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AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
Aims <ul><li>To Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Philips  personal style  of government </li></ul><ul><li>About  factions  within P...
AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador  And courier system Consulted Different g...
<ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving  </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrung by lack of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive de...
To what extent was Philip a ‘Paper King’? Yes Critics <ul><li>Personal Ruler – strong sense of personal responsibility for...
<ul><li>Government business had to pass his desk in form of consultas prepared by secretaries of various councils </li></u...
<ul><li>Personally wanted all relevant information, consulted several different advisors or councils before issuing a deci...
Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador  And courier system Consulted Different g...
Relationship with Castile and Provinces <ul><li>Criticised as being too Spanish – stemmed from P2 background </li></ul><ul...
Attitude <ul><li>Travelled extensively before coming to the throne, but did not leave the Iberian Peninsula after 1559. </...
Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador  And courier system Consulted Different g...
 
Consequences <ul><li>The Paper King – too bogged down in paper work to effectively rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow bureaucrat...
To what extent can Philip II be blamed for ineffective  government?
Two Main Factions <ul><li>Toledo Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Hard line approach towards monar...
Positives of Faction <ul><li>Encouraged by Philip given his personal approach – withholding information, gaining varied vi...
Negative View <ul><li>Damaging – energies spend on struggle / rivalry at expense of state business. E.g. Perez Affair </li...
AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency How did faction affect g...
Two Main Factions <ul><li>Toledo Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Hard line approach towards monar...
Positives of Faction <ul><li>Encouraged by Philip given his personal approach – withholding information, gaining varied vi...
Negative View <ul><li>Damaging – energies spend on struggle / rivalry at expense of state business. E.g. Perez Affair </li...
Perez Affair <ul><li>Sequencing Activity </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impac...
Consequences <ul><li>Faction damaging  </li></ul><ul><li>could turn ugly </li></ul><ul><li>inefficient government </li></u...
Consequences <ul><li>2. Fuelled ‘Black Legend’ view of Philip  </li></ul><ul><li>Philips role in the murder? </li></ul><ul...
Juntas <ul><li>Informal Committees used by Philip to discuss policy </li></ul>
Consequences <ul><li>Juntas had knock on effects  –  </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Council of State  </li></ul><ul><li>Reco...
Personal Style Paper King Personal Ruler Use of  Conciliar  System Untrusting Encouraged  Faction Consequences  Of  factio...
 
To what extent can Philip II be blamed for ineffective  government?
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Philip Ii Government Summary

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Transcript of "Philip Ii Government Summary"

  1. 1. AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  2. 2. Aims <ul><li>To Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Philips personal style of government </li></ul><ul><li>About factions within Philip’s government and his personal style towards them. </li></ul><ul><li>The positives of faction – why encourage it? </li></ul><ul><li>The negatives – problems it causes. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of faction within the government looking at one particular example the Perez Affair </li></ul><ul><li>To enable us to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Philip’s changing approach towards government and his personal role within it 1556-1598. </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  3. 3. AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  4. 4. Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador And courier system Consulted Different groups Work Load Indecisive Creates wrong atmosphere Paper King Spanish Dominated Alienated Provinces Lack of action Attitude
  5. 5. <ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrung by lack of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive desire to control even the tiniest of details </li></ul><ul><li>Paper King </li></ul><ul><li>Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Best informed ruler of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Use of formal and informal Juntas (committees) to formulate policy </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Conciliar system – more delegation </li></ul><ul><li>A Prudent king – in the wise sense. </li></ul>
  6. 6. To what extent was Philip a ‘Paper King’? Yes Critics <ul><li>Personal Ruler – strong sense of personal responsibility for people and empire </li></ul><ul><li>World Empire = tremendous workload and a growth in bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Court officials, councillors, ministers – filled from ranks of aristocracy and letrados </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving, bureaucratic, hesitant in decision making, restrictive – no one had whole picture </li></ul><ul><li>Secretaries dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed by contemporaries and historians personally on Philip II </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Government business had to pass his desk in form of consultas prepared by secretaries of various councils </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded accurate / regular information = illustrated by huge imperial archive at Simancas. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional governors ordered to make full reports on their advantages both civil and military </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadorial network and courier system – finest in Europe - but more information for little benefit </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Personally wanted all relevant information, consulted several different advisors or councils before issuing a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors complained unable to determine between important and trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Long hours, reading despatches in his carriage, avalanche of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Overwhelmed by work led to neglecting important matters – e.g. 1566 Uprising in Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Urged to visit provinces personally to resolve crisis, heard contradictory advice from ministers – hesitated for months – eventually sending Alva – however already resolved by Margaret of Parma </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently changed his mind – created an atmosphere of double dealing and insincerity </li></ul><ul><li>Frustrated ministers/secretaries – failure to priorities/delegate – became distant, inaccessible – paper king </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessed with trivial matters – neglecting kingdom and people </li></ul>
  9. 9. Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador And courier system Consulted Different groups Work Load Indecisive Creates wrong atmosphere Paper King Spanish Dominated Alienated Provinces Lack of action Attitude
  10. 10. Relationship with Castile and Provinces <ul><li>Criticised as being too Spanish – stemmed from P2 background </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish dominated courts and councils – logic as Spain crucial to P2 </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of Spaniards in the Monarquia alienated local elites e.g. Alva in Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid 1561 – realisation fixed capital needed - organisational logic – potential centralisation alienated more distant subjects </li></ul>
  11. 11. Attitude <ul><li>Travelled extensively before coming to the throne, but did not leave the Iberian Peninsula after 1559. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ It is neither useful nor decent to travel around ones dominions’ </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Ruler Huge Empire Consultas Demands for Accurate Information Ambassador And courier system Consulted Different groups Work Load Indecisive Creates wrong atmosphere Paper King Spanish Dominated Alienated Provinces Lack of action Attitude
  13. 14. Consequences <ul><li>The Paper King – too bogged down in paper work to effectively rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow bureaucratic system </li></ul><ul><li>Alienated provinces due to Pro Spanish / Castilian approach </li></ul><ul><li>Micromanaging affairs – denying local representatives and military commanders freedom of action when faced with changing circumstances e.g. Medina Sidonia 1588 </li></ul><ul><li>Government enslaved to the pace at which Philip could process documentation that passed his desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment by colonies ‘ If death comes from Spain we would all live to a ripe old age’. </li></ul>
  14. 15. To what extent can Philip II be blamed for ineffective government?
  15. 16. Two Main Factions <ul><li>Toledo Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Hard line approach towards monarquia particularly Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Favoured initially until Alva recalled from Netherlands 1573 </li></ul><ul><li>Eboli Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Eboli 1572 </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Perez </li></ul><ul><li>Federal attitude towards Monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous states </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  16. 17. Positives of Faction <ul><li>Encouraged by Philip given his personal approach – withholding information, gaining varied views, untrusting </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that faction would lead to best personnel being brought into government by each faction so as to deliver effective government, which would be rewarded by patronage. </li></ul><ul><li>Defuse potential for individuals ability to dominate policy </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  17. 18. Negative View <ul><li>Damaging – energies spend on struggle / rivalry at expense of state business. E.g. Perez Affair </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  18. 19. AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency How did faction affect government in Spain 1556-1598?
  19. 20. Two Main Factions <ul><li>Toledo Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Alva </li></ul><ul><li>Hard line approach towards monarquia particularly Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Favoured initially until Alva recalled from Netherlands 1573 </li></ul><ul><li>Eboli Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Eboli 1572 </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Perez </li></ul><ul><li>Federal attitude towards Monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-autonomous states </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  20. 21. Positives of Faction <ul><li>Encouraged by Philip given his personal approach – withholding information, gaining varied views, untrusting </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that faction would lead to best personnel being brought into government by each faction so as to deliver effective government, which would be rewarded by patronage. </li></ul><ul><li>Defuse potential for individuals ability to dominate policy </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  21. 22. Negative View <ul><li>Damaging – energies spend on struggle / rivalry at expense of state business. E.g. Perez Affair </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  22. 23. Perez Affair <ul><li>Sequencing Activity </li></ul>AIM : Understand Philip II’s personal style of government and its impact on government efficiency
  23. 24. Consequences <ul><li>Faction damaging </li></ul><ul><li>could turn ugly </li></ul><ul><li>inefficient government </li></ul><ul><li>even to point of infighting within a faction </li></ul><ul><li>double dealing against Philip </li></ul>
  24. 25. Consequences <ul><li>2. Fuelled ‘Black Legend’ view of Philip </li></ul><ul><li>Philips role in the murder? </li></ul><ul><li>Perez ‘Defence Memorial’ </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>3. Revolt in Aragon 1591 </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Reinforced Philip’s distrust of those around him </li></ul><ul><li>5. Formulation of Juntas – reaction of Perez affair and faction in general </li></ul>
  25. 26. Juntas <ul><li>Informal Committees used by Philip to discuss policy </li></ul>
  26. 27. Consequences <ul><li>Juntas had knock on effects – </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Council of State </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition Philip unable to cope alone </li></ul><ul><li>Alienated outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>Criticised as members had little experience outside Spain </li></ul>
  27. 28. Personal Style Paper King Personal Ruler Use of Conciliar System Untrusting Encouraged Faction Consequences Of faction Absolute Monarch?
  28. 30. To what extent can Philip II be blamed for ineffective government?
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