Summary Evaluation Of Philips Policies

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Summary Evaluation Of Philips Policies

  1. 1. How did Philip’s religious policies impact on the Catholic Church and Spain?
  2. 2. Impact Maintain authority and control over the church Eradicate heresy Church revenue Doctrine Papal Supremacy Spread Catholicism Defend Catholicism Increase Catholic worship Reform the Church organisation Maintain relations with the Pope Assessment Criteria
  3. 3. Key areas <ul><li>Philip II </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the inquisition and Auto de fes </li></ul><ul><li>Limpieza </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrinal Uniformity </li></ul><ul><li>Students recalled from aboard </li></ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul><ul><li>Tridentine Decrees </li></ul><ul><li>Moriscos Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>New World </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tridentine Decrees <ul><li>Key to counter reformation and spearheaded by P2 </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted by Philip but not at the expense of his own authority </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Councils were tasked with removing corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved decaying monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of bishops some energetic e.g. 6 in Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Seminaries set up 20 by 1598 </li></ul><ul><li>Issued new prayer book and calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged religious art </li></ul><ul><li>Escorial – symbol of power and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition monitored and reported on progress </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other Policies <ul><li>1561 Limpieza (purity of bloody) Conversos and Moriscos excluded from Church </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine uniformity enforced more rigorously </li></ul><ul><li>Mystics and humanists suppressed - ‘keeping silent out of fear’ </li></ul><ul><li>Students studying aboard recalled </li></ul><ul><li>Index created (censorship) </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition - Auto de fe </li></ul>
  6. 6. Impact <ul><li>Relied on local bishops and therefore implementation varied </li></ul><ul><li>Only 20 seminaries est by 1598 </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t expel all non-Christian practices e.g. Bull fighting on holy days </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Spaniards – still semi pagan </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals and ceremonies remained </li></ul><ul><li>Superstitions </li></ul><ul><li>Many non-Christian practices endured into 17 th Century in rural / remote areas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impact <ul><li>Role of inquisition - did not process the resources to enforce prohibitions and censorship controls e.g. 45 inquisitors for population of 8 million. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impact <ul><li>More effective church? More Christianised? </li></ul><ul><li>Overall difficult to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Toledo and Cuenca – inquisitional records show ability of laity to recite Lord’s Prayer increased from 40% 1555 to 82% 1600 </li></ul><ul><li>100 years after Trent – missionary in remote Pyrenees reported ‘a very great need there to teach doctrine, because even the adults were like children in their knowledge and were ignorant of the most fundamental things’. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Historians – disappointing picture of progress made by the Catholic Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen concluded that Spain was barely more Christianised by 1600 that it had been in 1500, for all the efforts of the King, Inquisition and the Counter-Reformation </li></ul>

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