Aims Understand Mary’s  main aims  and the links between them Understand  why  Mary wished England to become Catholic Unde...
What were Mary I’s aims and initial problems?
Mary I’s aims Restore Catholicism Convince the privy council she had a right to be queen Marry Have Children Have Children...
Why did Mary wish to restore Catholicism? <ul><li>Mother Catholic – Katherine of Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Devout Catholic ...
<ul><li>Protestantism had only been the religion of England for 6 years. Before that England had been Catholic for centuri...
What obstacles could Mary face? <ul><li>Female Monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Landowners who bene...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the cle...
<ul><li>He stood on a high stool and looked out over the crowd that gathered to watch him, and ‘in every corner there was ...
 
Who’s who in religion during Mary’s reign? <ul><li>Stephen Gardiner – Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor – imprisone...
 
Persecution  <ul><li>Protestant clergy deprived of their living things </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest of Archbishop Cranmer </li...
 
 
Burnings <ul><li>Heresy laws restored </li></ul><ul><li>Trials and executions followed of those who would not accept Catho...
 
From John Foxes ‘Book of Martyrs’ – Foxe was an exiled Protestant – Useful to an historian?
How useful is this source in understanding the religious make up of England during Mary’s reign?
Some facts <ul><li>280 people were burned to death in 46 months </li></ul><ul><li>5 were bishops </li></ul><ul><li>51 were...
The possible effect <ul><li>Public spectacles - Warning / fear </li></ul><ul><li>Public shift towards Catholicism </li></u...
 
 
Persuasion <ul><li>Act of repeal – removed Edwardian reformation back to 1547 and Six Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Mary gave...
War on words <ul><li>Censorship – proclamations forbade the printing of certain works and an index of banned books was dra...
How catholic was England by 1558? <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Understand Mary’s  main aims  and the links between them ...
Avoid paraphrasing Avoid making comments without supporting detail Author/Purpose/Motive/Contextual Knowledge/ Subjective/...
USE ALL SOURCES AND KNOWLEDGE
The pendulum swings back again – how Catholic was England by 1558? <ul><li>1529? </li></ul><ul><li>1547? </li></ul>
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Summary How Did Mary Try To Introduce Catholicism Aims And Persecution

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Summary How Did Mary Try To Introduce Catholicism Aims And Persecution

  1. 1. Aims Understand Mary’s main aims and the links between them Understand why Mary wished England to become Catholic Understand what obstacles stood in the way of achieving Catholicism Understand the steps Mary took Evaluate how Catholic England was by 1558
  2. 2. What were Mary I’s aims and initial problems?
  3. 3. Mary I’s aims Restore Catholicism Convince the privy council she had a right to be queen Marry Have Children Have Children - Succession Choose Privy councillors Decide how to deal with Northumberland and supporters Defend Calais and Guisnes Look after her health Gain support / security Restore her legitimacy – declared illegitimate by patent 1553 Can Mary’s religious aim be linked to others? Which can be seen as personal and which to secure the Tudor dynasty?
  4. 4. Why did Mary wish to restore Catholicism? <ul><li>Mother Catholic – Katherine of Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Devout Catholic – duty to save the souls of her people </li></ul><ul><li>Made illegitimate as part of Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn </li></ul><ul><li>1543 Act of Succession secured that she would succeed Edward VI </li></ul><ul><li>Edward and Northumberland’s Protestant plot – the devise </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse the shift towards Protestantism </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Protestantism had only been the religion of England for 6 years. Before that England had been Catholic for centuries. Many people would be glad to go back to familiar Catholic ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII had already closed all the monasteries and sold their lands to rich and important people. Mary would have to take all this land back. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many Protestants in England. They hated the Pope and Catholicism. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary was 37, was not married and had no children. Her sister Elizabeth was next in line to the throne. She was Protestant. </li></ul><ul><li>Four hundred of the most important Protestant leaders fled to Europe in 1553. </li></ul><ul><li>When Mary became queen, Protestants had tried to replace her. They received no support. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What obstacles could Mary face? <ul><li>Female Monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Landowners who benefited from closure of monasteries – now owned ex-monastic land </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Higher orders e.g. some nobility – fear of losing power to papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Anti – Spanish feeling - against Spanish influence </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic issues e.g. disease/poor harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy failures – turn people against Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Princess Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>Return to 1529 or 1547? </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope would have to forgive England </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics who want a full restoration of Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Too quickly could lead to unrest </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  8. 8. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  9. 9. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  10. 10. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  11. 11. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  12. 12. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  13. 13. Reformed Catholicism Persecution of Protestant Opponents Restoration of papal supremacy Catholicism enforced among the clergy Restoration of Catholic Doctrine End of Edward VI’s reign Full Protestantism Removal of Edwardian Protestantism
  14. 14. <ul><li>He stood on a high stool and looked out over the crowd that gathered to watch him, and ‘in every corner there was nothing to be seen but weeping and sorrowful people’. He prayed for a time, until interrupted by a man asking his forgiveness. Hooper said he knew of nothing to forgive. ‘O sir!’ the man said, ‘ I am appointed to make the fire.’ Therein thou dost nothing to offend me,’ said Hooper. ‘ God forgive thee thy sins, and do thine office, I pray thee.’ </li></ul>
  15. 16. Who’s who in religion during Mary’s reign? <ul><li>Stephen Gardiner – Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor – imprisoned during Edward’s reign </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Renards – Imperial ambassador from Charles V </li></ul><ul><li>Reginald Pole – Cousin of Mary’s. Became papal legate with brief to restore Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Philip II of Spain married 1554 </li></ul><ul><li>Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor – Mary’s cousin and Philip’s father – Mary maintained correspondence with him / father figure </li></ul><ul><li>Julius III – Pope wanted lands returned to Church </li></ul><ul><li>Paul IV – Pope from 1555 – anti-Habsburg there fore clashed with England </li></ul>
  16. 18. Persecution <ul><li>Protestant clergy deprived of their living things </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest of Archbishop Cranmer </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment of leading Protestants e.g. Latimer, Ridley, Hooper, Rogers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass exodus of Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Injunctions – suppress heresy and deprived married priest of their livings </li></ul><ul><li>Burnings on the stake – Rogers, Ridley, Latimer, Cranmer – around 300 in total. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Burnings <ul><li>Heresy laws restored </li></ul><ul><li>Trials and executions followed of those who would not accept Catholic belief and practice such as those who refused to accept Catholic view of Eucharist (i.e. belief in transubstantiation) </li></ul>
  18. 23. From John Foxes ‘Book of Martyrs’ – Foxe was an exiled Protestant – Useful to an historian?
  19. 24. How useful is this source in understanding the religious make up of England during Mary’s reign?
  20. 25. Some facts <ul><li>280 people were burned to death in 46 months </li></ul><ul><li>5 were bishops </li></ul><ul><li>51 were women </li></ul><ul><li>Burnings were mainly in the South East </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly half in London </li></ul><ul><li>In the 16 th Century thousands of people were slaughtered in the name of some version of the ‘true faith’. </li></ul>
  21. 26. The possible effect <ul><li>Public spectacles - Warning / fear </li></ul><ul><li>Public shift towards Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Exodus of Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Removed Protestant opponents </li></ul><ul><li>However - Counter Productive – </li></ul><ul><li>Exploited by Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>showed Mary to be harsh/cruel/intolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Martyrs </li></ul>
  22. 29. Persuasion <ul><li>Act of repeal – removed Edwardian reformation back to 1547 and Six Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Mary gave up title of Supreme Head of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Lands guaranteed to Parliament which allowed the heresy laws – many of the lands were actually held by Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Pole returned to England – would eventually become Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve Decrees issued on clerical discipline </li></ul>
  23. 30. War on words <ul><li>Censorship – proclamations forbade the printing of certain works and an index of banned books was drawn up </li></ul><ul><li>Several Acts made slander of Mary and Philip punishable as treason </li></ul><ul><li>Commissions to check on heresy </li></ul>
  24. 31. How catholic was England by 1558? <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Understand Mary’s main aims and the links between them </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why Mary wished England to become Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what obstacles stood in the way of achieving Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the steps Mary took </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate how Catholic England was by 1558 </li></ul>
  25. 32. Avoid paraphrasing Avoid making comments without supporting detail Author/Purpose/Motive/Contextual Knowledge/ Subjective/Objective/Hindsight Content/tone/extent/level/positive/negative/key words/reasons/motives/cause/effect/response COMPARISON QUESTION
  26. 33. USE ALL SOURCES AND KNOWLEDGE
  27. 34. The pendulum swings back again – how Catholic was England by 1558? <ul><li>1529? </li></ul><ul><li>1547? </li></ul>

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