Summary Of Dutch Revolt Causes


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Summary Of Dutch Revolt Causes

  1. 1. To what extent can Philip II be blamed for the Dutch revolt? Aims To understand the key causes of the Dutch revolt Evaluate the amount of blame which can be attributed to Philip II
  2. 2. Causes 1566-68 / 1572-76 / 1576-1609
  3. 6. Philip II of Spain Duke of Alva Margaret of Parma William of Orange
  4. 7. Views <ul><li>General view – Philip – wanted despotic rule – absolute power –use as a base to launch counter reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporaries – Elizabeth I – saw this as intention of Philip. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconsidered by historians as too extreme. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally considered 2 main mains – a) Firm govt with rights of ruler protected b) Ensure position of Catholicism </li></ul>
  5. 8. Causes <ul><li>Centralisation vs provincial estates and local liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism vs Roman Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Habsburg vs Valois ( French support for Dutch in overthrowing Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Tyranny vs resistance </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>First Revolt 1566 </li></ul><ul><li>Second revolt 1572 </li></ul>
  7. 10. Causes
  8. 11. Long Term Causes Pre 1556 <ul><li>1539-40 Ghent had rebelled against taxation demands – Charles forced to return </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to taxation 1550’s for war against France </li></ul><ul><li>Heresy ruthlessly suppressed by Charles 2k executed during his reign </li></ul>
  9. 12. Erosion of liberties <ul><li>Margaret of Parma appointed Governess General – Regent </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed to consult inner ring of ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Granvelle dominated - resented by Grandees </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on Philip for decisions </li></ul><ul><li>No longer trusted advisors – Order of the Golden Fleece </li></ul><ul><li>Philip’s general dependence on Spaniards with Court in Brussels </li></ul><ul><li>Despite appointment of WOO and Egmont as stadholders - Geoffrey Parker argues ‘ all decisions were being taken in secret by Margaret, Perrenot (Granvelle) and the King.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Issue more important as Grandees economic position threatened by end of war with France and inflation. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Growth of Calvinism exploited by Grandees <ul><li>Prior to 1566 growth of Calvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of French border following Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in French Calvinists </li></ul><ul><li>Grandees used this as an opportunity to put pressure on the government and resisted any oppressive attempts to stop heresy e.g. Garrison on border objected to by Grandees and later removed 1561 </li></ul><ul><li>MOP highlighted that the heresy laws were not suitable for N surrounded by heretical neighbours – worked for Spain which was ‘ closed by sea and by mountains’ </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>1561 withdraw a compromise by P2 </li></ul><ul><li>Granvelle predicted ‘ There will be trouble here sooner or later on some other pretext’. </li></ul>
  12. 15. New Bishoprics <ul><li>Reform – only 4 Bishoprics for pop of 3 m </li></ul><ul><li>Philip wished to increase Bishoprics to 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Fear – impact on trade with heretic countries particularly in Antwerp and inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Also increased power of the crown with bishops sitting in the states </li></ul><ul><li>Erode further Grandees power </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude sons of Grandees who often entered the church </li></ul><ul><li>Religion became a unifying call for different groups resulting in criticism of the govt, withholding of taxes and Grandee withdrawing from Council of State. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in removal of Granvelle </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>1564-1565 – Trade depression – increased tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret loosened heresy laws and Count Egmont sent to Spain – confusion Philip vague over laws second letter confirmed uncompromising position ‘ segovia woods’ </li></ul><ul><li>1566 – Margaret forced to accept ‘ compromise of the nobility’ by the confederates – cancelling Heresy laws </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Therefore increase in Calvinist preaching = iconoclasm = revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret requested support </li></ul><ul><li>Philip hesitated debate in council of state – Toledo Vs Eboli factions </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Alva to be sent with army – took 2 months to assemble </li></ul><ul><li>Grandees in meantime helped Margaret restore order </li></ul>
  15. 18. August 1567 <ul><li>Alva and army arrive </li></ul><ul><li>Took charge </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent nobles arrested and court held </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Council of Troubles’ </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret resigned </li></ul><ul><li>William of Orange fled to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Counts of Hornes and Egmony executed in 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>Montigny – garrotted on Philip’s orders </li></ul><ul><li>WOO lands and title confiscated </li></ul><ul><li>Son imprisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Provoked revolt failed miserably </li></ul><ul><li>Next two years ‘Council of Troubles’ 12,000 arrests and 1,000 executions </li></ul>
  16. 19. Causes 1566-68 / 1572-76 / 1576-1609
  17. 20. 2 nd Revolt <ul><li>Alva’s repressive policies </li></ul><ul><li>Sea beggars exploits at Brielle spark further co-ordinated hostility 2 nd Revolt follows </li></ul>
  18. 21. Causes Reorganising the Church Philip Liberties Of Grandees Long term Factors Calvinism Economic factors Alva’s repression Sea Beggars Brielle
  19. 22. Escalation of the revolt <ul><li>1576 ‘ Spanish fury ‘ troops mutiny in Antwerp </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands unites to expel Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Pacification of Ghent’ </li></ul><ul><li>Key points – </li></ul><ul><li>united to drive out Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>authority of the King of Spain still recognised </li></ul><ul><li>public practice of Protestantism allowed in Holland and Zeeland, </li></ul><ul><li>nowhere else, private practice everywhere </li></ul>
  20. 23. Causes Reorganising the Church Philip Liberties Of Grandees Long term Factors Calvinism Economic factors Alva’s repression Sea Beggars Brielle Spanish Fury
  21. 24. <ul><li>Pacification would split into Union of Arras (Southern Provinces) and Union of Utrecht (Northern Provinces). </li></ul>