had, and reduced to misery his kingdom of Castile’. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Others <ul><li>Contemporaries – successful king </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Charles Petrie – banishment of the Turks from Western Med, unification of Iberian peninsula. </li></ul>

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