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Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King
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Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King

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  • 1. ‘ A highly unsuccessful King?’
  • 2.  
  • 3. Successful? Successful? Unsuccessful? Spain religiously united Preserved Monarquia Bullion from new world Maintained control of Church in Spain Attempted to challenge heresy where Strategically viable to defend Catholicism – Lepanto 1571 Financial cost of defending Monarquia and Catholicism Inefficient government Paper King – government paralysis by 1590’s Rebellion of Provinces – Moriscos 1568 , Netherlands 1566 and Aragon 1590 Maintained Catholic unity Of Empire (Exception of Netherlands) Economic issues Military defeat by French, English and Dutch Final analysis – seeds sown in 16 th Century for Spain's later demise ‘ Golden Age’ of culture Acquisition of Portugal in 1580 Counter Reformation Reforming degrees of Council introduced ‘ Black Legend’ view – Motley Tyrannical / Absolute
  • 4.  
  • 5. 1585 High water mark
    • Portugal secure – United Iberian Peninsula
    • Spain religiously united
    • Tridentine Decrees
    • Maintained control of the Church (Lynch)
    • Only 3 provinces under revolt in Spanish Netherlands
    • Defeated Turks 1571 Lepanto
    • 1578 Peace held with Turks
    • Indies – wealth
    • England and France main concerns
    • Culture – El Greco / Titian
  • 6. 1588 Signs of decline (Kamen)
    • Enterprises too expensive
    • Already bankrupt x 2 official
    • Micro managing
    • Highly personalised direction of affairs
    • Atlantic facing foreign policy against England and France e.g. Armada 1588 / war against Henry IV
  • 7.
    • More centralised government by 1598
    • But slow, inefficient and corrupt
    • Far flung empire
    • P2 a ‘strait jacket’ to decision making
    • Independent thought threatened by Inquisition
    • Stifled culture
    • Religious uniformity not achieved
    • Moriscos remained a ‘Trojan horse’
    • Plague, famine, depopulation, declining agriculture and industry.
    • Wealth from new world flowed in but quickly flowed out due to loans
  • 8.
    • Dynastic power, material wealth and spiritual fulfilment at enormous cost
    • Successes and failures ran in tandem
  • 9. Historians Assessment
    • Philip ultimately left similarly difficult and complex legacy to that of his father.
    • Motley and Watson argue ‘Black Legend’ view of Philip – tyrannical and absolute
    • Elliot ‘ Philip had spent all he had, and reduced to misery his kingdom of Castile’.
  • 10. Others
    • Contemporaries – successful king
    • Sir Charles Petrie – banishment of the Turks from Western Med, unification of Iberian peninsula.

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