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Summary   How Far And Quickly Did England Shift Towards
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Summary How Far And Quickly Did England Shift Towards

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  • 1. Where was the driving force behind religious change in Edward’s reign?
  • 2. Aims
    • Understand the key factors / individuals creating religious change under Edward VI
  • 3. Driving force behind the religious change during Henry VIII’s reign Archbishop Cranmer Cromwell Reformers a broad Henry VIII Divorce/ Succession Power Wealth Act of Supremacy Dissolved the monasteries Act of Succession Ten Articles Bible translated into English
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Edward VI Somerset Northumberland
  • 8. Archbishop Cranmer John Hooper
  • 9. Hugh Latimer Nicholas Ridley
  • 10. How far and quickly did England shift towards Protestantism under Edward VI ?
  • 11. Aims
    • Understand the religious changes under Edward VI
    • By completing a sorting exercise
    • Understand how far England became Protestant
    • To complete an AS level question tomorrow in exam conditions
  • 12. 4 Phases
    • The changes taken in Edward’s reign can be viewed as 4 phases (stages)
    • Phase 1 – Destructive (removal of Catholicism)
    • Phase 2 – State of Limbo (dealing with Protestant activity)
    • Phase 3 – Formative (Protestant form of worship and belief established)
    • Phase 4 – Completion (reform saw establishment of full Protestantism)
  • 13. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 14. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 15. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 16. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 17. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 18. End of Henry VII’s reign Removal of Catholicism Unofficial Protestantism Ceremonial Change Doctrinal Change Full Protestantism
  • 19. Key Change – First Book of Common Prayer 1548
    • Cranmer’s work
    • Enforced by Act of Uniformity
    • A half way measure fearing that anything more radical would not be accepted
    • Therefore satisfied few people – Catholics saw it as Protestant and the Protestants thought it was full of Popery.
    • Outlined the Liturgy – e.g.
    • Services in English
    • Sacraments like baptism, last rites, confirmation, marriage
    • Communion of both kinds
    • No prayers for the dead
    • Worship of Saints discouraged (not banned)
    • Fast and holy days remained
  • 20.
    • Furthermost swing towards Protestantism
    • Cranmer satisfied many radical reformers
    • Followed Calvinist ideas
    • Eucharist or Communion followed the principle that the bread and the wine did not represent the body and blood of Christ – but a symbol of remembrance of Christ.
    • Altars replaced
    • In conformation the sign of the cross was abolished
    • Enforced by Second Act of Uniformity – under which offence for clergy and laity not to attend Church of England services.
    Key Change – Second Book of Common Prayer 1552
  • 21. Summary – How Protestant? Key Points
    • Cranmer wrote both books of common prayer which gave the Church a Protestant Service.
    • Enforced by the Acts of Uniformity – the second Act of Uniformity actually making no attendance at Church an offence.
    • Edward was a radical Protestant and was involved in the religious changes –e .g attendance at PC meetings where religious issues were discussed.
    • There were other factors influencing change e.g. greed, European reformers, John Hooper, Latimer and Ridley, lack of opposition and Somerset and Northumberland
  • 22. Summary – How Protestant? Key Points
    • The Edwardian Reformation can in the final analysis be seen in three stages – 1) Catholicism swept away 2) Protestant ceremonial changes 3) Reformed Protestant doctrine introduced.
    • Protector Somerset was a committed Protestant but was restrained by war, finance and Catholics.
    • Duke of Northumberland moved England toward Protestantism – however it can be argued this was for personal rather than religious gain. Gaining the favour of Edward, preventing Mary’s potential succession and reducing Catholic influence generally.
  • 23. Summary – How Protestant? Key Points
    • YES
    • Removal of Catholicism - chantries were closed, images removed and altars replaced etc. Removal of Six Articles, heresy and treason laws.
    • Ceremonies changed
    • Doctrine – Prayer books enforced by the Acts of Uniformity and laid out particularly in Second Prayer book. E.g. Changes to communion / Eucharist
  • 24. Summary – How Protestant? Key Points
    • HOWEVER
    • But the extent to which the people became Protestant is hard to measure.
    • Many welcomed Mary who would return England to Catholicism, others were against her.
    • There was a lack of good preachers to spread Protestantism.
    • Many conformed in public , however private Catholic worship remained.
    • Some opposition e.g. Western (Prayer Book) rebellion and Gardiner

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