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Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
Summary Financial Issues
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Summary Financial Issues

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  • 1. Aims Understand how Philip can both be attacked and defended over his financial management a2historyphilip.blogspot.com
  • 2. Summary
  • 3. Attempts to raise revenue - Bridging the gap <ul><li>Ordinary Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Alcabala (10% sales tax) </li></ul><ul><li>Customs duties </li></ul><ul><li>Rents from crown lands </li></ul><ul><li>By 1598 ordinary revenue 3x that of 1556. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Ordinary Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Servicio – one off tax requiring Cortes approval – nobility/clergy exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Hundredth Penny in Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Church e.g. Three Graces </li></ul><ul><li>Sales of noble titles and crown offices </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of common land and Royal jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Quinto – 1/5 of value of precious metals and stones mined in Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically revenue from parts of the Monarquia </li></ul>
  • 4. Attempts to raise revenue - Bridging the gap <ul><li>Constantly a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces were reluctant – regional differences </li></ul>
  • 5. Loans <ul><li>Bullion from new world allowed Spain to borrow heavily </li></ul><ul><li>Richest monarch in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>However despite Philip’s efforts – Spanish economy could not sustain a large empire for long with its military and civil commitments. </li></ul>
  • 6. Serious as efforts caused problems <ul><li>Taxation hit middle and lower orders as nobility and clergy exempt – e.g. Millones in 1590’s on food stuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Sales of crown lands short term gain – long term loss in rent revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Spain more notably Castile bore brunt of costs of maintaining Monarquia – Philip failed to persuade outlying regions to contribute e.g. Lepanto – Italian states most under threat paid 400K ducats, Castile paid 800K. Therefore constant drain on Spain/Castile. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts at taxation caused unrest in Monarquia – e.g. 1572 Netherlands against attempts to tax via Hundredth, Twentieth and Tenth penny taxes. Ultimately backfired revenue from Netherlands dropped. </li></ul>
  • 7. Financial ineptness of Philip <ul><li>Charles to Philip ‘ attend closely to finances and learn to understand the problems involved’. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite advice Philip never mastered the intricacies of the Royal finances </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I have never been able to get this business of loans and interest into my head’. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet he made financial decisions and too readily took advice of self-interested financiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Even embarked on grand schemes – e.g. Escorial est 5.5 M </li></ul>
  • 8. Major problem need more finance <ul><li>Revenue did not meet expenditure - Philip resorted to borrowing on a grand scale i.e. loans . </li></ul><ul><li>Led to high interest rates and hold over Spain by Genoese financiers </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated by 1598 National Debt of 85 Million ducats interest payments 40% of annual revenue. Serious strangle hold by foreign financiers. </li></ul>
  • 9. Bankruptcy <ul><li>Declared bankrupt 4 times 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended repayments in attempt to break stranglehold of creditors. Did not work. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious financial collapse. </li></ul>
  • 10. Lack of investment in Spanish economy <ul><li>Revenue from taxation &amp; quinto spent on war e.g. Netherlands 80 m ducats 1567-1600 </li></ul><ul><li>Securing debt bonds (Juros) seemed more secure option therefore further reduction in investment. </li></ul>
  • 11. Inflation <ul><li>Faced period of high inflation </li></ul><ul><li>400% during 16 Th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Bullion imports now not accepted as cause more likely war. </li></ul><ul><li>As war disrupted internal trade and transport, deterred investors. </li></ul>
  • 12. Population <ul><li>Steady growth approx 8 m 1580 </li></ul><ul><li>1580 slowed – start of decline in some regions </li></ul><ul><li>Wars drained Spain of young men </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration to Americas </li></ul><ul><li>1590’s epidemics and harvests = localised mortality rates </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance – migration from East Spain to Castile – Castile 81 % of pop compared to Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia only 13.5% </li></ul>
  • 13. Agriculture <ul><li>Structural weaknesses could not feed it people – conditions and need for modernisation = low yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing dependent on imports e.g. from Sicily and Southern Italy. </li></ul>
  • 14. Industry <ul><li>Industry sparse in comparison to Netherlands or France . </li></ul><ul><li>Allowance of town guilds – lack of modernisation </li></ul><ul><li>1566 Philip allowed merchants to export bullion instead of goods – trade in goods declined e.g. export of wool to Netherlands 400K sacks to 25k over his reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy – disrupted markets e.g. Netherlands and reliance on imports of weapons, shortage of skilled craftsmen </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of investment. </li></ul>
  • 15. Trade and commerce <ul><li>Spain not economically united. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor inland transport network. </li></ul><ul><li>Became increasingly reliance on trade with her overseas possessions. </li></ul>
  • 16. So how serious? <ul><li>Roots of later decline were laid during Philip’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign competition, war and resulting national debt left nation with impossible burden. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever the explanations in the final analysis Spain collapsed as a great power in the century that followed. </li></ul>
  • 17. &nbsp;

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