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Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King

Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King






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    Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King Unit 3 – A Highly Unsuccessful King Presentation Transcript

    • ‘ A highly unsuccessful King?’
    • Successful? Successful? Unsuccessful? Spain religiously united Preserved Monarquia Bullion from new world Maintained control of Church in Spain Attempted to challenge heresy where Strategically viable to defend Catholicism – Lepanto 1571 Financial cost of defending Monarquia and Catholicism Inefficient government Paper King – government paralysis by 1590’s Rebellion of Provinces – Moriscos 1568 , Netherlands 1566 and Aragon 1590 Maintained Catholic unity Of Empire (Exception of Netherlands) Economic issues Military defeat by French, English and Dutch Final analysis – seeds sown in 16 th Century for Spain's later demise ‘ Golden Age’ of culture Acquisition of Portugal in 1580 Counter Reformation Reforming degrees of Council introduced ‘ Black Legend’ view – Motley Tyrannical / Absolute
    • 1585 High water mark
      • Portugal secure – United Iberian Peninsula
      • Spain religiously united
      • Tridentine Decrees
      • Maintained control of the Church (Lynch)
      • Only 3 provinces under revolt in Spanish Netherlands
      • Defeated Turks 1571 Lepanto
      • 1578 Peace held with Turks
      • Indies – wealth
      • England and France main concerns
      • Culture – El Greco / Titian
    • 1588 Signs of decline (Kamen)
      • Enterprises too expensive
      • Already bankrupt x 2 official
      • Micro managing
      • Highly personalised direction of affairs
      • Atlantic facing foreign policy against England and France e.g. Armada 1588 / war against Henry IV
      • More centralised government by 1598
      • But slow, inefficient and corrupt
      • Far flung empire
      • P2 a ‘strait jacket’ to decision making
      • Independent thought threatened by Inquisition
      • Stifled culture
      • Religious uniformity not achieved
      • Moriscos remained a ‘Trojan horse’
      • Plague, famine, depopulation, declining agriculture and industry.
      • Wealth from new world flowed in but quickly flowed out due to loans
      • Dynastic power, material wealth and spiritual fulfilment at enormous cost
      • Successes and failures ran in tandem
    • Historians Assessment
      • Philip ultimately left similarly difficult and complex legacy to that of his father.
      • Motley and Watson argue ‘Black Legend’ view of Philip – tyrannical and absolute
      • Elliot ‘ Philip had spent all he had, and reduced to misery his kingdom of Castile’.
    • Others
      • Contemporaries – successful king
      • Sir Charles Petrie – banishment of the Turks from Western Med, unification of Iberian peninsula.