Manchurian crisis 1931 –33 Problem: Japan invaded Manchuria (in north-east China) Response: After a long delay, no action was taken Effect: Made the League seem weak and ineffective Disarmament conference 1932 –34 Problem: Germany complained that only it had disarmed Response: League could not get other members to agree to disarm Effect: Germany left the League and began to rearm openly League members such as Britain no longer tried to stop it League members also began to rearm themselves Abyssinian crisis 1935 –36 Problem: Italy invaded Abyssinia Response: League members could not agree effective sanctions against Italy Britain and France tried to do a secret deal to give most of Abyssinia to Italy Effect: League was seen as powerless and irrelevant Challenged by the Dictators who Gained support Due to the treaty and depression
Manchuria 1931 - So where is Manchuria? How is this different to the problems in the 1920’s that the League faced?
Why did the League fail? A long and frustrating delay Japan resigned from the League The League was powerless without an army Economic sanctions, but without the USA they would be meaningless. Britain wanted to keep up good relations with Japan Member countries could not even agree Britain and France would not risking their navies or armies in a war Only the USA and the USSR would have had the resources to remove the Japanese from Manchuria.
Why did Japan invade Manchuria? World Depression Lack of resources in Japan Military gain Build an empire Raw materials in Manchuria Dispute over Manchurian railway Can you make any links between these reasons?
What is the view from this French cartoonist about Japan’s actions? What might its purpose be? Message and purpose are very closely linked
Six R’s <ul><li>Revenge – Italy defeated in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire – Gain support in Italy / defect attention away </li></ul><ul><li>Row – Excuse to invade </li></ul><ul><li>Reject – Rejected Leagues and GB/French offers </li></ul><ul><li>Remember – Had already seen weakness of League in Manchuria </li></ul>
DATE ACTIONS OF MUSSOLINI AND HITLER ACTIONS OF THE LEAGUE Mid 1935 Preparation continued for full invasion Negotiation but no action Sept 1935 Mussolini rejected the plan Plan put forward for Mussolini to get some of Abyssinia Oct 1935 Launched full scale attack Some sanctions imposed, but not oil. Suez canal left open. Early 1935 Dispute between Italy and Abyssinia. Invasion began. No action Dec 1935 War continued Secret plan – Hoare-Laval Plan to given 2/3 Abyssinia to Italy.. Feb 1936 War Continued Agreed on oil sanctions but too late March 1936 Hitler remilitarised the Rhineland No action May 1936 Took entire country GB and France trying to keep Italy on side December 1934 Preparation for full invasion GB and France played for time to keep Italy on side.
SITED <ul><li>Stop war </li></ul><ul><li>Improve peoples lives </li></ul><ul><li>Trade co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce the treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament </li></ul>
Why had the League failed over Manchuria and Abyssinia? SITED <ul><li>How it was set up. </li></ul><ul><li>USA not a member </li></ul><ul><li>USSR and Germany did not join initial </li></ul><ul><li>Italy , Japan and Germany would walk out. </li></ul><ul><li>No army </li></ul><ul><li>Did not meet very often – once a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Voting needed to be unanimous in the assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Council was dominated by GB and France </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties it had to enforce were seen as unfair </li></ul><ul><li>How it acted. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow and indecisive </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to sent troops </li></ul><ul><li>Selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to keep Italy, Japan and Germany on side </li></ul><ul><li>Feared another war </li></ul><ul><li>Did not implement harsh sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Did deals with aggressive powers e.g. Italy over Abyssinia and Corfu </li></ul><ul><li>It looked weak to aggressive powers </li></ul>
SOURCE 13 Source C - A cartoon from the Daily Express , 19 July 1934, by Sidney Strube. The singer is supposed to be France. France had proposed an alliance with the USSR known as ‘Eastern Locarno’.
SOURCE 11 A German cartoon from July 1933 commenting on France’s constant call for more security when it was already well armed.
Why did the League fail to secure disarmament? No one wished to disarm Hitler secretly rearmed Hitler walked out of disarmament talks Other countries realising Hitler was rearming also started to rearm GB and France were divided on the issue – GB thought that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh British allowed Germany to build up its navy as long as it stayed under 35 per cent of the size of the British navy. Britain did not consult either its allies or the League